Orange County, California

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Orange County, California
Daerah Orange
The City of Newport Beach July 2014 photo D Ramey Logan.jpg
Sleeping beauty castle dlr 2019.jpgHuntington Pier Terminus.jpg
San Clemente CA Photo D Ramey Logan.jpgLaguna Beach Bucht.JPG
Imej, dari atas ke bawah, ke kiri ke kanan: Pemandangan udara dari pantai Newport Beach, Sleeping Beauty Castle di Disneyland, Huntington Beach Pier, San Clemente Pier, Laguna Beach
Bendera bagi Orange County, California
Bendera
Official seal of Orange County, California
Jata
Lokasi dalam negeri California
Lokasi dalam negeri California
Bandar dalam daerah
Bandar dalam daerah
Koordinat: 33°40′N 117°47′W / 33.67°N 117.78°W / 33.67; -117.78Koordinat: 33°40′N 117°47′W / 33.67°N 117.78°W / 33.67; -117.78
Negara Amerika Syarikat
Negeri California
KawasanLos Angeles Raya
DiperbadankanAugust 1, 1889[1]
Dinamakan untukBuah Oren, dinamakan supaya daerah itu akan kelihatan seperti wilayah semi-tropis, Mediterranean kepada orang-orang dari pantai timur[1]
Kerusi daerah Santa Ana
Bandar terbesar Anaheim (jumlah penduduk)
Irvine (area)
Kerajaan
 • Badan
Luas
 • Jumlah948 batu persegi (2,460 km2)
 • Darat799 batu persegi (2,070 km2)
 • Air157 batu persegi (410 km2)
Highest elevation5,690 ft (1,730 m)
Populasi
 • Jumlah3,010,232
 • Anggaran 
(2018)[5]
3,185,968
 • Kepadatan3,200/batu persegi (1,200/km2)
Demonym(s)Orange Countian
Zon waktuUTC−8 (Zon Masa Lautan Pasifik)
 • Musim panas (DST)UTC−7 (Waktu Siang Pasifik)
Kod kawasan562, 657/714, 949
GDP$230 billion[6]
Laman webocgov.com

Orange County adalah sebuah daerah yang terletak di kawasan metropolitan Los Angeles di negeri A.S. di California. Sehingga banci 2010, penduduknya ialah 3,010,232,[4] menjadikannya daerah ketiga paling ramai penduduk di California, paling ramai penduduk di A.S., dan lebih ramai penduduk daripada 21 buah negeri A.S..[7] Walaupun kebanyakan pinggiran bandar, ia adalah daerah paling padat kedua yang kedua di negeri ini, di belakang San Francisco County.[8] Empat bandar paling ramai di wilayah ini, Anaheim, Santa Ana (kerusi daerah)[9] Irvine, dan Huntington Beach, masing-masing mempunyai penduduk melebihi 200,000. Beberapa bandar di pesisiran pantai Pasifik, termasuk Pantai Huntington, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, dan San Clemente.

Orange County dimasukkan ke dalam Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim Kawasan Statistik Metropolitan. Wilayah ini mempunyai 34 bandar diperbadankan. Bandar lama seperti Santa Ana, Anaheim, dan Fullerton mempunyai pusat bandar tradisional sejak abad ke-19, sementara pembangunan komersil yang lebih baru atau " bandar pinggiran" sepanjang I-5 antara Disneyland dan Santa Ana dan antara South Coast Plaza dan Kompleks Perniagaan Irvine, dan kelompok di Irvine Spectrum. Utara dan Tengah Orange County, sementara rumah keluarga tunggal masih lazim, agak lebih urbanized dan padat, sementara di luar Irvine, daerah ini agak kurang padat, walaupun masih bersebelahan, pinggir bandar dan tidak exurban.

Wilayah ini adalah pusat pelancongan, dengan tarikan seperti Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, dan beberapa pantai yang popular di sepanjang lebih dari 40 batu (64 km).

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peta Orange County, 1921
Laguna Beach (dengan pantai Newport di latar belakang).

