Penyarikataan tertutup

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Jack Foley mereka lambang "CC in a TV" ketika berkhidmat sebagai pereka grafik kanan di stesen WGBH.

Sari kata tertutup atau kapsyen tertutup (dari Bahasa Inggeris: Closed captioning) ialah paparan sari kata pada skrin televisyen oleh komputer talian tertutup untuk membolehkan orang yang sukar mendengar membaca apa yang sedang diperkatakan dalam rancangan televisyen atau untuk memaparkan sari kata terjemahan.[1] Ia biasanya paparkan bunyi dan pertuturan yang berlaku, dan juga perihal bukan perbualan seperti bunyi haiwan dan muzik.

Istilah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perkataan tertutup dalam 'penyarikataan tertutup' bermaksud penonton harus aktifkannya untuk melihatnya, kerana ia sudah dimatikan/ditutup. Ini berbeza dengan 'penyarikataan terbuka', yang akan dilihat oleh semua penonton tanpa perlu diaktifkan. Di Malaysia, sari kata dan sari kata tertutup menjadi beza antara subtitle dan caption.

Ramai tidak tahu beza antara subtitle dan caption. "Subtitle" adalah untuk penonton yang dapat mendengar tetapi tidak faham sesuatu bahasa atau loghat, mahupun percakapan tidak jelas, jadi dialog dan beberapa teks di skrin disalinkan. "Caption" pula digunakan untuk bahan audio penting yang sukar didengar oleh yang kurang dengar mahupun pekak—dialog dan maklumat yang tidak disebut seperti identiti penutur malah cara mereka bercakap—juga dengan kesan bunyi menggunakan perkataan atau simbol.

HTML5 menakrif sari kata sebagai "transkripsi atau terjemahan dialog ... bila bunyi wujud tetapi tidak difahami" oleh penonton (contohnya, dialog dalam bahasa asing) manakala kapsyen ialah "transkripsi atau terjemahan dialog, kesan bunyi, kiu muzik, dan apa-apa maklumat audio yang berkenaan ... bila bunyi tiada atau tidak jelas" (contohnya, jika audio dibisukan atau penonton ialah seorang yang mengalami kesukaran pendengaran).[2]

Kerajaan Syarikat, Ireland, Malaysia dan pelbagai negara lain tidak bezakan antara subtitle dan closed caption, dan menggunakan subtitle sebagai istilah payung yang merangkumi semua sekali—"caption" biasanya digelar "sari kata bagi golongan kurang upaya pendengaran".

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penyarikataan terbuka[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penyiaran bersarikata bermula pada tahun 1972 di saluran PBS dalam rancangan The French Chef .[3] WGBH kemudiannya mula menyarikatatutupkan ZOOM, ABC World News Tonight, dan Once Upon a Classic.

Pembangunan teknikal penyarikataan tertutup[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sari kata tertutup pada mulanya didemonstrasikan di Nashville, Tennessee di Persidangan Nasional Pertama (Amerika Syarikat) bagi Televisyen untuk Golongan Kurang Pendengaran pada tahun 1971.[3] Demonstrasi kedua diadakan di Kolej Gallaudet (kininya Universiti Gallaudet) pada 15 Februari 1972 di mana syarikat ABC dan Biro Piawaian Nasional (AS) pertunjukkan sari kata yang terimbuh ke dalam siaran The Mod Squad.

Sistem sari kata tertutup akhirnya berjaya dikodkan dan disiarkan pada tahun1973 dengan kerjasama stesen WETA PBS.[3] Dengan ini, Pesuruhanjaya Komunikasi Persekutuan (FCC) pada tahun 1976 memperuntukkan baris 21 untuk penyiaran sari kata tertutup. Para jurutera PBS kemudiannya bangunkan konsol penyuntingan sari kata yang digunakan untuk menyarikatakan rancangan yang telah dirakam.

Sari kata masa nyata, sari kata yang digunakan untuk siaran langsung, dibangunkan pada tahun 1982.[3] Dalam situasi ini, wartawan mahkamah dilatih untuk menulis dengan kelajuan lebih daripada 225 perkataan seminit untuk memberi penonton akses langsung kepada berita, sukan dan hiburan. Dengan ini, penonton dapat lihat sari kata dalam 2–3 saat selepas ia disebut.

