Arnold Schwarzenegger

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger

Penjawat kini
Mula berkhidmat 
November 17 2003
Leftenan Cruz Bustamante
(2003 – 2007)
John Garamendi
(2007 – kini)
Didahului oleh Gray Davis

Tempoh berjawat
1990 – 1993
Presiden George H. W. Bush

Tarikh lahir 30 Julai 1947 (67 tahun)
Tempat lahir Thal bei Graz, Steiermark, Austria
Kerakyatan Austria-Amerika
Parti politik Republikan
Pasangan Maria Shriver
Anak 4
Tempat tinggal Los Angeles, California
Alma mater University of Wisconsin-Superior
Profesion Bina Badan, Pelakon, Ahli Politik, Ahli Perniagaan (Pelaburan)
Agama Roman Catholic
Laman web gov.ca.gov
schwarzenegger.com

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (lahir 30 Julai 1947; lebih dikenali sebagai Arnold Schwarzenegger atau Arnie) adalah seorang pelakon, ahli bina badan, ahli politik Parti Republik, serta usahawan yang kini menjabat sebagai Gabenor California ke-38. Nama Schwarzenegger bermaksud "pembajak berkulit hitam".

Masa kecil[sunting | sunting sumber]

Schwarzenegger dilahirkan di Thal, Styria, Austria kepada Gustav, seorang bekas pegawai tentera yang kemudiannya menjadi polis. Ibunya seorang suri rumah. Mereka sekeluarga hidup dalam keadaan sederhana dan tinggal di tingkat atas balai polis. Schwarzenegger mempunyai seorang abang bernama Meinhard yang terkorban dalam kemalangan jalan raya sewaktu dalam lingkungan usia dua puluhan. Mereka berdua dibesarkan dalam keluarga Katolik yang warak.

Sewaktu kecil, beliau mempunyai tubuh yang sederhana. Tetapi selepas melihat jaguh sukan Olimpik renang Johnny Weissmüller di Graz, Schwarzenegger mula berminat dengan bina badan dan ingin menjadi seorang jaguh atlet. Lalu beliau pun mula berlatih untuk membina badannya.

Pada awalnya, Schwarzenegger dan abangnya terlibat dalam pelbagai jenis sukan seperti geluncur ais, luncur air, pengembaraan berjalan kaki, berenang dan ping pong. Mereka berdua sering bersaing dalam sukan serta dalam pelajaran. Ayahandanya mengharap-harapkan Schwarzenegger menjadi seorang pemain bola sepak antarabangsa tetapi pada usia 13 tahun, beliau terkeluar daripada pasukan bola sepak sekolah.

Semasa remaja, Schwarzenegger amat meminati watak filem, Hercules, beliau sering kali menonton koleksi filem tersebut. Ini mendorongnya membaca majalah-majalah bina badan serta berlatih dalam bidang tersebut untuk meniru Hercules yang merupakan pujaannya.

Penyertaan dalam arena bina badan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada 1961 ketika berusia 14 tahun, Schwarzenegger bertemu dengan Kurt Marnul, bekas Mr. Austria. Marnul kagum dengan badan Schwarzenegger yang sasa dan menjemputnya berlatih di Athletic Union, Graz. Selepas itu, beliau berlatih selama tujuh hari seminggu sehingga tercicir dari sekolah dan semakin kurang pergi ke gerejanya. Disamping itu, beliau memulakan latihan perintisnya sebagai seorang tukang kayu.

Pada pertandingan pertamanya di sebuah hotel di Graz, Schwarzenegger menyandang tempat kedua. Pada 1965, beliau menyertai pasukan tentera Austria. Namun disebabkan pertandingan bina badan di Stuttgart, Jerman, beliau telah mengambil cuti tanpa kebenaran dan dipenjarakan selepas pemulangannya. Bagaimanapun, Schwarzenegger berjaya memenangi pertandingan tersebut dan dianugerahkan gelaran Mr. Eropah Junior.

Pada usia 20 tahun, Schwarzenegger berjaya mendapat gelaran "Mr. Jerman" dan naib johan untuk pertandingan "Mr. Universe" dalam percubaannya yang pertama. Pada 1975, beliau menamatkan kerjayanya sebagai ahli bina badan. Sewaktu itu, beliau telah mengumpul pelbagai gelaran:

Lima tahun kemudiannya, Schwarzenegger kembali ke arena bina badan dan memenangi gelaran Mr. Olympia yang ketujuh.

