Sistem separa-presiden

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Sistem separa-presiden atau sistem dwi eksekutif adalah satu sistem kerajaan di mana Presiden wujud bersama Perdana Menteri berserta sebuah kabinet, dengan PM bertanggungjawab pada badan perundangan negara. Ia berbeza dari republik berparlimen kerana ia mempunyai ketua negara yang dipilih secara umum, yang lebih merupakan pemimpin simbolik beristiadat, dan dari sistem berpresiden didalam kabinet tersebut, walaupun dinamakan oleh presiden, adalah bertanggungjawab pada badan perundangan, yang mungkin memaksa kabinet untuk meletakkan jawatan melalui undi tidak percaya.[1][2][3][4]

Walaupun Republik Weimar (1919–1933) mencontohkan sistem separa-presiden yang terawal, istilah "separa-presiden" telah diperkenalkan dalam artikel 1959 oleh wartawan Hubert Beuve-Méry[5] dan dipopularkan dari karya 1978 oleh saintis politik Maurice Duverger,[6] kedua-duanya bertujuan untuk menggambarkan Republik Kelima Perancis (ditubuhkan pada tahun 1958).[1][2][3][4]

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  1. ^ a b Duverger (1980). "A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential Government". European Journal of Political Research (quarterly). 8 (2): 165–187. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.1980.tb00569.xBoleh dicapai secara percuma. The concept of a semi-presidential form of government, as used here, is defined only by the content of the constitution. A political regime is considered as semi-presidential if the constitution which established it, combines three elements: (1) the president of the republic is elected by universal suffrage, (2) he possesses quite considerable powers; (3) he has opposite him, however, a prime minister and ministers who possess executive and governmental power and can stay in office only if the parliament does not show its opposition to them. 
  2. ^ a b Veser, Ernst (1997). "Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's concept: A New Political System Model" (PDF). Journal for Humanities and Social Sciences. 11 (1): 39–60. Dicapai 21 August 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Duverger, Maurice (September 1996). "Les monarchies républicaines" [The Republican Monarchies] (PDF). Pouvoirs, revue française d'études constitutionnelles et politiques (dalam bahasa French). No. 78. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. m/s. 107–120. ISBN 2-02-030123-7. ISSN 0152-0768. OCLC 909782158. Dicapai 10 September 2016.  Parameter |url-status= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan)
  4. ^ a b Bahro, Horst; Bayerlein, Bernhard H.; Veser, Ernst (October 1998). "Duverger's concept: Semi-presidential government revisited". European Journal of Political Research (quarterly). 34 (2): 201–224. doi:10.1111/1475-6765.00405. The conventional analysis of government in democratic countries by political science and constitutional law starts from the traditional types of presidentialism and parliamentarism. There is, however, a general consensus that governments in the various countries work quite differently. This is why some authors have inserted distinctive features into their analytical approaches, at the same time maintaining the general dichotomy. Maurice Duverger, trying to explain the French Fifth Republic, found that this dichotomy was not adequate for this purpose. He therefore resorted to the concept of 'semi-presidential government': The characteristics of the concept are (Duverger 1974: 122, 1978: 28, 1980: 166):
    1. the President of the Republic is elected by universal suffrage,
    2. he possesses quite considerable powers and
    3. he has opposite him a prime minister who possesses executive and governmental powers and can stay in office only if parliament does not express its opposition to him.
     
  5. ^ Le Monde, 8 January 1959.
  6. ^ Duverger, Maurice (1978). Échec au roi. Paris: A. Michel. ISBN 9782226005809. 

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