Orang Gujarati

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Gujaratis
ગુજરાતી
Priti Patel 2016.jpg
Priti Patel wakil rakyat di UK mewakili parti Conservative Party
Portrait Gandhi.jpg
Jumlah populasi
s. 50 million
Kawasan ramai penduduk
 India 46,091,617[1]
 United States 500,000-1,500,000[2][3][4]
 Pakistan 1,270,000[5]
 UK 615,000[6]
 Tanzania 395,000[7]
 Kenya 285,000[8][9]
 Canada 118,950[10]
 Madagascar 81,500[11]
 Malawi 53,000[12]
 Myanmar 47,000[13]
 Oman 34,900[14]
 Malaysia 31,500[15]
 Portugal 30,000[16]
 Bahrain 28,500[17]
 Mozambique 27,500[18]
 Fiji 25,000[19]
 Reunion 23,000[20]
 Uganda 16,000[21]
 Zambia 14,000[22]
 Burundi 11,500[23]
 Singapore 3,200[24]
 Rwanda 1,300[25]
 France 1,000[26]
 Maldives 1,000[27]
Bahasa
Native: Bahasa Kedua:
Agama
Sebahagian Besar:
Hindu
Minoriti:
Kumpulan etnik yang berkaitan
Bangsa Indo-Aryan

Orang Gujarati atau Gujarati (Gujarati: ગુજરાતી) adalah sebuah kumpulan ethnolinguistic Indo-Aryan India yang secara tradisinya bercakap Bahasa Gujarat, bahasa Indo-Iran. Antara orang Gujarat yang terkenal adalah Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel Vallabhai, Morarji Desai, Sam Bahadur, Vikram Sarabhai, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Shyamji Krishna Varma, Muhammed Ali Jinnah, Freddie Mercury, Azim Premji, Dhirubhai Ambani, Narendra Modi dan Jamsetji Tata. Orang Gujarati memainkan jasa yang besar dalam perjuangan kemerdekaan India dan merupakan pengasas doktrin Swaraj.[28][29][30]

Taburan Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Walaupun dengan penghijrahan besar atas sebab-sebab ekonomi, sebahagian besar Orang Gujarat di India tinggal di negeri Gujarat di Barat India. Gujarat juga membentuk sebahagian besar daripada penduduk di wilayah kesatuan kecil Daman dan Diu, dan Dadra Nagar Haveli, kedua-duanya adalah bekas jajahan Portugis. Terdapat juga masyarakat Gujarati di bahagian-bahagian lain di India, terutama sekali di Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Bangalore dan kawasan metropolitan yang lain seperti Kollam dan Kochi di Kerala.Selain itu, kaum ini juga boleh didapati di Fiji, Singapura, UK, Malaysia, Amerika Syarikat dan Kanada.

Budaya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada amamnya, Masyarakat Gujrati dikenali sebagai masyarakat yang pandai dalam perniagaan dan perdagangan. Rakyat Gujarati kebanyakannya Hindu. Terdapat juga ramai penduduk Islam, Kristian dan Jain, dan populasi kecil Buddha, Majusi, Sikh dan Yahudi

