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Turgut Reis

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Monumen Turgut Reis di Istanbul
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Nama asalTurgut Reis, "Torghoud"
Nama samaranDragut Rais, Darghouth
Arabic: درغوث
Itali: Dragura
Kelahiran24 Oktober, 1485
Bodrum, Empayar Uthmaniyyah
Meninggal dunia23 Jun, 1565
Kesetiaan Empayar Uthmaniyah
PerkhidmatanBendera tentera laut Empayar Uthmaniyah Ottoman Navy
Tahun perkhidmatans. 1500–1565
PangkatLaksamana, Gabenor Jeneral, Pasha
ArahanPanglima Tentera Laut Uthmaniyyah di Mediterranean (Beylerbey)
PertempuranPertempuran Preveza (1538)
Serangan ke atas Gozo (1551)
Pengepungan Tripoli (1551)
Pertempuran Ponza (1552)
Pertempuran Djerba (1560)
Pengepungan Besar Malta (1565)

Dragut (Turki: Turgut Reis) (1485 – 23 Jun 1565), juga dikenali sebagai "Si Penghunus Pedang Islam",[1] adalah seorang komander tentera laut[2] Muslim[3][4] Uthmaniyyah[5][6][7] berketurunan Greek.[2][8][9][10][dn 1] yang terkenal,[11], dihormati,[12] dan ditakuti [13]

Beliau diakui sebagai seorang tentera yang genius,[12] dan diperincikan oleh seorang laksamana Perancis sebagai "Seorang carta hidup di Mediterranean, cukup mahir di daratan berbanding para jeneral lain di waktu itu. Tiada sesiapa pun yang lebih berhak selain beliau untuk membawa nama raja".[14]

Dragut juga dikenali sebagai "pahlawan lanun terhebat sepanjang zaman",[12] "tanpa ragu-ragu adalah pemimpin Turki yang paling hebat",[14] dan "raja tanpa takhta di Mediterranean".[14]

Selain berkhidmat sebagai Laksamana[15] dan Corsair dalam Tentera Laut Uthmaniyyah di bawah Sulaiman al-Qanuni, Dragut juga dilantik sebagai Bey (Gabenor) Algiers dan Djerba, Beylerbey (Panglima) Mediterranean, selain Bey, dan kemudiannya sebagai Pasha (Lord), di Tripoli.

Di bawah kepimpinan beliau[12], kuasa maritim empayar Uthmaniyah berkembang melintasi Afrika Utara.[2] Semasa berkhidmat sebagai Pasha di Tripoli, Dragut membina banyak kehebatan di kota ini, menjadikan ia sebagai sebuah tempat paling mengagumkan di seluruh pantai Afrika Utara.[16]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^

    There is a strong probability that the mother and father of Turgut Reis were Greek. However, Turkish sources do not take this information seriously. Similarly, the father of Hayreddin Barbarossa and his brothers was probably a timariot commander, who was a Greek renegade, and their mother was definitely Greek. Halikarnas Balıkçısı, doesn't seem to mind this strong probability related with Turgut Reis. On the contrary, he acts to erase such a possibility from our minds, by starting with explaining his birth in his book.
    Turkish original:
    Turgut Reis'in anne-babasının Rum olması ihtimali güçlüdür. Ancak, Türk kaynakları bu iddiayı ciddiye almazlar. Benzer biçimde, Hızır Reis ve kardeşlerinin babalarının Rum'dan dönme bir timar beyi olduğu kuvvetle muhtemel, annelerinin Rum olduğu da kesindir. Halikarnas Balıkçısı, Turgut Reis'le ilgili bu güçlü ihtimale önem vermeye hiç niyetli görünmüyor. Tersine, kitaba doğumunu anlatmakla başlayarak böyle bir ihtimali zihnimizden silmek üzere davranıyor.

