Empayar Saljuk

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Bagi dinasti yang memerintah empayar, lihat Wangsa Seljuk.
Jangan dikelirukan dengan Empayar Seleucid.

دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
Empayar Seljuq Agung

1037–1194
Empayar Seljuq Agung semasa kemuncaknya pada tahun 1092, selepas kematian Malik Shah I[petikan diperlukan]
Empayar Seljuq Agung semasa kemuncaknya pada tahun 1092, selepas kematian Malik Shah I[petikan diperlukan]
Ibu kota
Bahasa lazimParsi
PemerintahanDe facto: Kesultanan merdeka
De jure: Di bawah kekhilafahan[1]
Sultan 
• 1037 - 1063
Tuğrul Beg (pertama)
• 1118 - 1153
Ahmed Sanjar (terakhir)
Sejarah 
• Tugrul Beg menubuhkan sistem negaraTugrul Beg menubuhkan sistem negara
1037
1071
1095–1099
1141
• Digantikan oleh empayar Khwarezmia[2]
Digantikan oleh empayar Khwarezmia[2]
Keluasan
kira-kira 10803,900,000 km2 (1,500,000 bt2)
Didahului oleh
Diganti oleh
Empayar Ghaznavid
Khanate Kara-Khanid
Empayar Khoarezmiyah
Kesultanan Rûm
Dinasti Ayyubid
Atabeg dari Azerbaijan
Dinasti Burid
Dinasti Zengid
Danishmend
Dinasti Artuqid
Saltuklu

Empayar Seljuq Agung (Bahasa Parsi: دولت سلجوقیان‎) adalah sebuah empayar Islam Sunnah Parsi Zaman Pertengahan[3][4][5][6][7][8], ditubuhkan oleh cabang Qynyq dari Oghuz Turks[9] yang satu ketika pernah mengawal kawasan luas terbentang daripada Hindu Kush ke timur Anatolia dan daripada Asia Tengah ke Teluk Parsi. Dari tanahair mereka berdekatan Laut Aral, Seljuq pada mulanya mara ke dalam Khorasan dan kemudian ke tanah besar Parsi sebelumnya akhirnya menakluk timur Anatolia.

Empayar Seljuq telah diasaskan oleh Tugrul Beg pada tahun 1037 selepas usaha-usaha pengasas wangsa Seljuk, Seljuq Beg, kembali pada suku pertama kurun ke-11. Bapa Seljuq Beg memegang kedudukan tinggi di Negara Oghuz Yabgu, dan memberi nama beliau kepada negara dan dinasti. Seljuq telah menyatukan keadaan rapuh politik di dunia timur Islam dan memainkan peranan penting di dalam Perang Salib Pertama dan Kedua. Memiliki nilai Parsi tinggi[3][4][5][6] dalam kebudayaan [10][11][12] dan bahasa[3][13][14][15][16], Seljuq juga memainkan peranan penting dalam pembangunan tradisi Parsi-Turki[17].

Pengasas dinasti[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Seljuk (ketua perang)

Moyang apikal bagi orang Seljuq adalah beg, iaitu Seljuk yang memiliki reputasi yang berkhidmat dalam tentera Khazar, di mana sekitar tahun 950 telah bermigrasi ke Khwarezm, berdekatan dengan bandar Jend, di mana mereka kemudian memeluk Islam.[18]

Pengembangan empayar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana–rencana utama: dinasti Seljuq, Persianate, dan tradisi Turki-Parsi

Seljuq kemudian bersekutu dengan para shah Samanid Parsi menentang Qarakhanid. Samanid kalah pada Qarakhanid di Transoxania (992–999), bagaimanapun selepas kebangkitan Ghaznavid. Seljuq terjebak dalam pergelutan kuasa di wilayah ini sebelum mengasaskan pangkalan bebas mereka sendiri.