Penyarikataan tertutup berskala menyeluruh[sunting | sunting sumber]

Institut Kapsyen Negara (AS) ditubuhkan pada tahun 1979 untuk mendapatkan kerjasama rangkaian televisyen pengiklanan.[4]

The first use of regularly scheduled uses of closed captioning on American television was on March 16, 1980. Sears had developed and sold the Telecaption adapter, a decoding unit that could be connected to a standard television set. The first programs seen with captioning were the ABC Sunday Night Movie, Disney's Wonderful World on NBC, and Masterpiece Theatre on PBS. The captioned Disney feature, showing at 7:00 pm EST, was the film Son of Flubber, while the movie at 9:00 EST was Semi-Tough.[5]

Penggunaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Dover Boys, sebuah kartun parodi 1942 dengan sari kata oleh Institut Pengapsyenan Kebangsaan Amerika Syarikat

Sari kata tertutup direka untuk golongan pekak atau sukar mendengar untuk membantu dalam segi pemahaman. Ia juga boleh digunakan sebagai bahan untuk sesiapa yang mahu membaca, belajar bahasa asing, atau berada dalam suasana yang menyebabkan audio sukar didengari atau sengaja dibisukan. Ia juga boleh digunakan oleh penonton yang mahu membaca transkripsi audio di samping mendengar rancangan audio.

Sari kata tertutup juga digunakan di tempat-tempat awam, seperti hospital dan restoran, di mana penonton tidak dapat mendengar audio dengan jelas kerana suasana bilik, atau tempat di mana ada banyak televisyen dengan pelbagai rancangan. Video di internet kini boleh dijanakan sari katanya dengan sebuah program, namun biasanya ada banyak kesilapan dalam transkripsinya. Apabila video itu diberikan transkripsi yang betul dan sebenar, barulah sari kata tertutup dapat menjalankan tugasnya dengan betul, kemudian terbitan sari kata tersebut tersedia untuk enjin gelintar (search engine) gunakan dalam hasil carian. [6][7][8]

Televisyen dan video[sunting | sunting sumber]

Untuk siaran langsung, kata-kata yang disuarakan ditranskripsikan oleh seorang jurutrengkas menggunakan yang kemudiannya langsung dimasukkan ke dalam pengimbas (mesin stenotaip), ataupun suara mereka disalurkan ke mesin pengimbas kata (mesin stenomask), lalu ia dipaparkan pada skrin oleh komputer. Teknik ini dicipta pada zaman 70-an sebagai prakarsa, yakni inisiatif, untuk perkhidmatan teleteks Ceefax Perbadanan Penyiaran British (BBC).[9] Demi tujuan ini dengan kerjasama BBC, seorang siswa universiti mengambil penciptaan program penukaran fonetik-ke-teks sebagai projek selidikannya. Kadang-kadang, sari kata dalam siaran langsung, seperti berita, acara sukan, rancangan wawancara, dan sebagainya lambat beberapa saat. Ini kerana mesin tersebut tidak tahu apa yang individu itu akan katakan, jadi selepas pengujar habis bercakap barulah apa yang diperkatakannya muncul.[10] Sistem pengecaman penuturan automatik kini berfungsi dengan lebih elok dan boleh dilihat dalam berbagai video di YouTube.

Kadang-kadang, transkripsi sudahpun ada sebelum sesuatu program disiarkan dan sari kata akan dipaparkan selepas sahaja ia disunting. Buat program yang ada campuran bahan yang tersedia dan bahan secara langsung, seperti berita, kedua-dua teknik digunakan.

Untuk rancangan yang telah dirakam, seperti iklan, audio ditranskripsikan dan sari kata disediakan, diaturkan dan dikenakan waktunya terdahulu.

Untuk semua jenis penyiaran NTSC, sari kata dikodkan ke dalam EIA-608 atau baris 21 dalam tempoh padaman tegak (VBI) - sebahagian gambar TV yang duduk di atas bahagian yang dapat dilihat dan biasanya ia tidak terlihat. Untuk penyiaran ATSC (televisyen digital), tiga jalur dikodkan ke dalam video: dua daripadanya boleh gunakan sari kata baris 21", dan yang ketiga terdiri daripada 63 jalur sari kata tambahan yang dikodkan ke dalam format CEA-708.[11]

Ada dua kaedah yang lazim digunakan dalam penyarikataan tertutup:

  • Bertatal atau menggulung: Perkataan dipaparkan secara bergulung atau bertatal dari kiri ke kanan, sebaris demi sebaris. Ia biasanya muncul di bahagian bawah skrin, tetapi boleh diaturkan untuk berada di tempat lain untuk mengelak sebarang teks atau gambar bertindih dengannya. Kaedah ini digunakan untuk menyarikatakan video secara langsung, di mana fail sari kata tidak tersedia terlebih dahulu.
A still frame showing simulated closed captioning in the pop-on style
  • Memuncul atau memblok: Sari kata muncul secara lengkap dan boleh diikuti dengan sari kata tambahan. Kaedah ini digunakan apabila sari kata berkenaan diambil dari fail pengantara (seperti format fail Scenarist atau EBU STL) untuk program yang sudah dirakam, dan biasanya dihasilkan di pusat penyarikataan. Kaedah ini boleh dipertambahtepatkan dengan perisian pengecaman suara, dan jika digunakan untuk acara langsung, masih akan ada kelewatan tetapi pada video untuk mengelak kelewatan pada pemaparan sari kata di skrin, yang berlaku pada sari kata langsung berkod-Teletext.