Schwarzenegger sebagai bintang filem[sunting | sunting sumber]

Schwarzenegger mula menceburi bidang perfileman pada tahun 1970 melalui filem "Hercules in New York". Disebabkan minat kepada watak Hercules yang amat mendalam, beliau sering memegang watak orang kuat seperti "Conan", "Terminator" dan "Commando". Pada 1988, beliau berlakon dalam "Twins", filem komedinya yang pertama, bersama pelawak terkenal Danny De Vito.

Walaupun lama terlibat dalam Hollywood, Schwarzenegger hanya berjaya mendapat kerakyatan Amerika Syarikat pada 1983. Tiga tahun kemudian, beliau berkahwin dengan Maria Shriver, seorang juruhebah wanita yang jelita dan kini dikurniakan empat cahaya mata.

Bidang perfileman telah memberi banyak kebahagiaan serta tekanan kepada Schwarzenegger. Kebanyakan filem aksinya telah mencapai jualan terlaris di seluruh dunia dan menjadikannya seorang jutawan. Walaupun begitu disebabkan tekanan kerja yang hebat, beliau terpaksa menjalani pembedahan jantung pada April 1997.

Kerjaya Politik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Naib Presiden Dick Cheney berjumpa dengan Schwarzenegger buat pertama kali di White House.

Schwarzenegger sudah menjadi ahli Republikan bertahun lamanya. Sebagai seorang pelakon, pandangan politik beliau biasanya diketahui ramai kerana ia bertentangan dengan banyak bintang-bintang ternama Hollywood, yang umumnya dikenali sebagai masyarakat yang cenderung kepada liberal dan Demokrat. Di Konvensyen Kebangsaan Republikan 2004, Schwarzenegger telah memberikan ucapan dan menerangkan kenapa beliau seorang speech Republikan:

Akhirnya saya sampai di sini dalam tahun 1968. Hari itu merupakan hari istimewa buat saya. Saya masih ingat saya sampai dengan kocek kosong tetapi penuh dengan impian, penuh dengan keinginan. Pada masa itu kempen presiden sedang hangat berlangsung. Saya masih ingat saya melihat pencalonan presiden Nixon-Humphrey di dalam TV. Kawan saya yang pandai bercakap Jerman dan Inggeris menterjemah untuk saya. Saya mendengar perkara yang Humphrey bercakap yang kedengaran semacam sosialisme, lalu sayapun tidak mengendahkannya.

Kemudian saya mendengar Nixon bercakap. Beliau sedang bercakap mengenai perusahaan bebas, bebaskan diri daripada kongkongan kerajaan, kurangkan cukai dan kuatkan ketenteraan. Apa yang Nixon bercakap semacam suatu benda yang baru. Saya pun bertanya kepada kawan saya, "Dia masuk parti mana?" Kawan saya cakap, "Dia seorang Republikan." Saya kata, "Maka saya pun juga seorang Republikan." Dan saya menjadi seorang Republikan sampai bila-bila.

[1]

Pada 1985, Schwarzenegger muncul di dalam video Stop the Madness, satu muzik video anti-dadah tajaan pentadbiran Reagan. Dia mula dikenali awam sebagai seorang Republikan sewaktu pilihan raya presiden 1988, menemani Timbalan Presiden pada waktu itu iaitu George H.W. Bush at a campaign rally. Attacking Bush's Democratic opponents, he said to the crowd: "They all look like a bunch of girlie men, right?"[2]

Schwarzenegger's first political appointment was as chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, on which he served from 1990 to 1993.[3] He was nominated by George H. W. Bush, who dubbed him "Conan the Republican". He later served as Chairman for the California Governor's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports under Governor Pete Wilson. Yet, political analysists have identified Schwarzenegger as a liberal, as he has become more left-leaning since his election.[4]

Between 1993 and 1994, Schwarzenegger was a Red Cross "ambassador" (a mostly ceremonial role fulfilled by celebrities), recording several television/radio PSAs to give blood. A small amount of interest was garnered by his wearing of a white t-shirt with the Red Cross on it, while posing with a flexed arm; the image made it into several celebrity magazines.

In an interview with Talk magazine in late 1999, Schwarzenegger was asked if he thought of running for office, he replied: "I think about it many times. The possibility is there, because I feel it inside."[5] The Hollywood Reporter claimed shortly after that Schwarzenegger sought to end speculation that he might run for governor of California.[5] Following his initial comments, Schwarzenegger said: "I'm in show business — I am in the middle of my career. Why would I go away from that and jump into something else?"[5]

President George W. Bush meets with Schwarzenegger after his successful election to the California Governorship.

Schwarzenegger announced his candidacy in the 2003 California recall election for Governor of California on the August 6, 2003 episode of The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.[6] As a candidate in the recall election, Schwarzenegger had the most name recognition in a crowded field of candidates, but he had never held public office and his political views were unknown to most Californians. His candidacy was immediate national and international news, with media outlets dubbing him the "Governator" (referring to The Terminator movies, see above) and The Running Man (the name of another of his movies), and calling the recall election Total Recall (yet another Schwarzenegger starrer) and "Terminator 4: Rise of the Candidate" (referring to his movie Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines). Schwarzenegger declined to participate in several debates with other recall replacement candidates and appeared in only one debate on September 24, 2003.[7]

On October 7, 2003, the recall election resulted in Governor Gray Davis being removed from office with 55.4% of the Yes vote in favor of a recall. Schwarzenegger was elected Governor of California under the second question on the ballot with 48.6% of the vote to choose a successor to Davis. Schwarzenegger defeated Democrat Cruz Bustamante, fellow Republican Tom McClintock, and others. His nearest rival, Bustamante, received less than 30% of the vote. In total, Schwarzenegger won the election by about 1.3 million votes. Under the regulations of the California Constitution, no runoff election was required. Schwarzenegger was the first foreign-born governor in California history since Ireland-born Governor John G. Downey in 1862.

As soon as Schwarzenegger was elected governor, Willie Brown said he would start a drive to recall the governor. Schwarzenegger was equally entrenched in what he considered to be his mandate in cleaning up gridlock. Asked whether he would seek bipartisan cooperation from the Democrats in the State Senate, Schwarzenegger quipped that he saw no reason to "talk with losers". Building on a catch phrase from a sketch partly parodying his bodybuilding career, Schwarzenegger called the Democratic State politicians "girlie men", (a reference from a Saturday Night Live sketch called "Hans and Franz") for putting special interests ahead of the interests of the people of California.[8]

The Governor's office in the California State Capitol.

Schwarzenegger enjoyed a large degree of success and victories in his early governorship, including repealing an unpopular increase in the vehicle registration fee as well as preventing driver's licenses being given out to illegal immigrants, but later began to feel the backlash when powerful state unions began to oppose his various initiatives.[nyatakan menurut siapa?] Key among his reckoning with political realities was a special election he called in November 2005, in which four ballot measures he sponsored were defeated. Schwarzenegger accepted personal responsibility for the defeats and vowed to continue to seek consensus for the people of California. He would later comment that "no one could win if the opposition raised $160 million dollars to defeat you."

Schwarzenegger then bucked the advice of fellow Republican strategists and appointed a Democrat, Susan Kennedy, as his Chief of Staff. Schwarzenegger scrambled toward the political middle, determined to build a winning legacy with only a short time to go until the next gubernatorial election.

He has appeared alongside his fellow actor from Around the World in 80 Days, Jackie Chan, in a government advertisement to combat copyright piracy.[9]

Schwarzenegger ran for re-election against Democrat Phil Angelides, the California State Treasurer, in the 2006 elections, held on November 7 2006. Despite a poor year nationally for the Republican party, Schwarzenegger won re-election with 56.0% of the vote compared with 38.9% for Angelides, a margin of well over one million votes.[10] The election further enhanced his political credentials.

It is rumored that Schwarzenegger might run for the United States Senate in 2010 (he will be term-limited then), if incumbent Senator Barbara Boxer retires.[11]

It was reported in February 2007 that Schwarzenegger offered his most lavish praise yet for 2008 presidential candidate John McCain. He called McCain a "great senator" and "very good friend" who shared his views on critical issues like the environment. He has not formally declared his support for McCain.[12]

Wendy Leigh, who wrote an unofficial biography on Schwarzenegger, claims he plotted his political rise from an early age using the movie business and body-building as building blocks to escape a depressing home.[13] Leigh portrays Schwarzenegger as obsessed with power and quotes him as saying: "I wanted to be part of the small percentage of people who were leaders, not the large mass of followers. I think it is because I saw leaders use 100% of their potential — I was always fascinated by people in control of other people."[13] Schwarzenegger has said that it was never his intention to enter politics, but he says, "I married into a political family. You get together with them and you hear about policy, about reaching out to help people. I was exposed to the idea of being a public servant and Eunice and Sargent Shriver became my heroes."[14] Eunice Kennedy Shriver was sister of John F. Kennedy, and mother-in-law to Schwarzenegger, Sargent Shriver was husband to Eunice and father-in-law to Schwarzenegger. According to the 2005 Year-In-Review issue of Time Magazine, citizens are hoping to amend the Constitution so he can run for President of the United States.[14]

Because he still has his Austrian passport, Schwarzenegger is still an Austrian and thus a European. This allowed him to win the 2007 European Voice campaigner of the year award for taking action against climate change with the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 and plans to introduce an emissions trading scheme with other US states and possibly with the EU.[15]

Schwarzenegger does not accept his governor's salary of $175,000 per year.[16] Instead, he donates it to charities.