    — Murat Belge, "Mavi Anadolu Tezi ve Halikarnas Balıkçısı" - Edebiyatta Milliyetçilik, Birikim, Sayı 210, Ekim 2006, p. 35.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Rafael Sabatini (2008). The Sword of Islam and Other Tales of Adventure. Wildside Press. m/s. 7. ISBN 9781434467904. Ordinarily Dragut Reis — who was dubbed by the Faithful "The Drawn Sword of Islam"
  2. ^ a b c Reynolds, Clark G. (1974). Command of the sea: the history and strategy of maritime empires. Morrow. m/s. 120–121. ISBN 9780688002671. Ottomans extended their western maritime frontier across North Africa under the naval command of another Greek Moslem, Torghoud (or Dragut), who succeeded Barbarossa upon the latter's death in 1546.
  3. ^ E. Hamilton Currey (2008). Flag of the Prophet: The Story of the Muslim Corsairs. Fireship Press. m/s. 168. ISBN 9781934757550. Brantome, that Dragut was born at a small village in Asia Minor called Charabulac, opposite to the island of Rhodes, and that his parents were Mahommedans.
  4. ^ Lane-Poole, Stanley (1890). The Story of the Nations: The Barbary Corsairs. G.P. Gutnam's Sons. m/s. 124. The name of Dragut has already occurred more than once in this history: it was destined to become as notorious as Barbarossa’s as the century advanced. Dragut or Torghoud was born on the Caramanian coast opposite the island of Rhodes. Unlike many of his colleagues he seems to have been the son of Mohammedan parents, tillers of the earth. Being adventurous by nature, he took service as a boy in the Turkish fleet and became “a good pilot and a most excellent gunner.” At last he contrived to purchase and man a galleot, with which he cruised the waters of the Levant, where his intimate acquaintance with all the coasts and islands enabled him to seize and dispose of many prizes.
  5. ^ Orhonlu, Cengiz (1968). Belgelerle Türk Tarihi Dergisi "Journal of Turkish History with Documents". m/s. 69. Turgut Reis is one of the well known of Turkish seaman of XVI. century Mediterranean. He is the son of a villager named Veli from the Menteşe - Serulus (Serulus or Seravulos) region. At early age he joined the seamen and became known. In short time he became a captain of levends. In some views his life as a corsair starts almost during the same time that of Barbarossa brothers. Later he began to operate on western Mediterranean seas, working together with Barbarossa bothers (Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, Künhü'l-ahbar, University books, No: 5959, pg. 300a)
  6. ^ Yemişçi, Cihan (2011). Turgut Reis'in Nereli Olduğu Meselesi "The Question of Turgut Reis' Birth Place. I. Turgut Reis Turkish Maritime History Symposium (27–28 May 2011). When we investigate the question of where the famous seaman was from, we can see the answer is recorded in two chronicles of that period. The first one is the Künhü'l Ahbar written by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali Beg (who is praised to be one of the most well known and most reliable highly valued source by Babinger) and the other is Tuhfetü'l-Kibar fi Esfari'l Bihar by Katip Çelebi. In both sources it is written that the famous seman was the son of a farmer named Veli from Sıralovas sub-district.
  7. ^ Uzunçarşılı, İsmail Hakkı (1998). Osmanlı Tarihi, II "Ottoman History, II". T.R. Department of Turkish History. m/s. 384. The whole story of Turgut was written by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali recited from a relative of Turgut Reis: Sami Beg, the son of Kayıt Hasan Beg.
  8. ^ Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. University of Texas Press. m/s. 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. He participated in the successful Ottoman assault on Tripoli in 1551 against the Knights of St. John of Malta.
  9. ^ Chambers, Iain (2008). Mediterranean crossings: the politics of an interrupted modernity. Duke University Press. m/s. 38–39. ISBN 9780822341260. Neither was the career of Dragut, another Greek whom we find in 1540s on the Tunisian coast and in 1561 installed at Tripoli in Barbary, in place of the Knights of Malta whom the Turks had expelled five years earlier.