Sesuatu program video boleh ada kedua-dua sari kata bertatal dan memuncul (mis., bertatal untuk penceritaan dan memuncul untuk lirik lagu pop). Simbol muzik (kadangkala tanda syap atau '♯' di UK, Ireland dan Australia) digunakan untuk menanda lirik muzik atau muzik latar belakang. Biasanya, lirik ditulis dahulu kemudian diikuti dengan not muzik (atau tanda pagar, '#'), sementara judul lagu ditulis dalam kurungan sama seperti kesan bunyi. Standard dan piawai berbeza mengikut negara dan syarikat.

Untuk rancangan siaran langsung, beberapa drama lipur lara, dan rancangan yang menggunakan kaedah bertatal, penyarikataan Line 21 menggunakan simbol '>>' untuk menunjukkan penutur lain (nama penutur kadangkala disertakan sekali) dan '>>>' dalam laporan berita untuk menyatakan rencana baru. Dalam beberapa situasi, '>>' bermaksud satu individu sedang bercakap dan '>>>' bermaksud dua atau ramai orang sedang bercakap. Hurud besar sering digunakan kerana kebanyakan rupa huruf (font) penyahkod sari kata di rumah tidak mempunyai garis bawah—baris yang terdapat pada bahagian bawah huruf-huruf kecil—seperti huruf j, p, q dan y, tetapi hampir kesemua TV moden mempunyai set aksara sari kata dengan garis bawah. Teks boleh dicondongkan, dan pelbagai penggayaan mampu dilakukan. Sari kata juga boleh dipaparkan dalam pelbagai warna tetapi jarang digunakan. Di Kerajaan Syarikat, Malaysia, Australia dan New Zealand gunakan ia untuk perbezaan pertuturan, misalnya bahasa Melayu dalam warna putih dan Mandarin dalam warna kuning.

Format penyarikataan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Contoh Perkhidmatan Akses Televisyen New Zealand dan Red Bee Media untuk BBC dan Australia:

I got the machine ready.
            ENGINE STARTING
           (speeding away)

Contoh IMS UK untuk ITV dan Sky:

(man) I got the machine ready. (engine starting)

Contoh Perkhidmatan Akses WGBH AS:

MAN: I got the machine ready.

           (engine starting)

Contoh Institut Kapsyen Negara AS:

           I GOT THE MACHINE READY.

Contoh pembekal AS lain:

I GOT THE MACHINE READY.

           [engine starting]

Contoh siaran umum bergulung AS masa nyata:

>> Man: I GOT THE MACHINE READY. [engine starting]

Contoh siaran umum bergulung bukan AS masa nyata:

   MAN: I got the machine ready.
           (ENGINE STARTING)

Sintaksis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bagi penyarikataan masa nyata yang dilakukan di luar pusat penyarikataan, sintaksis berikut digunakan:

  • '>>' (dua tanda 'lebih besar daripada' di hadapan dialog) menyatakan perubahan penutur secara tunggal.
    • Kadangkala digabungkan dengan nama penutur dalam petak alternatif (jika huruf besar guna huruf kecil dan sebegitunya), diikuti dengan titik bertindih.
  • '>>>' (tiga tanda 'lebih besar daripada' di hadapan dialog) menyatakan perubahan pada rencana berita atau penutur secara majmuk.

Penggayaan sintaksis yang digunakan oleh pelbagai penerbit sari kata tertutup:

  • Huruf besar menyatakan dialog utama dan nama penutur.
    • Rupa huruf dalam penyahkod sari kata EIA-608 Legacy tidak mempunyai garis bawah pada huruf kecil.
    • Di luar Amerika Utara, huruf besar dengan warna latar menunjukkan judul lagu atau menyatakan kesan bunyi.
    • Di luar Amerika Utara, huruf besar dengan latar hitam atau tiada menunjukkan tegasan pada perkataan.
  • Huruf kecil menunjukkan bunyi latar belakang dan dialog di luar pandangan skrin.
  • '-' (sempang di hadapan baris) menandakan perubahan dalam penutur tunggal (digunakan oleh CaptionMax).
  • Kata-kata dalam bentuk condong menunjukkan apabila suatu perkataan ditekankan atau ditegaskan dan apabila nama-nama tempat sebenar dipetik.
    • Penggayaan condong dan tebal hanya disokong oleh EIA-608.
    • Beberapa pembekal sari kata Amerika Utara gunakan ini untuk dialog pencerita.
  • Pewarnaan teks menunjukkan penghargaan untuk penyari kata dan penajaan.
    • Sekali sekala ia digunakan untuk kesan karaoke untuk video muzik di MTV atau VH-1.
    • Dalam negara-negara yang mengguna Ceefax/Teletext, ia menunjukkan perubahan pada penutur tunggal, menggantikan '>>'.
    • Beberapa negara yang mengguna Teletext gunakan warna untuk menunjukkan tekanan atau tegasan pada perkataan.
    • Warna hanya terhad kepada putih, hijau, biru, sian, merah, kuning dan ungu/magenta.
    • Susunan teks mengikut warna di KS ialah putih, hijau, sian, kuning; dan warna latar pula ialah hitam, merah, biru, ungu, dan putih.
    • Susunan teks mengikut warna di AS ialah putih, kuning, sian, hijau; dan warna latar pula ialah hitam, biru, merah, ungu, dan putih.
  • Kurungan biasa '()' dan kurungan siku '[]' menandakan judul lagu atau maklumat kesan bunyi.
  • Kurungan biasa menandakan nada suara penutur mis., (lelaki), (wanita), (budak lelaki), (budak perempuan).
    • Di semua tempat kecuali Amerika Utara, tanda kurung biasa menandakan aksi bisu.
  • Sepasang kuaver '🎵' digunakan untuk mengurung lirik lagu dan menandakan nyanyian.
    • Sepasang kuaver pada baris sari kata tanpa teks menandakan muzik instrumental.
    • Di semua tempat kecuali Amerika Utara, sejunjung tanda pagar '#' digunakan pada hadapan lirik untuk menandakan nyanyian.
    • Satu aksara muzik tambahan dilekat di hujung baris terakhir lirik untuk menandakan penghujung lagu tersebut.
    • Oleh kerana simbol kuaver tidak disokong Ceefax/Teleteks, tanda pagar '#' digunakan untuk menggantikan tanda syap '♯'.

Segi teknikal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ada banyak kekurangan dalam tentuan Baris 21 yang asal menurut segi tipografi, kerana, sebagai contoh, ia kekurangan banyak aksara yang diperlukan untuk menyari kata bahasa-bahasa lain melainkan Inggeris. Sejak itu, aksara asas Baris 21 telahpun diperluaskan untuk menampung lebih sedikit aksara, untuk bahasa yang biasa digunakan di Amerika Utara dan Selatan seperti Perancis, Sepanyol, dan Portugis, tetapi tidak semua penyahkod dapat faham aksara-aksara tersebut maka ia tidak boleh diperharapkan untuk kegunaan awam. Masalah ini hampir seluruhnya selesai dengan standard EIA-708 untuk televisyen digital, yang memperagakan bidang aksara yang jauh lebih luas.

Sari kata biasanya disunting untuk mudah dibaca dan kurangkan bilangan teks yang terpapar. Penyuntingan ini boleh jadi secara skala kecil, dengan membuang seberapa baris yang tidak penting, hingga pada skala yang besar, di mana hampir kesemua percakapan yang diungkap oleh pelakon dipenggal. Ukuran yang digunakan untuk mengendali penyuntingan ini ialah perkataan per minit, biasanya pada lingkungan 180 hingga 300, mengikut jenis penyiaran. Kata-kata kesatjuga disarikatakan, tetapi kalau penyiaran tersebut telah ditapis untuk penyiaran awam, penyiar mungkin tidak suruh sari kata disunting atau ditapis pula. "TV Guardian", sebuah kotak atas set televisyen seperti ASTRO, ada untuk ibu bapa yang ingin unsur-unsur lucah ditapis untuk kanak-kanak mereka—isyarat siaran dimasukkan ke dalam kotak tersebut dan jika ia kenal kata-kata lucah dalam sari kata, isyarat audio akan ditapis dengan mengenakan bunyi bip seberapa lamanya mereka sebut perkataan tersebut.

Dalam perbualan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kini, atur cara perisian yang dapat menjana sari kata tertutup untuk perbualan sudah wujud. Contoh situasi perbualan ia boleh digunakan ialah dalam bilik persidangan, bilik darjah/syarahan, dan tujuan keagamaan seperti khutbah. Contoh produk seperti ini ialah Interact-AS yang dibangunkan oleh Auditory Science.[12]

DVD[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bagi NTSC, DVD boleh mempunyai sari kata tertutup dalam bingkisan data saluran video MPEG-2 dalam fail Video-TS. Setelah data isyarat analog dipancar dari atas set pemain DVD, data sari kata ditukarkan ke format Baris 21.[13] Ia disampaikan ke televisyen dengan pemain tersebut dan boleh dipaparkan dengan penyahkod televisyen atau penyahkod luar televisyen. Apabila digunakan dalam komputer, data sari kata boleh dilihat dengan perisian yang dapat membaca dan nyahkod bingkisan data saluran MPEG-2 dalam cakera DVD. Kedua-dua Windows Media Player (pra-Windows 7) dan pemain DVD Apple dapat membaca dan nyahkodkan ia.

