Empayar Timuriyah

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Gurkani

گورکانیان
Gūrkāniyān
1370–1507
Bendera Empayar Timuriyah
Panji kerajaan gambaran Atles català, s. 1375.
Cogan kata: راستى رستى
Rāstī rastī
"Keamanan datang dengan kebenaran"[1]
Kemuncak pengaruh kerajaan di bawah Timurlang
Kemuncak pengaruh kerajaan di bawah Timurlang
StatusEmiriah
Ibu negara
Bahasa lazim
Agama
Agama rasmi
Agama-agama lain
KerajaanKerajaan
Amir 
• 1370–1405
Timur (pertama)
• 1506–1507
Badi' al-Zaman (terakhir)
Era sejarahZaman Pertengahan
• Permulaan taklukan Timurlang
1363
• Penubuhan kerajaan
1370
• Peluasan kuasa ke barat benua
1380
20 Julai 1402
• Kejatuhan Samarkand
1505
• Kejatuhan Herat
1507
• Penubuhan Empayar Mughal
1526
Keluasan
1405 est.[5][6]4,400,000 km2 (1,700,000 bt2)
Mata wangTanka
Didahului oleh
Diganti oleh
Kekhanan Chagatai
Dinasti Sufi
Jalayiriyah
Dinasti Kurt
Muzaffarids
Sarbadar
Marashi
Afrasiyab
Qara Qoyunlu
Kerajaan Georgia
Kekhanan Bukhara
Safawiyah
Kekhanan Khiva
Qara Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Empayar Mughal
Kerajaan Georgia

Empayar Timuriyah (Bahasa Parsi: تیموریان‎, Bahasa Arab: التيمورية Al-Timūriyah) atau Gurkani ( Bahasa Parsi: گورکانیانGūrkāniyān, bahasa Chagatai: گورکانیان Küregen) adalah sebuah empayar Turko-Mongol yang wujud pada abad ke-14 hingga 15 di Asia Tengah merangkumi Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Iran, wilayah selatan Kaukasus, Mesopotamia dan Afghanistan serta seberapa bahagian India, Pakistan, Syria, dan Turki moden.

Kerajaan ini didirikan Timurlang, seorang panglima perang Turco-Mongol yang menanggap diri sebagai penghidup kembali dan pewaris kekuasaan Mongol dibawa Genghis Khan malah mempunyai hubungan kuat dengan golongan bangsawan Mongol keturunan penakluk tersebut; pemerintahan baginda serta dinasti baginda amat dipengaruhi budaya orang Parsi.[7][8][9]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Subtelny, Maria E. (2007). Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran. Leiden: Brill. m/s. 260. ISBN 978-9004160316.
  2. ^
    • Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1999). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, p.109. ISBN 0-521-63384-2. [ Limited preview] di Buku Google. p.109. "In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled 'divan' was Persian."
    • B.F. Manz, W.M. Thackston, D.J. Roxburgh, L. Golombek, L. Komaroff, R.E. Darley-Doran. "Timurids" Encyclopaedia of Islam Brill Publishers 2007; "During the Timurid period, three languages, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic were in use. The major language of the period was Persian, the native language of the Tajik (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban Turks. Persian served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry."
    • Bertold Spuler. "CENTRAL ASIA v. In the Mongol and Timurid Periodse". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Dicapai pada 2017-09-14. "Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 ... Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ...
    • Robert Devereux (ed.) "Muhakamat Al-Lughatain (Judgment of Two Languages)" Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi; Leiden, E.J. Brill 1966: "Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian – it was, after all, the official state language – while Persians saw no reason to bother learning which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen.
    • David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400–1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama."
  3. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan homelanguage tidak disediakan
  4. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan EI - Manz2 tidak disediakan
  5. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Dicapai pada 2016-09-14.
  6. ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3). p. 500. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
  7. ^ B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
  8. ^ "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (ed. Sixth). New York City: Columbia University. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2006-12-05. Dicapai pada 2006-11-08.
  9. ^ David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400–1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central role in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanameh"