Bantuan:IPA untuk Afrikaan dan Belanda

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Dutch pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Dutch phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Dutch as well as dialectal variations not represented here.

IPA Examples English approximation
b beet bait
d dak duck
f fiets feats
ɣ gaan[a] without equivalent in English, roughly like loch (Scottish) but voiced
ɦ had[a] behind
j jas yard
k kat, cabaret school
l land land
m mens man
n nek[b] neck
ŋ eng long
p pen, rib[c] sport
r ras[d] trilled R or guttural R
s sok sock
t tak, had[c] stop
v ver[a] very
ʋ wang[e] between wine and vine
x acht,[a] weg[c] loch (Scottish English)
z zeep[a] zip
Marginal consonants
c tientje, check[f] cheer
ɡ goal[g] goal
ɟ Giovanni[f] jeep
ɲ oranje, Trijntje[f] somewhat like canyon
ʃ sjabloon, chef[h] shall
ʒ jury[a][h] vision
ʔ bindig [bəˈʔɛindəx],
Trijntje Oosterhuis
[-ə ˈʔoː-][i]
catch in uh-oh!
ˈ voorkomen
as in commandeer
Other representations
ə(n) maken Optional /n/ in the /ən/ ending. Not pronounced in many dialects.[perlu rujukan]
IPA Examples English approximation
Checked vowels[k]
ɑ bad father, but rather short
ɛ bed bed
ɪ vis sit
ɔ bot off
ʏ hut roughly like nurse
Free vowels[k]
aap lad
beet, ezel[l] made
i diep deep
boot[l] roughly like born (British English)
y fuut roughly like goose (Australian/New Zealand)
øː neus[l] roughly like fur
u hoed boot
ɛi bijt, ei[m] roughly like may
œy buit[m] house (Scottish English)
ʌu jou, dauw[m] out
ɑi ai price
ɔi hoi choice
iu nieuw free will
yu duw few would
ui groei to eternity
aːi draai prize
eːu sneeuw say oo
oːi nooit boys
ə hemel again
Marginal vowels
ɔː roze[n][o] dog
ɛː scène[p] square (British English)
œː freule[n] roughly like fur
analyse[n] wheeze
centrifuge[n] roughly like fugue
ɑ̃ː genre[n] roughly like croissant
ɛ̃ː hautain[n] roughly like doyen
ɔ̃ː chanson[n] roughly like montage
  1. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1999:74)
  2. ^ a b c d e Collins & Mees (2003:48)
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1999:76)
  4. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:133–134)
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:135)
  6. ^ Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009:70). Authors state that "in most northern areas, /œy/ is pronounced [ʌ̈y̯]."
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:135–136)
  8. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  9. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:136)

Ralat petik: Tag <ref> wujud untuk kumpulan bernama "lower-alpha", tetapi tiada tag <references group="lower-alpha"/> yang berpadanan disertakan