Media HD DVD dan cakera Blu-ray tidak dapat menampung sari kata tertutup Baris 21 kerana tentuan reka bentuk Antara Muka Multimedia Definisi Tinggi (HDMI) direka untuk menggantikan standard analog dan digital yang lama, seperti Tatasusunan Grafik Video (VGA), S-Video, dan DVI. Cakera Blu-ray dan HD DVD boleh gunakan sari kata peta bit DVD atau 'sari kata tinggi' untuk membawa sari kata jenis SDH, yang berdasarkan format teks XML yang mengandungi rupa hurud, penggayaan dan maklumat pemosisi dan juga pewakilan unicode untuk teks tersebut. Sari kata tinggi juga boleh mengandungi ciri-ciri tambahan seperti "audio deskriptif".

Filem[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terdapat pelbagai teknologi bersaing yang digunakan untuk memberi sarikata untuk filem di pawagam. Penyarikataan pawagam termasuk dalam kategori 'terbuka' dan 'tertutup'. Definisi penyarikataan "tertutup" dalam konteks ini berbeza dengan televisyen, kerana ia merujuk kepada apa-apa teknologi yang membolehkan sedikit sehingga seorang ahli penonton melihat sarikata.

Open captioning in a film theater can be accomplished through burned-in captions, projected text or bitmaps, or (rarely) a display located above or below the movie screen. Typically, this display is a large LED sign. In a digital theater, open caption display capability is built into the digital projector. Closed caption capability is also available, with the ability for 3rd party closed caption devices to plug into the digital cinema server.

Probably the best-known closed captioning option for film theaters is the Rear Window Captioning System from the National Center for Accessible Media. Upon entering the theater, viewers requiring captions are given a panel of flat translucent glass or plastic on a gooseneck stalk, which can be mounted in front of the viewer's seat. In the back of the theater is an LED display that shows the captions in mirror image. The panel reflects captions for the viewer, but is nearly invisible to surrounding patrons. The panel can be positioned so that the viewer watches the movie through the panel and captions appear either on or near the movie image. A company called Cinematic Captioning Systems has a similar reflective system called Bounce Back. A major problem for distributors has been that these systems are each proprietary, and require separate distributions to the theater to enable them to work. Proprietary systems also incur license fees.

For film projection systems, Digital Theater Systems, the company behind the DTS surround sound standard, has created a digital captioning device called the DTS-CSS or Cinema Subtitling System. It is a combination of a laser projector which places the captioning (words, sounds) anywhere on the screen and a thin playback device with a CD that holds many languages. If the Rear Window Captioning System is used, the DTS-CSS player is also required for sending caption text to the Rear Window sign located in the rear of the theater.

Special effort has been made to build accessibility features into digital projection systems (see digital cinema). Through SMPTE, standards now exist that dictate how open and closed captions, as well as hearing-impaired and visually-impaired narrative audio, are packaged with the rest of the digital movie. This eliminates the proprietary caption distributions required for film, and the associated royalties. SMPTE has also standardized the communication of closed caption content between the digital cinema server and 3rd party closed caption systems (the CSP/RPL protocol). As a result, new, competitive closed caption systems for digital cinema are now emerging that will work with any standards-compliant digital cinema server. These newer closed caption devices include cup-holder-mounted electronic displays and wireless glasses which display caption text in front of the wearer's eyes.[14] Bridge devices are also available to enable the use of Rear Window systems. As of mid-2010, the remaining challenge to the wide introduction of accessibility in digital cinema is the industry-wide transition to SMPTE DCP, the standardized packaging method for very high quality, secure distribution of digital movies.

Permainan video[sunting | sunting sumber]

The infrequent appearance of closed captioning in video games became a problem in the 1990s as games began to commonly feature voice tracks, which in some cases contained information which the player needed in order to know how to progress in the game.[15] Closed captioning of video games is becoming more common. One of the first video game companies to feature closed captioning was Bethesda Softworks in their 1990 release of Hockey League Simulator and The Terminator 2029.[petikan diperlukan] Infocom also offered Zork Grand Inquisitor in 1997.[16] Many games since then have at least offered subtitles for spoken dialog during cutscenes, and many include significant in-game dialog and sound effects in the captions as well; for example, with subtitles turned on in the Metal Gear Solid series of stealth games, not only are subtitles available during cut scenes, but any dialog spoken during real-time gameplay will be captioned as well, allowing players who can't hear the dialog to know what enemy guards are saying and when the main character has been detected. Also, in many of developer Valve Corporation's video games (such as Half-Life 2 or Left 4 Dead), when closed captions are activated, dialog and nearly all sound effects either made by the player or from other sources (e.g. gunfire, explosions) will be captioned.