Sejarah Pilihanraya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pilihanraya Semula Peringkat Gabenor California 2003
Parti Calon Undi % ±%
Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger 4,206,284 48.6
Demokrat Cruz Bustamante 2,724,874 31.5
Republikan Tom McClintock 1,161,287 13.5
Green Peter Miguel Camejo 242,247 2.8
California Gubernatorial Election 2006
Parti Calon Undi % ±%
Republikan Arnold Schwarzenegger (Incumbent) 4,850,157 55.9 +7.3
Demokrat Phil Angelides 3,376,732 39.0
Green Peter Miguel Camejo 205,995 2.3 -0.5

Filemografi (pilihan)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. "Schwarzenegger: No country more welcoming than the USA". CNN.com. August 31, 2004. http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/08/31/gop.schwarzenegger.transcript/. Capaian 2007-05-30. 
  2. "Schwarzenegger deems opponents 'girlie-men'", The San Francisco Chronicle, 2004-07-18. Dicapai pada 2007-04-17. 
  3. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan lifeline tidak disediakan
  4. Templat:Cite url=http://usliberals.about.com/b/2006/01/14/arnold-schwarzenegger-californias-newest-democrat.htm
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Arnold cast as Governor?", Schwarzenegger.com, 1999-10-04. Dicapai pada 2007-04-20. 
  6. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan profilear tidak disediakan
  7. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/sep2003/cali-s06.shtml
  8. Nicholas, Peter. "Schwarzenegger deems opponents 'girlie-men'. The Democratic legislators who he was directing the jab at later mocked the joke by showing up to a session of the State Senate dressed in aprons and dresses.…" (HTML), San Francisco Chronicle, 2004-07-18. Dicapai pada 2007-01-07. 
  9. "Jackie Chan and Arnold vs Piracy". Google Video. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6443035544827856436&q=Jackie+Chan&pr=goog-sl. Capaian 2007-05-11. 
  10. "General Election — Governor". California Secretary of State. http://vote.ss.ca.gov/Returns/gov/00.htm. Capaian 2007-05-11. 
  11. "'2-Terminator' Arnold to run for Senate?". WorldNetDaily. 2006-11-09. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=52864. Capaian 2007-05-11. 
  12. "Schwarzenegger Praises McCain as 'Great Leader'". NewsMax. 2007-02-22. http://newsmax.com/archives/ic/2007/2/22/73021.shtml?s=ic. Capaian 2007-05-11. 
  13. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan governG2 tidak disediakan
  14. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan LAWarn tidak disediakan
  15. "Schwarzenegger wins European Voice campaigner of the year award". European Voice. 2007-11-27. http://www.ev50.org/noflash/gala.asp?id=18. Capaian 2007-12-09. 
  16. http://www.ocregister.com/ocregister/news/atoz/article_1102616.php

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1977). Arnold: Developing a Mr. Universe Physique. Schwarzenegger. 
  • with Douglas Kent Hall (1977). Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22879-X. 
  • with Bill Dobbins (1981). Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-25613-0. 
  • with Bill Dobbins (1998). The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding (edisi rev. ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84374-9. 
  • Saunders, Dave (2008). "Arnie": Schwarzenegger and the Movies. London: I. B. Tauris. 
  • Andrews, Nigel (2003). True Myths: The Life and Times of Arnold Schwarzenegger: From Pumping Iron to Governor of California (edisi rev. ed.). New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN 1-58234-465-5. 
  • Blitz, Michael; and Louise Krasniewicz (2004). Why Arnold Matters: The Rise of a Cultural Icon. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03752-6. 
  • Borowitz, Andy (2004). Governor Arnold: A Photodiary of His First 100 Days in Office. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-6266-2. 
  • Brandon, Karen (2004). Arnold Schwarzenegger. San Diego: Lucent Books. ISBN 1-59018-539-0. 
  • Sexton, Colleen A. (2005). Arnold Schwarzenegger. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications. ISBN 0-8225-1634-9. 
  • Zannos, Susan (2000). Arnold Schwarzenegger. Childs, Md.: Mitchell Lane. ISBN 1-883845-95-5. 

Wawancara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]