Mujahideen Bosnia

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El Mudžahid
Flag of Jihad.svg
Aktif 1992–95
Negara  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kesetiaan  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Cawangan Tentera Darat Republik Bosnia dan Herzegovina
Jenis Infantri
Keanggotaan 300–6,000 pejuang[1]
Warna Hitam, putih dan hijau
Maskot Scimitar
Peralatan AK-47, PKM, pelbagai jenis lebihan senjata tentera dan awam Blok Timur seperti senapang memburu dan shotgun
Perang/pertempuran
Dibubarkan 1995
Komander
Komander
ternama
Sakib Mahmuljin
Amir Kubura
Abu Abdel Aziz Barbarossa
Abu Mali
Adil al-Ghanim †


Mujahideen Bosnia (Bahasa Bosnia: [Bosanski mudžahidi] error: {{lang}}: teks mempunyai penanda italik (bantuan)), juga dikenali sebagai El Mudžahid, merupakan sukarelawan Muslim luar negara yang berjuang di pihak Bosniak dalam Perang Bosnia pada tahun 1992–95. Mereka tiba di Bosnia dan Herzegovina dengan tujuan untuk berjuang untuk Islam dan bagi pihak Muslims.[2]

Ada antara mereka yang asalnya datang sebagai pekerja bantuan kemanusiaan,[3] sementara terdapat juga yang dianggap penjenayah di negara asal mereka kerana memasuki Bosnia secara haram dan menjadi tentera. Jumlah sukarelawan ini menjadi perdebatan,[4] dengan anggaran pada awalnya adalah sekitar 300 orang[5][6] sehingga 6,000 pejuang menjelang tahun 1995.[1]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Petikan
  1. ^ a b "Al Qaeda's Balkan Links". The Wall Street Journal. 1 November 2001. 
  2. ^ ICTY: Summary of the judgement for Enver Hadžihasanović and Amir Kubura - "Archived copy" (PDF). Diarkibkan daripada asal (PDF) pada 2011-07-28. Dicapai 2010-02-05. 
  3. ^ Humanitarian worker turned Mujahideen
  4. ^ "BBC News - Europe - Analysis: Bosnian stability at stake". Dicapai 5 May 2015. 
  5. ^ SENSE Tribunal:ICTY - We fought with the BH army, but not under its command "Archived copy". Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2007-12-14. Dicapai 2007-11-26. 
  6. ^ "Predrag Matvejević analysis". Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2012-12-08. 
Bibliografi
  • Curtis, Mark (2011). Secret Affairs: Britain's Collusion with Radical Islam. Profile Books. ISBN 9781846687631. 
  • Moghadam, Assaf (2011). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. JHU Press. ISBN 9781421400587. 

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Radio Free Europe - Al-Qaeda In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Myth Or Present Danger, Vlado Azinovic's research about the alleged presence of Al-Qaeda in Bosnia and the role of Arab fighters in the Bosnian War
  • The Afghan-Bosnian Mujahideen Network in Europe, by, Evan F. Kohlmann. The paper was presented at a conference held by the Swedish National Defence College's Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies (CATS) in Stockholm in May 2006 at the request of Dr. Magnus Ranstorp - former director of the St. Andrews University Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence - and now Chief Scientist at CATS). It is also the title of a book by the same author.
  • Mlivončić, Ivica. Al Qaida se kalila u Bosni i Hercegovini: mjesto i uloga mudžahida u Republici Hrvatskoj i Bosni i Hercegovini od 1991. do 2005. godine. Naša ognjišta, 2007.
  • Kohlmann, Evan. Al-Qaida's jihad in Europe: the Afghan-Bosnian network. Berg Publishers, 2004.
  • Mustapha, Jennifer. "The Mujahideen in Bosnia: the foreign fighter as cosmopolitan citizen and/or terrorist." Citizenship Studies 17.6-7 (2013): 742-755.
  • Mincheva, Lyubov G., and Ted Robert Gurr. "Unholy Alliances: Evidence on Linkages between Trans-State Terrorism and Crime Networks: The Case of Bosnia." Transnational Terrorism, Organized Crime and Peace-Building. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2010. 190-206.
  • Van Zuijdewijn, Jeanine de Roy, Edwin Bakker, and ICCT Background Note. "Returning Western foreign fighters: The case of Afghanistan, Bosnia and Somalia." The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (2014).
  • Kurop, Marcia Christoff. "Al Qaeda's Balkan Links." The Wall Street Journal: November 1 (2001).
  • Kroeger, Alix. "Mujahideen fight Bosnia evictions." (2008).
  • Innes, Michael A. "Terrorist sanctuaries and Bosnia-Herzegovina: Challenging conventional assumptions." Studies in conflict & terrorism 28.4 (2005): 295-305.
  • Zosak, Stephanie. "Revoking citizenship in the name of counterterrorism: the citizenship review commission violates human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina." Nw. UJ Int'l Hum. Rts. 8 (2009): 216.
  • Trifunovic, Darko. "Islamic Radicalization process in South East Europe (Case study Bosnia)."
  • Gibas-Krzak, D. (2013). "Contemporary Terrorism in the Balkans: A Real Threat to Security in Europe". The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1080/13518046.2013.779861. 
  • Lebl, Leslie S. Islamism and Security in Bosnia-Herzegovina. ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE, 2014.

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