Video games don't offer Line 21 captioning, decoded and displayed by the television itself but rather a built-in subtitle display, more akin to that of a DVD. The game systems themselves have no role in the captioning either; each game must have its subtitle display programmed individually.

Reid Kimball, a game designer who is hearing impaired, is attempting to educate game developers about closed captioning for games. Reid started the Games[CC] group to closed caption games and serve as a research and development team to aid the industry. Kimball designed the Dynamic Closed Captioning system,[petikan diperlukan] writes articles and speaks at developer conferences. Games[CC]'s first closed captioning project called Doom3[CC] was nominated for an award as Best Doom3 Mod of the Year for IGDA's Choice Awards 2006 show.

Online Video Streaming[sunting | sunting sumber]

Internet Video Streaming Service, YouTube, offers captioning services in videos. The author of the video can upload a SubViewer (*.SUB), SubRip (*.SRT) or *.SBV file.[17] YouTube is currently testing an Automatic Caption Feature, which will transcribe audio and not require the author to add a captioning file. This feature was only available on certain videos, but now is available to all English videos.[18] However, the automatic captioning is often inaccurate on videos with background music and exaggerated emotion in speaking. On June 30, 2010, YouTube announced a new "YouTube Ready" designation for professional caption vendors in the United States.[19] The initial list included 12 companies who passed a caption quality evaluation administered by the Described and Captioned Media Project, have a website and a YouTube channel where customers can learn more about their services, and have agreed to post rates for the range of services that they offer for YouTube content.

Flash video also supports captions via the Distribution Exchange profile(DFXP)of W3C Timed Text format. The latest Flash authoring software adds free player skins and caption components that enable viewers to turn captions on/off during playback from a webpage. Previous versions of Flash relied on the Captionate 3rd party component and skin to caption Flash video. Custom Flash players designed in Flex can be tailored to support the Timed Text exchange profile, Captionate .XML, or SAMI file (see Hulu captioning).

The Silverlight Media Framework.[20] also includes support for the Timed Text exchange profile for both downlad and adaptive streaming media.

Windows Media Video can support closed captions for both video on demand streaming or live streaming scenarios. Typically Windows Media captions support the SAMI file format but can also carry embedded closed caption data.

QuickTime video supports true 608 caption data via QuickTime's proprietary Closed Caption Track. These captions can be turned on and off and appear in the same style as TV closed captions with all the standard formatting (pop-on, roll-up, paint-on) and can be positioned and split anywhere on the video screen. QuickTime Closed Caption tracks can be viewed in Mac or Windows versions of QuickTime player, iTunes, QuickTime web browser plug-in and iPod Nano, iPod Classic, iPod Touch, and iPhone.

Theatre[sunting | sunting sumber]

Live plays can be open captioned by a captioner who displays lines from the script and including non-speech elements on a large display screen near the stage.[21]

Telefon[sunting | sunting sumber]

A captioned telephone (also called captioned relay or Cap-Tel) is a telephone that displays real-time captions of the current conversation. The captions are typically displayed on a screen embedded into the telephone base.

Media monitoring services[sunting | sunting sumber]

In the United States especially, most media monitoring services capture and index closed captioning text from news and public affairs programs, allowing them to search the text for client references. The use of closed captioning for television news monitoring was pioneered in 1993 by Tulsa-based NewsTrak of Oklahoma (later known as Broadcast News of Mid-America, acquired by video news release pioneer Medialink Worldwide Incorporated in 1997). US patent 7,009,657 describes a "method and system for the automatic collection and conditioning of closed caption text originating from multiple geographic locations" as used by news monitoring services.

HDTV interoperability issues[sunting | sunting sumber]

Americas[sunting | sunting sumber]

The US ATSC HDTV system originally specified two different kinds of closed captioning datastream standards—the original (available by Line 21) and another more modern version encoded in MPEG-2, the CEA-708 standard.[22] The US FCC mandates that broadcasters deliver (and generate, if necessary) both datastream formats.[22] The Canadian CRTC has not mandated that broadcasters either broadcast both datastream formats or exclusively in one format.

Incompatibility issues with HDTV[sunting | sunting sumber]

Many viewers find that when they switch to an HDTV they are unable to view closed caption (CC) information, even though the broadcaster is sending it and the TV is able to display it. Originally, CC information was included in the picture ("line 21"), but there is no equivalent capability in the HDTV 720p/1080i interconnects between the display and a "source". A "source", in this case, can be a DVD player or an HD tuner (a cable box is an HD tuner). When CC information is encoded in the MPEG-2 data stream, only the device that decodes the MPEG-2 data (a source) has access to the closed caption information; there is no standard for transmitting the CC information to an HD display separately. Thus, if there is CC information, the source device needs to overlay the CC information on the picture prior to transmitting to the display over the interconnect.

