Orang Palestin

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Orang Palestin
(الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn)
Jumlah penduduk
c. 11,000,000
Kawasan ramai penduduk
 Negara Palestin4,420,549[1][a 1]
 – Tebing Barat2,719,112[1]
 – Genting Gaza1,701,437[1]
 Israel1,658,000[2]Ralat petik: Pembukaan tag <ref> tidak tidak berfungsi atau mempunyai nama yang salah.
 Arab Saudi280,245
 Amerika Syarikat255,000[4]
 Emiriah Arab Bersatu170,000
 El Salvador70,000[7]
 United Kingdom20,000[5]
Wilayah-wilayah Palestin dan Israel:
bahasa-bahasa Arab Palestin, Ibrani, Inggeris, Neo-Aramaic, dan Yunani
Other varieties of Arabic, bahasa-bahasa yang ditutur di negera-negara di mana terdapatnya Diaspora Palestin.
Majoriti: Islam Sunni
Minoriti: Kristian, Druze, Islam Syiah, Judaisme,[13]
Kumpulan etnik berkaitan
Orang Levant, Mediterranean, Kanaan, Orang Laut, Timur Tengah: Orang Semitik: Philistine, Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Samaritan, Arab, Assyria[14][15]

Orang Palestin (Arab: الشعب الفلسطيني, rumi: asy-sya‘b al-Filasṭīnī atau فلسطينيونFilasṭīniyyūn) merupakan waris moden orang-orang yang tinggal di Palestin, dan pada hari ini merupakan kaum yang dari segi budaya dan bahasa merupakan orang Arab ekoran pengaruh Arab di wilayah itu.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] Kendatipun berlakunya beberapa peperangan dan perhijrahan, lebih kurang setengah daripada populasi orang Palestin masih bermastautin di Tebing Barat, Genting Gaza dan Israel.[24] Dalam tahun 2004, di wilayah tergabung ini, orang Palestin menjadi 49% daripada keseluruhan penduduk,[25] merangkumi kesemua penduduk Genting Gaza (1.6 juta), majoriti populasi Tebing Barat(lebih kurang 2.3 juta berbanding hampir 500,000 orang warga israel Yahudi yang termasuk lebih kurang 200,000 orang di Jerusalem Timur), 16.5% penduduk Israel sebagai warga Israel keturunan Arab.[26] Ramai dalam kalangan mereka merupakan pelarian Palestin ataupun pelarian dalaman, termasuk lebih daripada sejuta orang di Genting Gaza,[27] hampir 3 juta di Tebing Barat,[28] dan lebih kurang 2 juta di Israel sendiri. Daripada orang Palestin yang tinggal di luar negara, yang disebut diaspora Palestin, lebih dari setengah merupakan orang tanpa bernegara.[29] 3.24 orang daripada populasi diaspora tinggal di Jordan[30] di mana mereka menjadi lebih kurang separuh daripada populasi, 1.5 juta tinggal di antara Syria dan Lebanon, suku juta di Saudi Arabia, dengan himpunan terbesar di luar dunia Arab seramai setengah juta orang tinggal di Chile.