Ahli-ahli kumpulan Orang Asli Amerika Tongva, Juaneño, dan Luiseño telah lama mendiami kawasan tersebut. Selepas ekspedisi 1769 Gaspar de Portolà, ekspedisi Sepanyol yang diketuai oleh Junipero Serra menamakan kawasan Valle de Santa Ana (Lembah Saint Anne).[10] Pada 1 November 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano menjadi penyelesaian pertama Eropah yang pertama. Antara mereka yang datang bersama Portolá ialah José Manuel Nieto dan José Antonio Yorba. Kedua-dua lelaki ini diberi geran tanah—Rancho Los Nietos dan Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, masing-masing. Para ahli waris Nieto diberikan tanah pada 1834. Ladang Nieto dikenali sebagai Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, dan Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba pewaris Bernardo Yorba dan Teodosio Yorba juga diberikan Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana (Ladang Ternak Ngarai Santa Ana) dan Rancho Lomas de Santiago, masing-masing. Rancho lain di Orange County telah diberikan oleh kerajaan Mexico semasa tempoh Mexico di Alta California.[11]

Kemarau yang teruk pada tahun 1860-an merosakkan industri semasa, peternakan lembu, dan banyak tanah datang ke dalam milik Richard O'Neill, Sr.,[12] James Irvine dan baron tanah lain. Pada tahun 1887, perak telah ditemui di Santa Ana Mountains, menarik peneroka melalui Santa Fe dan Landasan Kereta Api Pasifik Selatan.

Los Angeles County sebelum pengasingan Orange County pada tahun 1889

Selepas beberapa percubaan gagal dalam sesi terdahulu, badan perundangan California meluluskan rang undang-undang yang membenarkan bahagian Los Angeles County di selatan Coyote Creek untuk mengadakan referendum mengenai sama ada untuk kekal sebahagian daripada Los Angeles County atau untuk mengasingkan dan membentuk sebuah daerah baru yang dinamakan " Orange "seperti yang diarahkan oleh badan perundangan. Pungutan suara sedemikian memerlukan undi 2/3 untuk pemisahan, dan seterusnya pada 4 Jun 1889, penduduk di selatan Coyote Creek mengundi 2,509 hingga 500 memihak kepada pemisahan. Selepas referendum itu, Los Angeles County memfailkan tiga tindakan undang-undang di mahkamah untuk menghentikan dan menghentikan pemisahan itu daripada berlaku, tetapi percubaan itu sia-sia. Pada 17 Julai 1889, satu referendum kedua diadakan di selatan Coyote Creek untuk menentukan sama ada kerusi daerah daerah menjadi sama ada di Anaheim atau Santa Ana, bersama-sama dengan pilihan raya untuk setiap pegawai daerah. Pada akhirnya, Santa Ana mengalahkan Anaheim dalam referendum tersebut dan dipilih sebagai pegawai yang bersandar, dengan beberapa, termasuk salah satu pelobi utama untuk penciptaan daerah, Henry W. Head, yang dipilih kepada Lembaga Pengawas ketika menjadi anggota Ku Klux Klan (walaupun "Klan tidak semestinya wujud pada masa ini, dengan Bedford [Nathan Bedford Forrest, Grand Wizard of the Klan] secara rasmi memberitahu Klan untuk membubarkan dan membakar semua barang."),[13] dengan anak lelaki Head, Horace Head, yang dipilih sebagai Peguam Daerah tidak lama lagi menjadi daerah, yang dikenali, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh OC Weekly, mengancam "setiap orang Meksiko yang berjalan di depan rumah mereka dengan senapang patah ketika tidak membakar salib di depan rumput, "Bersama dengan Horace Head yang menyokong dan mempertahankan pertalian ayahnya dengan Ku Klux Klan. Dengan referendum yang berlaku, County Orange secara rasmi diperbadankan pada 1 Ogos 1889, sebagaimana yang ditetapkan oleh undang-undang negara.[14] Sejak tarikh pembentukan daerah itu, satu-satunya perubahan geografi yang telah berlaku yang menjejaskan Orange County adalah apabila County dan County Los Angeles bersetuju untuk memperdagangkan tanah di sekitar Coyote Creek untuk menyesuaikan sempadan kedua-dua daerah untuk mematuhi blok bandar.[13][15]

Daerah itu dikatakan telah dinamakan untuk buah jeruk dalam usaha untuk mempromosikan imigrasi dengan mencadangkan syurga semi-tropika – tempat di mana pun dapat berkembang.[16]

Salah satu ladang yang tersisa berhampiran lautan, 1975. Gambar oleh Charles O'Rear.