Tughril and Chaghri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Tughril

Tughril merupakan cucu lelaki kepada Seljuq dan abang kepada Chaghri, di mana semasa kepimpinan beliau Seljuk berjaya menubuhkan sebuah empayar daripada Ghaznavid. Awalnya, Seljuq berjaya diundurkan oleh Mahmud dan berundur ke Khwarezm, tetapi Tughril dan Chaghri kemudian mengetuai mereka untuk menawan Merv dan Nishapur (1037).[19] Kemudian, mereka berulang kali menyerang dan bertukar wilayah di Khorasan dan Balkh dan menjarah Ghazni pada tahun 1037.[20] Pada tahun 1040, dalam Pertempuran Dandanaqan, mereka mendapat kemenangan mutlak ke atas Mas'ud I dari Ghaznavid, memaksa beliau untuk meninggalkan hampir kesemua wilayah barat beliau kepada Seljuq. Pada tahun 1048-9, Turki Seljuk di bawah pimpinan Ibrahim Yinal, saudara kandung kepada sultan Tughril, membuat serbuan pertama ke perbatasan hadapan Byzantine di wilayah Iberia dan bertempur dengan tentera gabungan Byzantine-Georgia seramai 50,000 orang di Pertempuran Kapetrou pada 10 September 1048. Kemusnahan yang ditinggalkan oleh serbuan Seljuq sungguh menakutkan sepertimana diceritakan dalam magnat Byzantine, Eustathios Boilas, pada tahun 1051/52, tanah-tanah ini seperti "gersang dan tidak diuruskan... didiami oleh ular, kala jengking, dan binatang liar." Perawi Arab, Ibn al-Athir melaporkan bahawa Ibrahim membawa balik 100,000 orang tawanan dan banyak harta rampasan yang dimuatkan di belakang 10 ribu unta.[21] Pada tahun 1055, Tughril menawan Baghdad daripada pemerintahan Buyid Syiah atas perintah Abbasiyah.

Alp Arslan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Alp Arslan

Alp Arslan, anak lelaki kepada Chaghri Beg, meluaskan lagi wilayah selepas kematian Tughril dengan menambah Armenia dan Georgia pada tahun 1064 dan menyerang empayar Byzantine pada tahun 1068, di mana beliau berjaya mengilhak hampir keseluruhan Anatolia.[22] Kemenangan muktamad Arslan dalam Pertempuran Manzikert pada tahun 1071. Oleh itu, menghapuskan sebarang tentangan dari Byzantine akan serangan Turki di Anatolia.[23] Walaupun Georgia berjaya pulih daripada serbuan Alp Arslan dengan menguasai Iberia. Pengunduran Byzantine daripada Anatolia membuatkan Georgia bertembung terus dengan Seljuq. Pada tahun 1073, para amir Seljuk di Ganja, Dvin dan Dmanisi, menyerang Georgia dan dikalahkan oleh George II dari Georgia, yang mana berjaya menawan kubu di Kars.[24] Satu serangan balas oleh Amir Seljuk, Ahmad telah berjaya mengalahkan Georgia di Kvelistsikhe.[25]

Alp Arslan membenarkan para jeneral Turkmen beliau untuk menubuhkan wilayah mereka sendiri di bekas wilayah Byzantine, selagi mana para atabeg ini setia kepada beliau. Dalam masa dua tahun, Turkmen telah berjaya menguasai sejauh Laut Aegea di bawah pelbagai beghlik (Turki moden beylik): Saltukid di timur laut Anatolia, Shah-Armens dan Mengujekid di Anatolia Timur, Artuqid di Anatolia Tenggara, Danishmendi di Anatolia Tengah, Rum Seljuq (Beghlik Suleyman, yang mana kemudian berpindah ke Anatolia Tengah) di Anatolia Barat, dan Beylik Tzachas dari Smyrna di İzmir (Smyrna).

