Demokrasi Kristian adalah ideologi politik yang muncul sejak abad ke-sembilan belas di bawah pengaruh ajaran sosial Katolik, serta Neo-Calvinisme di Eropah.[nb 1] Para penyokong demokrasi jenis ini berpegang kuat kepada prinsip-prinsip pasaran sosial dan fahaman campur tangan. Ia merupakan gabungan idea demokratik moden dan nilai-nilai agama Kristian tradisional, menggabungkan ajaran sosial bawaan mazhab Katolik, Lutheran, Direformasi, dan Pentekost. Selepas Perang Dunia II, gerakan-gerakan Protestan dan Katolik masing-masing memainkan peranan membentuk fahaman demokrasi ini.
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]
- "This is the Christian Democratic tradition and the structural pluralist concepts that underlie it. The Roman Catholic social teaching of subsidiarity and its related concepts, as well as the parallel neo-Calvinist concept of sphere sovereignty, play major roles in structural pluralist thought."
"Concurrent with this missionary movement in Africa, both Protestant and Catholic political activists helped to restore democracy to war-torn Europe and extend it overseas. Protestant political activism emerged principally in England, the Lowlands, and Scandinavia under the inspiration of both social gospel movements and neo-Calvinism. Catholic political activism emerged principally in Italy, France, and Spain under the inspiration of both Rerum Novarum and its early progeny and of neo-Thomism. Both formed political parties, which now fall under the general aegis of the Christian Democratic Party movement. Both Protestant and Catholic parties inveighed against the reductionist extremes and social failures of liberal democracies and social democracies. Liberal democracies, they believed, had sacrificed the community for the individual; social democracies had sacrificed the individual for the community. Both parties returned to a traditional Christian teaching of "social pluralism" or "subsidiarity," which stressed the dependence and participation of the individual in family, church, school, business, and other associations. Both parties stressed the responsibility of the state to respect and protect the "individual in community."
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Heywood 2012.
- A. Galetto, Nino. Christian Democracy: Principles and Policy Making, Berlin, Konrad Adeneaur Stiftung, 1990.
- Monsma 2012, m/s. 13.
- Witte 1993, m/s. 9.
- Freeden, Michael (2 Ogos 2004). Reassessing Political Ideologies: The Durability of Dissent (dalam bahasa English). Routledge. m/s. 82. ISBN 978-1-134-52146-3.
- Robeck, Cecil M.; Yong, Amos (11 August 2014). The Cambridge Companion to Pentecostalism (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Cambridge University Press. m/s. 178. ISBN 9781316060643.
Pentecostals have also secured parliamentary representation, for example, in Australia, Colombia, Nicaragua, and Peru, and have helped form Christian political parties that have won parliamentary seats. A noteworthy case is Sweden's Christian Democrat Party, not only because it is in a continent where Pentecostals have struggled to make political headway but also because its Pentecostal founder, Lewi Pethrus, who challenged secularization by creating institutions to foster a Christian counterculture, was active at a time when Pentecostals in Sweden or the United States shunned politics.
- Witte 1993.
Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Heywood, Andrew (2012). Political Ideologies: An Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-36994-4.
- Monsma, Stephen V. (2012). Pluralism and Freedom: Faith-based Organizations in a Democratic Society. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-1430-9.
- Witte, John (1993). Christianity and Democracy in Global Context. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-1843-1.