  10. ^ Pauls, Michael; Facaros, Dana (2000). Turkey. New Holland Publishers. m/s. 286–287. ISBN 9781860110788. It is named after the 16th-century Admiral Turgut (Dragut), who was born here to Greek parents
  11. ^ J Fl 1739 Morgan (2016). A Complete History of Algiers. to Which Is Prefixed, an Epitome of the General History of Barbary, from the Earliest Times: Interspersed with Many Curious Remarks and Passages Not Touched on by Any Writer Whatever, Volume 2. Wentworth Press. m/s. 432. ISBN 9781360782119. This young Turk, was son to Barbarossa, and Son-in-Law to the renowned Dragut Rais.
  12. ^ a b c d Judith Miller (28 September 1986). "Malta, Where Suleiman Laid Siege". The New York Times. Dicapai pada 29 Januari 2017. The Arabs were the first to build a fortress, which the knights improved upon. You can visit the prison that housed prisoners during World War II, and, some say, Turkish prisoners during the Great Siege. This fort has a splendid small chapel, St. Anne's, dating from 1430. There is one marble pillar in the center, the site of the ancient temples. To the west of Valletta, separated from the city by Marsamxett Harbor, is another site of the siege, Dragut Point. A Holiday Inn is now being built on this point, and one hopes its owners will commemorate at least with a plaque the spot where the greatest pirate warrior of all time fell. Dragut Reis was respected as the best Moslem seaman of his era, a true pirate, Governor of Tripoli and a military genius. Many historians believe that, had he lived, the siege would have succeeded. His death, however, prompted squabbling between the two senior Ottoman military officers, which led, in turn, to a series of disastrous decisions that helped save the knights. It was on this point, where tourists now sunbathe and the Maltese fish, that Dragut was mortally wounded before the fall of St. Elmo when a fragment of rock thrown up by a cannonball struck his head. He would have died instantly had it not been for his thick turban. Death came days later in his tent, shortly after he received news from a messenger that St. Elmo had fallen at last.
  13. ^ Braudel, Fernand (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II, Volume 2. University of California Press. m/s. 908–909. ISBN 9780520203303. Of all the corsairs who preyed on Sicilian wheat, Dragut (Turghut) was the most dangerous. A Greek by birth, he was now about fifty years old and behind him lay a long and adventurous career including four years in the Genoese galleys.
  14. ^ a b c Balbi, Francesco (2011). The Siege of Malta, 1565. Boydell Press. m/s. 63–64. ISBN 9781843831402. Born in 1485, he was eighty years old when he came to Malta for the siege. He had been a lieutenant under the famous Barbarossa and, on the latter's death, Dragut became the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean. He was known to his fellow Moslems as 'The Drawn Sword of Islam'. Although in his earlier career he had been at variance with the Sultan Suleiman, the latter had recently recognized Dragut's abilities by confirming him Governor of Tripoli. He knew the Maltese archipelago very well, having raided both islands on several occasions. Among his many successes against the Christians was his capture of Bastia in Corsica (when he had carried off seven thousand captives) and of Reggio in Italy (when he enslaved the whole population of the city). It was Dragut who had captured Tripoli from the Knights of St John in 1551. An old adversary of La Valette, he was undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders. He was described by a French admiral as 'A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king'.
  15. ^ John Oakes (2011). Libya: The History of Gaddafi's Pariah State. The History Press. m/s. 38. ISBN 9780752471082. Dragut was made an admiral in the Ottoman navy.
  16. ^ Naylor, Phillip Chiviges (2009). North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present. University of Texas Press. m/s. 120–121. ISBN 9780292719224. One of the most famous corsairs was Turghut (Dragut) (?–1565), who was of Greek ancestry and a protégé of Khayr al-Din. ... While pasha, he built up Tripoli and adorned it, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African littoral.

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