Tanaman sitrus lain, alpukat, dan ekstraksi minyak juga penting untuk ekonomi awal. Orange County mendapat manfaat dari 4 Julai 1904, menyiapkan Pacific Electric Railway, sebuah troli yang menghubungkan Los Angeles dengan Santa Ana dan Newport Beach. Pautan yang dibuat Orange County boleh dijadikan tempat percutian hujung minggu untuk selebriti Hollywood awal. Ia dianggap sangat penting bahawa Pasifik menukar namanya ke Huntington Beach untuk menghormati Henry E. Huntington, presiden Pacific Electric dan anak buah Collis Huntington. Pengangkutan semakin bertambah dengan menyelesaikan Laluan Negara dan Laluan A.S. 101 (kini kebanyakannya Interstate 5) pada tahun 1920-an.

Pertanian, seperti yang melibatkan boysenberries yang dibuat terkenal oleh orang asal Buena Park Walter Knott, mula merosot selepas Perang Dunia II. Walau bagaimanapun, kemakmuran daerah melonjak pada masa ini. Penyiapan Interstate 5 pada tahun 1954 membantu menjadikan Orange County sebuah bilik tidur komuniti bagi banyak orang yang berpindah ke California Selatan untuk bekerja dalam bidang aeroangkasa dan pembuatan. Orange County menerima rangsangan lebih lanjut pada tahun 1955 dengan pembukaan Disneyland.

Pada tahun 1969, anak kelahiran kelahiran Yorba Linda yang berasal dari Orange County, Richard Nixon menjadi Presiden Amerika Syarikat ke-37.

Pada tahun 1980-an, Orange County telah menjadi daerah kedua paling ramai penduduk di California kerana penduduk menduduki dua juta untuk pertama kalinya.

Pada tahun 1994, krisis dana pelaburan membawa kepada pendakwaan jenayah bendahari Robert Citron. Daerah ini kehilangan sekurang-kurangnya $1.5 bilion melalui pelaburan berisiko tinggi dalam bon. Kerugian itu dipersalahkan atas derivatif oleh beberapa laporan media. Pada 6 Disember 1994, County Orange diisytiharkan kemuflisan Bab 9,[17] yang mana ia muncul pada 12 Jun, 1996.[18] Kemuflisan Orange County pada masa itu kebankrapan perbandaran terbesar dalam sejarah A.S.[17]

Dalam tahun-tahun kebelakangan ini, konflik kegunaan tanah telah timbul antara kawasan yang ditubuhkan di utara dan kurang maju di selatan. Konflik-konflik ini telah menimbulkan isu-isu seperti pembinaan jalan tol baru dan menaikkan semula pangkalan udara yang dibatalkan. Stesen Udara Marin Corp El Toro telah ditetapkan oleh langkah pengundi pada tahun 1994 untuk dibangunkan menjadi lapangan terbang antarabangsa untuk melengkapi Lapangan Terbang John Wayne yang sedia ada. Tetapi inisiatif pengundi dan tindakan pengadilan yang berikutnya telah menyebabkan pelan lapangan terbang ditangguhkan secara kekal. Sebaliknya, ia menjadi Taman Besar Orange County.[19]

Geography[sunting | sunting sumber]

Three Arch Bay in Laguna Beach, Southern Orange County
Aerial view of an edge city: Irvine Business Complex (top), John Wayne Airport runway (upper center), South Coast Metro buildings (lower center) and below, the South Coast Plaza mall

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 948 batu persegi (2,460 km2), of which 791 batu persegi (2,050 km2) is land and 157 batu persegi (410 km2) (16.6%) is water.[20] It is the smallest county by area in Southern California. The average annual temperature is about 68 °F (20 °C).

Orange County is bordered on the southwest by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Los Angeles County, on the northeast by San Bernardino County, on the east by Riverside County, and on the southeast by San Diego County.