Many source devices do not have the ability to overlay CC information, or controlling the CC overlay is extremely complicated. For example, the Motorola DCT-5xxx and -6xxx cable set-top boxes have the ability to decode CC information located on the mpg stream and overlay it on the picture, but turning CC on and off requires turning off the unit and going into a special setup menu (it is not on the standard configuration menu and it cannot be controlled using the remote). Historically, DVD players and cable box tuners did not need to do this overlaying, they simply passed this information on to the TV, and they are not mandated to perform this overlaying.

Many modern HDTVs can be directly connected to cables, but then they often cannot receive scrambled channels that the user is paying for. Thus, the lack of a standard way of sending CC information between components, along with the lack of a mandate to add this information to a picture, results in CC being unavailable to many hard-of-hearing and deaf users. "HDMI not allowing Closed Captioning?"

Eropah[sunting | sunting sumber]

The European teletext systems are the source for closed captioning signals, thus when teletext is embedded into DVB-T or DVB-S the closed captioning signal is included.[23] However, for DVB-T and DVB-S, it is not necessary for a teletext page signal to also be present (ITV1, for example, does not carry analogue teletext signals on Sky Digital, but does carry the embedded version, accessible from the "Services" menu of the receiver, or more recently by turning them off/on from a mini menu accessible from the "help" button).

DTV standard captioning improvements[sunting | sunting sumber]

The CEA-708 specification provides for dramatically improved captioning

  • An enhanced character set with more accented letters and non-Latin letters, and more special symbols
  • Viewer-adjustable text size (called the "caption volume control" in the specification), allowing individuals to adjust their TVs to display small, normal, or large captions
  • More text and background colors, including both transparent and translucent backgrounds to optionally replace the big black block
  • More text styles, including edged or drop-shadowed text rather than the letters on a solid background
  • More text fonts, including monospaced and proportional spaced, serif and sans-serif, and some playful cursive fonts
  • Higher bandwidth, to allow more data per minute of video
  • More language channels, to allow the encoding of more independent caption streams

As of 2009, however, most closed captioning for DTV environments is done using tools designed for analog captioning (working to the CEA-608 NTSC spec rather than the CEA-708 DTV spec). The captions are then run through transcoders made by companies like EEG Enterprises or Evertz, which convert the analog Line 21 caption format to the digital format. This means that none of the CEA-708 features are used unless they were also contained in CEA-608.

Non-linear video editing systems and penyarikataan tertutup[sunting | sunting sumber]

In April, 2010, Sony Creative Software released the Vegas Pro 9.0d update to the professional non-linear editor, Vegas Pro which implemented basic support for importing, editing, and delivering CEA608 Closed Captions. Vegas Pro 10, released on October 11, 2010, added several enhancements to the closed captioning support. TV-like CEA608 Closed Captioning can now be displayed as an overlay when played back in the Preview and Trimmer windows making it easy to check placement, edits, and timing of CC information. CEA708 style Closed Captioning is automatically created when the CEA608 data is created. Line 21 Closed Captioning is now supported as well as HD-SDI closed captioning capture and print from AJA and Blackmagic Design cards. Line 21 support provides a workflow for existing legacy media. Other improvements include increased support for multiple closed captioning file types, as well as the ability to export closed caption data for DVD Architect, YouTube, RealPlayer, QuickTime, and Windows Media Player.

In mid 2009, Apple released Final Cut Pro version 7 and began support for inserting closed caption data into SD and HD tape masters via firewire and compatible video capture cards.[24] Up until this time it was not possible for video editors to insert caption data with both CEA-608 and CEA-708 to their tape masters. The typical workflow included first printing the SD or HD video to a tape and sending it to a professional closed caption service company that had a stand alone closed caption hardware encoder.

This new closed captioning workflow known as e-Captioning involves making a proxy video from the non-linear system to import into a third-party non-linear closed captioning software. Once the closed captioning software project is completed, it must export a closed caption file compatible with the non-linear editing system. In the case of Final Cut Pro 7, three different file formats can be accepted: a .SCC file (Scenarist Closed Caption file) for Standard Definition video, a QuickTime 608 Closed Caption track (a special 608 coded track in the .mov file wrapper) for Standard Definition video, and finally a QuickTime 708 Closed Caption track (a special 708 coded track in the .mov file wrapper) for High Definition video output.

Alternately, Matrox video systems devised another mechanism for inserting closed caption data by allowing the video editor to include CEA-608 and CEA-708 in a discrete audio channel on the video editing timeline. This allows real-time preview of the captions while editing and is compatible with Final Cut Pro 6 and 7.[25]

Other non-linear editing systems indirectly support closed captioning only in Standard Definition line-21. Video files on the editing timeline must be composited with a line-21 VBI graphic layer known in the industry as a "blackmovie" with closed caption data.[26] Alternately, video editors working with the DV25 and DV50 firewire workflows must encode their DV .avi or .mov file with VAUX data which includes CEA-608 closed caption data.