Kesusasteraan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sejarah kesusasteraan Gujarati boleh dikesan hingga 1000 Masihi. Sejak itu kesusasteraan telah berkembang sehingga kini. penerima anugerah terkenal sastera Gujarati adalah Jhaverchand Meghani, Avinash Vyas, Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Gulabdas Broker, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Mahatma Gandhi, KM Munshi, Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Pannalal Patel, Imamuddin Khanji Babi Saheb (Ruswa mazlumi), Niranjan Bhagat, Rajendra Keshavlal Shah, Raghuveer Chaudhari dan Sitanshu Yashaschandra Mehta.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2001". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 
  2. ^ Joel Millman (1998). The other Americans: how immigrants renew our country, our economy, and our values. Pennsylvania State University. m/s. 170. ISBN 9780140242171. Dicapai 28 February 2017. There are over half a million Gujarati in America today. 
  3. ^ Dan Mayur (2017). Living Dreams. Mehta Publishing House. m/s. 335. ISBN 9789386342140. Dicapai 28 February 2017. Nevertheless, the half or million so Gujaratis in the United States, referred to as Gujjus, are entrepreneurial by nature... 
  4. ^ "Gujaratis 6% of Indians, but 20% of US Indians". http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Dicapai 28 February 2017.  pautan luar dalam |website= (bantuan)
  5. ^ "Gujarati of Pakistan". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 14 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan ukncgo.org tidak disediakan
  7. ^ "Gujarati of Tanzania". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  8. ^ Raymond Brady Williams (2001). An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. University Press, Cambridge. m/s. 208. ISBN 0-521-65279-0. Dicapai 5 February 2015. Temple building is a sign of the growth in numbers and the increased prosperity of the Gujarati immigrants...The two decades between 1950 and 1969 were a heady period of success for the Gujaratis of East Africa... Michael Lyon observed that the Gujaratis acquired a new role in the colonial economics of East Africa, and ultimately a tragic one. They became a privileged racial estate under British protection. The Indian population in Kenya increased from 43,625 in 1931 to 176,613 in 1962... More than 80 percent were Gujaratis. 
  9. ^ "Gujarati Kenyans of Kenya". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  10. ^ "NHS Profile, Canada, 2011, Census Data". Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. Dicapai 4 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "Gujarati of Madagascar". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  12. ^ "Gujarati of Malawi". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  13. ^ "Gujarati of Myanmar". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  14. ^ Bharat Yagnik. "Oman was Gujaratis' first stop in their world sweep". The Times of India. Dicapai 5 February 2015. Oman's capital Muscat was the first home for Gujarati traders away from the subcontinent. The Bhatia community from Kutch was the first among all Gujaratis to settle overseas — relocating to Muscat as early as 1507! The Bhatias' settlement in the Gulf is emphasized by Hindu places of worship, seen there since the 16th century. As historian Makrand Mehta asserts, "Business and culture go together." 
  15. ^ "Gujarati of Malaysia". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  16. ^ Rita d'Ávila Cachado. "Samosas And Saris:Informal Economies In The Informal City Among Portuguese Hindu Families". Dicapai 4 February 2015. The Hindus in Great Lisbon have similarities with Hindus in the United Kingdom: they are mostly from a Gujarati background and migrated from ex-colonial countries. Yet the colonial system they came from was mostly Portuguese, both in India and in East Africa... Nevertheless, a realistic estimate is that there are about 30,000 Hindus in Portugal. That includes Hindu-Gujaratis, who migrated in the early 1980s, as well as Hindu migrants from all parts of India and Bangladesh, who migrated in the late 1990s. 
  17. ^ "Gujarati of Bahrain". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  18. ^ "Gujarati of Mozambique". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  19. ^ "Gujarati of Fiji". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  20. ^ "Gujarati of Reunion". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  21. ^ "Gujarati of Uganda". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  22. ^ "Gujarati of Zambia". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  23. ^ "Gujarati of Burundi". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  24. ^ "Gujarati of Singapore". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  25. ^ "Gujarati of Rwanda". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  26. ^ "Gujarati of France". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  27. ^ "Gujarati of Maldives". PeopleGroups.org. Dicapai 1 March 2017. 
  28. ^ M. K. Gandhi (2014). Hind Swaraj: Indian Home Rule. Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan. Dicapai 11 December 2015. 
  29. ^ Minahan, James B. (2012). Ethnic groups of South Asia and the Pacific : an encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. m/s. 90. ISBN 1598846590. Dicapai 12 December 2015. Anti-British sentiment led to a strong Gujarati participation in the Indian independence movement. 
  30. ^ Yagnik, Achyut; Sheth, Suchitra (2005). The shaping of modern Gujarat : plurality, Hindutva, and beyond. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0144000385. Dicapai 12 December 2015.