The northwestern part of the county lies on the coastal plain of the Los Angeles Basin, while the southeastern end rises into the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains. Most of Orange County's population reside in one of two shallow coastal valleys that lie in the basin, the Santa Ana Valley and the Saddleback Valley. The Santa Ana Mountains lie within the eastern boundaries of the county and of the Cleveland National Forest. The high point is Santiago Peak (5,689 kaki (1,734 m)[21]), about 20 bt (32 km) east of Santa Ana. Santiago Peak and nearby Modjeska Peak, just 200 kaki (60 m) shorter, form a ridge known as Saddleback, visible from almost everywhere in the county. The Peralta Hills extend westward from the Santa Ana Mountains through the communities of Anaheim Hills, Orange, and ending in Olive. The Loma Ridge is another prominent feature, running parallel to the Santa Ana Mountains through the central part of the county, separated from the taller mountains to the east by Santiago Canyon.

The Santa Ana River is the county's principal watercourse, flowing through the middle of the county from northeast to southwest. Its major tributary to the south and east is Santiago Creek. Other watercourses within the county include Aliso Creek, San Juan Creek, and Horsethief Creek. In the North, the San Gabriel River also briefly crosses into Orange County and exits into the Pacific on the Los Angeles-Orange County line between the cities of Long Beach and Seal Beach. Laguna Beach is home to the county's only natural lakes, Laguna Lakes, which are formed by water rising up against an underground fault.

Regions of Orange County[sunting | sunting sumber]

Orange County is sometimes divided into northern and southern regions. There are significant political, demographic, economic and cultural distinctions between North and South Orange County.[22] A popular dividing line between the two regions is the Costa Mesa Freeway.

North Orange County, including Anaheim, Fullerton and Santa Ana, was the first part of the county to be developed and is culturally closer to neighboring Los Angeles County. This region is more Hispanic (mostly Mexican) and Asian (predominantly Vietnamese and Korean)[23], more densely populated (Santa Ana is the fifth most densely-populated city in the United States with a population of over 200,000), younger, less wealthy and with higher unemployment. It has more renters, fewer homeowners and more registered Democrats as opposed to Republicans. There are notable exceptions to these general trends, such as strongly Republican Yorba Linda and affluent Anaheim Hills and Villa Park.[22] North Orange County is predominantly flat, giving way to the Santa Ana Mountains in the Northeast.

South Orange County is more residential, wealthier, more Republican, less racially diverse and more recently developed. Irvine, the largest city in the region, is an exception to some of these trends, being a major employment center and having an Asian plurality (although Irvine's Asian population tends to be East Asian rather than Southeast Asian). South Orange County almost always includes Irvine,[24] Newport Beach, and the cities to their southeast, including Laguna Beach, Mission Viejo, and San Clemente. Costa Mesa is sometimes included in South County,[25] although it is located predominantly to the west of the Costa Mesa Freeway.[26] Irvine is located in a valley defined by the Santa Ana Mountains and the San Joaquin Hills, while much of South Orange County is very hilly.

Another region of Orange County is the Orange Coast, which includes the six cities bordering the Pacific Ocean. These are (from northwest to southeast): Seal Beach, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point and San Clemente.

Commercial clusters — edge cities[sunting | sunting sumber]

Older cities like Santa Ana, Anaheim, and Fullerton have traditional downtowns dating back to the 19th century, with Downtown Santa Ana being the home of the county, state and federal institutions. However, far more commercial activity is concentrated in clusters of newer commercial development are found in the county's edge cities, the three largest being

Anaheim—Santa Ana edge city[sunting | sunting sumber]

Major facilities in the Anaheim–Santa Ana edge city, plus the locations of the adjacent downtowns

A contiguous strip of commercial development (an edge city) stretches from Disneyland through to MainPlace Mall along the I-5 Santa Ana Freeway,[27][28][29][30][31] straddling the city limits of Anaheim, Garden Grove, Orange, and Santa Ana, and in fact stretching between the original downtowns of those four cities.

Entertainment and cultural facilities include Disneyland Resort, Angel Stadium, Christ Cathedral (formerly Crystal Cathedral), City National Grove of Anaheim - a live concert venue, Discovery Cube Orange County, the Honda Center - home to the Anaheim Ducks of the NHL (National Hockey League), and the Anaheim Convention Center. Health care facilities include CHOC (Children's Hospital of Orange County), Kaiser Permanente Health Pavilion (Anaheim), St. Joseph Hospital (Orange), and the UCI Medical Center.

Retail complexes include Anaheim GardenWalk, Anaheim Marketplace (claiming to be the largest indoor swap meet in Orange County with more than 200 vendors), MainPlace Mall, Orange Town & Country, and The Outlets at Orange, originally a mall named "The City" which was the centerpiece of a planned, 1970s mixed-use development by the same name. There is commercial strip-style development including big box retailers along West Chapman Avenue in Orange (Marshalls, Ralphs), along Harbor Boulevard in Garden Grove (Burlington, Ross Dress for Less), and around Harbor Blvd. and Chapman Ave. in Anaheim (Target).

Major hotels line Harbor Boulevard from Disneyland south to Garden Grove: Grand Legacy at the Park, Hilton, Marriott, Courtyard, DoubleTree Suites, Hampton Inn, Hilton Garden Inn, Homewood Suites, Embassy Suites, Residence Inn, Hyatt Regency, Marriott Suites, Sheraton, and the Great Wolf Lodge. The Orange County Transit Authority studied the corridor as the possible route for a streetcar, a proposal that was dropped in 2018 due to opposition from Anaheim and other city governments.[32]

In addition to suburban-style apartment complexes, Anaheim's Platinum Triangle is undergoing transformation from a low-density commercial and industrial zone into a more urban environment with high-density housing, commercial office towers, and retail space. Anaheim envisions it as a "downtown for Orange County".[33] The 820 ekar (330 he) area undergoing this large-scale redevelopment includes the city's two major sports venues, the Honda Center and Angel Stadium of Anaheim.[34]

National protected areas[sunting | sunting sumber]

Demografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

2018[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penduduk, bangsa, dan pendapatan
Jumlah penduduk[35] 3,185,968
  Orang Putih[35] 71.5%
  Orang Putih bukan Hispanik[35] 40.1%
  Orang Hitam atau Amerika Afrika[35] 2.1%
  Orang Asli Amerika atau Asli Alaska[35] 1.0%
  Orang Asia[35] 21.4%
  Orang Asli Hawaii atau Pulau Pasifik[35] 0.4%
 Orang Hispanik atau Latino (dari mana-mana bangsa)[36] 34.2%
Pendapatan dolar per kapita 2013-7 pada tahun 2018[36] $37,603
Pendapatan dolar isi rumah median 2013-7 pada tahun 2018[perlu rujukan] $81,851

2011[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tempat mengikut jumlah penduduk, kaum, dan pendapatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

2010[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:US Census population

Peta Kawalan Orange County. Warna gelap menunjukkan kawasan lebih padat penduduknya.

Banci Amerika Syarikat melaporkan bahawa Orange County mempunyai jumlah penduduk 3,010,232. Cermin perkauman Orange County adalah 1,830,758 (60.8%) orang putih (44.0% orang putih bukan Hispanik), 50,744 (1.7%) orang Amerika Afrika, 18,132 (0.6%) orang Amerika Asli, 537,804 (17.9%) Orang Asia (Banci Amerika Syarikat), 9,354 (0.3% 435,641 (14.5%) dari kaum lain, dan 127,799 (4.2%) dari dua atau lebih kaum. Orang Hispanik atau orang Latino dari mana-mana kaum adalah 1,012,973 orang (33.7%).[44]

Populasi Hispanik dan Latin kebanyakannya berasal dari Mexico; kumpulan ini menyumbang 28.5% penduduk daerah, diikuti oleh Salvadorans (0.8%), Guatemala (0.5%), Puerto Ricans (0.4%), Kuba (0.3%), Colombia (0.3%), dan Peru (0.3% .[45] Santa Ana with its population reportedly 75 percent Hispanic/Latino, is among the most Hispanic/Latino percentage cities in both California and the U.S., esp. of Mexican-American descent.[46] See also Logan Park (Santa Ana), the city's largest and oldest barrio.