[sunting | sunting sumber]

The current and most familiar logo for closed captioning consists of two Cs (untuk "closed captioned" (disarikata tertutupkan)) dalam sebuah skrin televisyen. Ia direka Jack Foley semasa beliau seorang pereka grafik kanan di WGBH.[petikan diperlukan] The other logo, trademarked by the National Captioning Institute, is that of a simple geometric rendering of a television set merged with the tail of a speech balloon; 2 versi wujud: satu dengan ekor di sebelah kiri dan satu lagi dengan ekor di sebelah kanan. [27]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Penyarikataan tertutup. (t.t.). Dalam Kamus Komputer. Dicapai 13 Ogos 2019 dari PRPM.
  2. ^ W3C. (t.t.). HTML5 (4.7.9). Diarkibkan 2013-06-06 di Wayback Machine. Dicapai 13 Ogos 2019 .
  3. ^ a b c d "A Brief History of Captioned Television". 
  4. ^ http://www.ncicap.org/caphist.asp
  5. ^ "Today on TV", Chicago Daily Herald, March 11, 1980, Section 2-5
  6. ^ Alex Varley, Chief Executive, Media Access Australia (June 2008). "Submission to DBCDE's investigation into Access to Electronic Media for the Hearing and Vision Impaired" (PDF). Australia: Media Access Australia. m/s. 16. Dicapai 2009-01-29. The use of captions and audio description is not limited to deaf and blind people. Captions can be used in situations of “temporary” deafness, such as watching televisions in public areas where the sound has been turned down (commonplace in America and starting to appear more in Australia). 
  7. ^ Mayor's Disability Council (May 16, 2008). "Resolution in Support of Board of Supervisors' Ordinance Requiring Activation of Closed Captioning on Televisions in Public Areas". City and County of San Francisco. Dicapai 2009-01-29. that television receivers located in any part of a facility open to the general public have closed captioning activated at all times when the facility is open and the television receiver is in use. 
  8. ^ Alex Varley, Chief Executive, Media Access Australia (April 18, 2005). "Settlement Agreement Between The United States And Norwegian American Hospital Under The Americans With Disabilities Act". U.S. Department of Justice. Dicapai 2009-01-29. ...will have closed captioning operating in all public areas where there are televisions with closed captioning; televisions in public areas without built-in closed captioning capability will be replaced with televisions that have such capability 
  9. ^ "mb21 - ether.net - The Teletext Museum - Timeline". mb21.co.uk. 
  10. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/rd/pubs/whp/whp-pdf-files/WHP065.pdf
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2008-09-01. Dicapai 2008-05-31.  - ATSC Closed Captioning FAQ (cached copy)
  12. ^ http://www.auditorysciences.com Auditory Sciences website
  13. ^ http://www.dvddemystified.com/dvdfaq.html#3.4
  14. ^ http://mkpe.com/publications/d-cinema/misc/enabling_the_disabled.php
  15. ^ "Letters". Next Generation. No. 30. Imagine Media. June 1997. m/s. 133. 
  16. ^ Robson, Gary (1998). "Captioning Computer Games". 
  17. ^ http://www.google.com/support/youtube/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=100077
  18. ^ http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2010/03/future-will-be-captioned-improving.html
  19. ^ http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2010/06/professional-caption-services-get.html
  20. ^ http://smf.codeplex.com
  21. ^ Stagetext.org
  22. ^ a b [1] - ATSC Closed Captioning FAQ (cached copy)
  23. ^ "ETSI EN 300 743: Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Subtitling systems"
  24. ^ http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/whats-new.html
  25. ^ http://www.cpcweb.com/mxo2/
  26. ^ http://www.cpcweb.com/nle/
  27. ^ National Captioning Institute Logos

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Realtime Captioning... The VITAC Way by Amy Bowlen and Kathy DiLorenzo (no ISBN)
  • Closed Captioning: Subtitling, Stenography, and the Digital Convergence of Text with Television by Gregory J. Downey (ISBN 978-0-8018-8710-9)
  • The Closed Captioning Handbook by Gary D. Robson (ISBN 0-240-80561-5)
  • Alternative Realtime Careers: A Guide to Closed Captioning and CART for Court Reporters by Gary D. Robson (ISBN 1-881859-51-7)
  • A New Civil Right: Telecommunications Equality for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Americans by Karen Peltz Strauss (ISBN 978-1-56368-291-9)
  • Enabling The Disabled by Michael Karagosian (no ISBN)

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]