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Kedua-dua angka merangakumi bilangan orang Palestin yang tinggal di Jerusalem Timur.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan PCBS tidak disediakan
  2. ^ "65th Independence Day - More than 8 Million Residents in the State of Israel" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 14 April 2013. Dicapai pada 18 February 2014.
  3. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan laventana1 tidak disediakan
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2000-11-09. Dicapai pada 2009-04-22.
  5. ^ a b The Palestinian Diaspora in Europe
  6. ^ "Palestinians Open Kuwaiti Embassy". Al Monitor. 23 May 2013. Dicapai pada 23 May 2013.
  7. ^ http://luterano.blogspot.com/2006/02/el-salvadors-palestinian-connection.html
  8. ^ Governo do Estado de São Paulo – Memorial do Imigrante
  9. ^ http://www.al-awdacal.org/iraq-facts.html
  10. ^ "Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agg." 2.statcan.ca. Dicapai pada 2009-04-22.
  11. ^ http://www.immi.se/encyklopedi/tiki-index.php?page=Palestinier
  12. ^ "2013 UNHCR country operations profile - Algeria". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2013. Dicapai pada 22 December 2013.
  13. ^ Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013
  14. ^ "Hassan et al. (2008)" (PDF). Diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 2009-03-04. Dicapai pada 2014-09-02.
  15. ^ Cruciani, F; dll. (2007). "Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (6): 1300–1311. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm049. PMID 17351267CS1 maint: postscript (link) Also see Supplementary Data
  16. ^ Dowty, Alan (2008). Israel/Palestine. London, UK: Polity. m/s. 221. ISBN 978-0-7456-4243-7. Palestinians are the descendants of all the indigenous peoples who lived in Palestine over the centuries; since the seventh century, they have been predominantly Muslim in religion and almost completely Arab in language and culture.
  17. ^ 'Palestinians are an indigenous people who either live in, or originate from, historical Palestine... Although the Muslims guaranteed security and allowed religious freedom to all inhabitants of the region, the majority converted to Islam and adopted Arab culture.' Bassam Abu-Libdeh, Peter D. Turnpenny, and Ahmed Teebi, ‘Genetic Disease in Palestine and Palestinians,’ in Dhavendra Kuma (ed.) Genomics and Health in the Developing World, OUP 2012 pp.700-711, p.700.
  18. ^ David Ben-Gurion and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi claimed that the population at the time of the Arab conquest was mainly Christian, of Jewish origins, which underwent conversion to avoid a tax burden, basing their argument on 'the fact that at the time of the Arab conquest, the population of Palestine was mainly Christian, and that during the Crusaders’ conquest some four hundred years later, it was mainly Muslim. As neither the Byzantines nor the Muslims carried out any large-scale population resettlement projects, the Christians were the offspring of the Jewish and Samaritan farmers who converted to Christianity in the Byzantine period; while the Muslim fellaheen in Palestine in modern times are descendants of those Christians who were the descendants of Jews, and had turned to Islam before the Crusaders’ conquest.’ Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine,634-1099 Cambridge University Press, (1983) 1997 pp.222-3
  19. ^ 'The process of Arabization and Islamization was gaining momentum there. It was one of the mainstays of Umayyad power and was important in their struggle against both Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula.... Conversions arising from convenience as well as conviction then increased. These conversions to Islam, together with a steady tribal inflow from the desert, changed the religious character of Palestine’s inhabitants. The predominantly Christian population gradually became predominantly Muslim and Arabic-speaking. At the same time, during the early years of Muslim control of the city, a small permanent Jewish population returned to Jerusalem after a 500-year absence.' Encyclopedia Britannica, Palestine,'From the Arab Conquest to 1900,'.
  20. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan palestineeb tidak disediakan
  21. ^ Bernard Lewis (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites, An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W.W. Norton and Company. m/s. 169. ISBN 0-393-31839-7.
  22. ^ 'While population transfers were effected in the Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian periods, most of the indigenous population remained in place. Moreover, after Jerusalem was destroyed in AD 70 the population by and large remained in situ, and did so again after Bar Kochba's revolt in AD 135. When the vast majority of the population became Christian during the Byzantine period, no vast number were driven out, and similarly in the seventh century, when the vast majority became Muslim, few were driven from the land. Palestine has been multi-cultural and multi ethnic from the beginning, as one can read between the lines even in the biblical narrative. Many Palestinian Jews became Christians, and in turn Muslims. Ironically, many of the forebears of Palestinian Arab refugees may well have been Jewish.'Michael Prior,Zionism and the State of Israel: A Moral Inquiry, Psychology Press 1999 p.201
  23. ^ 'the word 'Arab' needs to be used with care. It is applicable to the Bedouin and to a section of the urban and effendi classes; it is inappropriate as a description of the rural mass of the population, the fellaheen. The whole population spoke Arabic, usually corrupted by dialects bearing traces of words of other origin, but it was only the Bedouin who habitually thought of themselves as Arabs. Western travelers from the sixteenth century onwards make the same distinction, and the word 'Arab' almost always refers to them exclusively. . .Gradually it was realized that there remained a substantial stratum of the pre-Israelite peasantry, and that the oldest element among the peasants were not 'Arabs' in the sense of having entered the country with or after the conquerors of the seventh century, had been there already when the Arabs came.' James Parkes, Whose Land? A History of the Peoples of Palestine,(1949) rev.ed.Penguin, 1970 pp.209-210.
  24. ^ Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian A. Skoggard (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer. m/s. 234–. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9. Dicapai pada 2 May 2013.
  25. ^ "What is the True Demographic Picture in the West Bank and Gaza? – A Presentation and a Critique". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 10 March 2005. Dicapai pada 2010-02-06.
  26. ^ Alan Dowty, Critical issues in Israeli society, Greenwood (2004), p. 110
  27. ^ "Where We Work - Gaza Strip". UNRWA. 1 September 2013. Dicapai pada 11 November 2013.
  28. ^ "Where We Work - West Bank". UNRWA. 1 January 2012. Dicapai pada 11 November 2013.
  29. ^ Arzt, Donna E. (1997). Refugees into Citizens – Palestinians and the end of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Council on Foreign Relations. m/s. 74. ISBN 0-87609-194-X.
  30. ^ "Palestinians at the end of 2012" (PDF). Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Dicapai pada 11 November 2013.

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