Di kalangan penduduk Asia, 6.1% adalah orang Vietnam, diikuti oleh Korea (2.9%), Cina (2.7%), Filipina (2.4%), India (1.4%), Jepun (1.1%), Kemboja (0.2%) Pakistan %), Thailand (0.1%), Indonesia (0.1%), dan orang Laos (0.1%). Menurut KPCC pada tahun 2014, Orange County mempunyai bahagian terbesar penduduk Asia Amerika di California Selatan, di mana satu daripada lima penduduk Asia Amerika.[47] Terdapat juga penduduk Islam yang penting di daerah itu.[48]

2000[sunting | sunting sumber]

As of the census[49] of 2000, there were 2,846,289 people, 935,287 households, and 667,794 families living in the county, making Orange County the second most populous county in California. The population density was 1,392/km2 (3,606/sq mi). There were 969,484 housing units at an average density of 474/km2 (1,228/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 64.8% White, 13.6% Asian, 1.7% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 14.8% from other races, and 4.1% from two or more races. 30.8% are Hispanic or Latino of any race. 8.9% were of German, 6.9% English and 6.0% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 58.6% spoke only English at home; 25.3% spoke Spanish, 4.7% Vietnamese, 1.9% Korean, 1.5% Chinese (Cantonese or Mandarin) and 1.2% Tagalog.

In 1990, still according to the census[50] there were 2,410,556 people living in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 78.6% White, 10.3% Asian or Pacific Islander, 1.8% African American, 0.5% Native American, and 8.8% from other races. 23.4% were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Out of 935,287 households, 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% married couples were living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.6% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48.

Ethnic change has been transforming the population. By 2009, nearly 45 percent of the residents spoke a language other than English at home. Whites now comprise only 45 percent of the population, while the numbers of Hispanics grow steadily, along with Vietnamese, Korean and Chinese families. The percentage of foreign-born residents jumped to 30 percent in 2008 from 6 percent in 1970. The mayor of Irvine, Sukhee Kang, was born in Korea, making him the first Korean-American to run a major American city. “We have 35 languages spoken in our city,” Kang observed.[51] The population is diverse age-wise, with 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.9% 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.7 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $61,899, and the median income for a family was $75,700 (these figures had risen to $71,601 and $81,260 respectively as of a 2007 estimate[52]). Males had a median income of $45,059 versus $34,026 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,826. About 7.0% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over.

Residents of Orange County are known as "Orange Countians".[53]

Agama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada tahun 2014, daerah ini mempunyai 1,075 pertubuhan keagamaan, yang paling keenam daripada semua wilayah AS.[54]

Orange County adalah asas untuk beberapa organisasi keagamaan:

Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bisines[sunting | sunting sumber]

Membangun teras bandar di Bandar Irvine.

Orange County adalah ibu pejabat banyak syarikat Fortune 500 termasuk Ingram Micro (#218) dan First American Corporation (#361) di Santa Ana, Broadcom (#150) di Irvine, Western Digital (#152) di Lake Forest, dan Pacific Life (#298) di Newport Beach. Irvine adalah rumah dari banyak syarikat permulaan dan juga merupakan rumah ibu pejabat Fortune 1000 untuk Allergan, Edwards Lifesciences, Epicor, dan Sun Healthcare Group. Lain-lain Fortune 1000 syarikat di Orange County termasuk Beckman Coulter di Brea, Quiksilver di Huntington Beach dan Apria Healthcare Group di Lake Forest. Irvine juga merupakan syarikat teknologi terkenal seperti pembuat PC Gateway Inc., pengilang penghantar Linksys, pembuat video / komputer Blizzard Entertainment, dan pengeluar produk dalam pesawat Panasonic Avionics Corporation. Juga, Mercedes-Benz Classic Center USA yang berprestij terletak di City of Irvine. Banyak ibu pejabat serantau untuk perniagaan antarabangsa yang tinggal di Orange County seperti Mazda, Toshiba, Toyota, Samsung, Kia, di City of Irvine, Mitsubishi di Kota Cypress, Kawasaki Motors di Foothill Ranch, dan Hyundai di City of Fountain Valley. Fesyen adalah satu lagi industri penting untuk Orange County. Oakley, Inc. beribu pejabat di Lake Forest. Hurley International beribu pejabat di Costa Mesa. Kedua-dua firma keselamatan siber rangkaian Milton Security Group dan syarikat kasut Pleaser USA, Inc. terletak di Fullerton. St. John beribu pejabat di Irvine. Tustin, adalah rumah kepada Ricoh Elektronik, Pembiayaan Baru Amerika, dan Safmarine. Wet Wet beribu pejabat di Lake Forest. PacSun beribu pejabat di Anaheim.[63] Restoran seperti Taco Bell, El Pollo Loco, Burger In-N-Out, Jumper Klaim, Marie Callender, Wienerschnitzel ibu pejabat di bandar Irvine juga. Del Taco beribu pejabat di Lake Forest. Gaikai juga mempunyai ibu pejabatnya di Orange County.