Malik Shah I[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Malik Shah I

Di bawah pemerintahan penganti Alp Arslan, Malik Shah serta dua orang wazir Parsi beliau,[26] Nizām al-Mulk dan Tāj al-Mulk, wilayah Seljuq meluas ke pelbagai arah, sehingga ke garis sempadan Iran sebelum penaklukan oleh Arab, sebelum mencapai ke sempadan China di timur dan Byzantine di barat. Malikshāh memindahkan ibu negera daripada Rey ke Isfahan dan semasa pemerintahan beliau Empayar Seljuk Agung mencapai kemuncaknya.[27] Sistem ketenteraan Iqta dan Universiti Nizāmīyyah di Baghdad telah ditubuhkan oleh Nizām al-Mulk, dan pemerintahan Malikshāh diakui sebagai zaman emas "Seljuq Agung". Khalifah Abbasiyyah menganugerahkan beliau "Sultan di Timur dan Barat" pada tahun 1087. Assassin (Hashshashin) dari Hassan-i Sabāh mula menjadi sebuah pasukan bersenjata semasa era beliau, however, and they assassinated many leading figures in his administration; according to many sources these victims included Nizām al-Mulk.

In 1076 Malik Shah I surged into Georgia and reduced many settlements to ruins. from 1079/80 onward, Georgia was pressured into submitting to Malik-Shah to ensure a precious degree of peace at the price of an annual tribute.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Holt, Peter M. (1984). "Some Observations on the 'Abbāsid Caliphate of Cairo". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London. 47 (3): 501–507. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00113710. 
  2. ^ Grousset, Rene (1988). The Empire of the Steppes. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. m/s. 159, 161. ISBN 978-0-8135-0627-2. In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East. 
  3. ^ a b c M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  4. ^ a b Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  5. ^ a b Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  6. ^ a b Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  8. ^ Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
  9. ^
    • Jackson, P. (2002). Review: The History of the Seljuq Turks: The History of the Seljuq Turks.Journal of Islamic Studies 2002 13(1):75-76; doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75.Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies.
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  10. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-Dīn Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, whose Mathnawī, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."
  11. ^ Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149: "If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local, i.e. non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount. The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazlra and Syria - indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India — also had connections with {various} Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dln Kai-Qubad I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought - in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views {of their subjects}. The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. {Before coming to Anatolia,} the Turks had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that thev had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. Ala al-Din Kai-Qubad I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions. Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkistan, Iran, and Khwarazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Ka us, and Kai-Qubad; and that. Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact {i.e. the importance of Persian influence} is undeniable. With- regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium."
  12. ^ Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Pesianized and Islamicized"
  13. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  14. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  15. ^ M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157-69
  16. ^ F. Daftary, Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times, in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."
  17. ^ "The Turko-Persian tradition "features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers"." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum,"Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, pg 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  18. ^ Wink, Andre, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 pg.9
  19. ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 9.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  20. ^ Iran, The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, ed. Antoine Sfeir and John King, transl. John King, (Columbia University Press, 2007), 141.
  21. ^ Paul A. Blaum (2005). Diplomacy gone to seed: a history of Byzantine foreign relations, A.D. 1047-57. International Journal of Kurdish Studies. (Online version)
  22. ^ Canby, Sheila R.; Beyazit, Deniz; Rugiadi, Martina; Peacock, A. C. S. (2016-04-27). Court and Cosmos: The Great Age of the Seljuqs (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9781588395894. 
  23. ^ Princeton, University. "Dhu'l Qa'da 463/ August 1071 The Battle of Malazkirt (Manzikert)". Dicapai 2007-09-08. 
  24. ^ Battle of Partskhisi, Historical Dictionary of Georgia, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), 524.
  25. ^ Georgian-Saljuk Wars (11th-13th Centuries), Alexander Mikaberidze, "Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (ABC-CLIO, 2011), 334.
  26. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Nizam al-Mulk", Online Edition
  27. ^ "The Kings of the East and the West": The Seljuk Dynastic Concept and Titles in the Muslim and Christian sources, Dimitri Korobeinikov, The Seljuks of Anatolia, ed. A.C.S. Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz, (I.B. Tauris, 2015), 71.
  • Previte-Orton, C. W (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • http://www.selcuklular.com/?

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kesusasteraan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • G. E. Tetley The Ghaznavid and Seljuk Turks: Poetry as a Source for Iranian History, Abingdon 2008, ISBN 978-0-415-43119-4