Membeli belah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Belanja di Orange County berpusat di sekitar pusat membeli-belah serantau, kotak besar pusat kuasa dan pusat membeli-belah yang lebih kecil. South Coast Plaza di Costa Mesa adalah pusat membeli-belah terbesar di California, yang ketiga terbesar di Amerika Syarikat, dan 31 terbesar di dunia. Pusat perbelanjaan serantau lain termasuk (dari utara ke selatan): Brea Mall, Village at Orange, Outlets at Orange, MainPlace Santa Ana, Westminster Mall, Bella Terra di Huntington Beach, Tustin dan Irvine , Irvine Spectrum Centre, Fesyen Pulau di Newport Beach, Lima Lagunas dan The Shops at Mission Viejo. Downtown Disney dan Anaheim GardenWalk adalah pusat membeli-belah dan hiburan khusus yang bertujuan untuk pengunjung. Pusat kuasa termasuk La Habra Marketplace, Anaheim Plaza dan Anaheim Town Square. Terdapat satu pusat membeli-belah utama, The Outlet di San Clemente.[64]

Pelancongan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pelancongan kekal sebagai aspek penting dalam ekonomi Orange County. Anaheim adalah pusat pelancongan utama, dengan Disneyland Resort di Disneyland menjadi taman tema kedua yang paling banyak dikunjungi di dunia. Juga, Knotts Berry Farm mendapat sekitar 7 juta pelawat setiap tahun dan terletak di bandar Buena Park. Pusat Konvensyen Anaheim memegang banyak konvensyen utama sepanjang tahun. Resorts di Pantai Bandar menerima pengunjung sepanjang tahun kerana berdekatan dengan pantai, laluan berbasikal, laluan mendaki gunung, padang golf, membeli-belah dan makan.

Budaya makanan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Seperti yang baru-baru ini sebagai tahun 1990-an, restoran-restoran memenangi anugerah di Orange County kebanyakannya terdiri daripada restoran-restoran rantaian nasional dengan makanan keselesaan tradisional Amerika atau Tex-Mex. Pada akhir 1990-an, Tim dan Liza Goodell dengan chef Florent Marneau, dan David Wilhelm, menubuhkan kumpulan masakan masakan yang memaparkan masakan nouvelle, burger gourmet dan banyak lagi. Pendaftaran Orange County menyatakan bahawa "titik tip" datang pada tahun 2007 apabila Marneaus mengasaskan Marché Moderne (sejak berpindah ke Crystal Cove), dan Chef Top tukang masak Amar Santana membuka cabang Charlie Palmer (ditutup 2015),[65] kedua-duanya di South Coast Plaza. Santana menyusul pembukaan restoran Broadway dan Vaca. Chef Top Chef lain diikuti dengan restoran mereka sendiri termasuk Brian Huskey (Tackle Box), Shirley Chung (Dua Puluh Lapan), Jamie Gwen dari Cutthroat Kitchen, dan dari The Great Food Truck Race, Jason Quinn (tukang masak) (Playground), yang juga membuka tiga berdiri di 4th Street Market[66] food hall in Downtown Santa Ana in 2016.[67]

Dewan makan dengan vendor gourmet termasuk 42,000-kaki-persegi (3,900 m2) Anaheim Packing District, Pasar Jalan ke-4 di Downtown Santa Ana, Lot 579 Huntington Beach, Dewan Makanan Perdagangan di Irvine,[68] OC Mix di Costa Mesa, dan Sumber OC di Buena Park.[69]

Pada 2019, Panduan Michelin memberi bintang untuk pertama kalinya ke restoran Orange County, menganugerahkan Hana Re dan Taco Maria setiap bintang.[70]

Orang yang terkenal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Other = Some other race + Two or more races
  2. ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kategori berkenaan Orange County, California di Wikimedia Commons

Templat:Cities of Orange County, California Templat:Orange County major watersheds Templat:Los Angeles Metropolitan Area Templat:Greater Los Angeles Area Templat:California Templat:Western U.S. majority-minority counties