Parti Konservatif (UK)

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Parti Konservatif
Conservative Party
Ketua Theresa May
Pengerusi Patrick McLoughlin
Diasaskan Bersejarah 1678,
Moden 1912
Ibu pejabat Conservative Campaign Headquarters, 30 Millbank, London, SW1P 4DP
Ideologi Umum:
Konservatisme,
Kesatuan British,
Puak dalaman:[1]
Konservatisme liberal,[2]
Libertarianisme,
Konservatisme satu negara,
Thatcherisme,
Konservatisme tradisionalis
Kedudukan politik Pertengahan kanan
Penggabungan antarabangsa International Democrat Union
Penggabungan Eropah Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists
Kumpulan Parlimen Eropah European Conservatives and Reformists
Warna rasmi Biru  
Dewan Rakyat
317 / 650
Dewan Pertuanan
250 / 724
Parlimen Eropah
20 / 73
Dewan Undangan London
8 / 25
Parlimen Scotland
31 / 129
Dewan Undangan Wales
12 / 60
Kerajaan tempatan[3][4]
9,405 / 21,871
Tapak web
http://www.conservatives.com/
Politik United Kingdom
Parti politik
Pilihan raya

Parti Konservatif, juga dikenali sebagai Parti Kesatuan dan Konservatif, merupakan parti berhaluan tengah-kanan dan kerap kali memenangi di dalam pilihan raya umum United Kingdom.

Pada pilihan raya umum United Kingdom 2017, Parti Konservatif memperoleh jumlah kerusi terbesar walaupun kehilangan majoriti untuk memerintah. Namun begitu, Parti Konservatif berjaya menubuhkan kerajaan campuran bersama Parti Kesatuan Demokratik (DUP) dari Ireland Utara. Pemimpin Parti Konservatif, Theresa May merupakan Perdana Menteri United Kingdom yang terkini. Beliau dilantik sebagai Perdana Menteri sejak 13 Julai 2016. Parti Konservatif merupakan antara dua parti yang paling berpengaruh di United Kingdom selain daripada Parti Buruh. Parti Konservatif merupakan parti kedua terbesar di Parlimen Scotland dan parti terbesar di Parlimen Ireland Utara. Parti Konservatif juga merupakan parti utama di Wilayah Seberang Laut Britain di Gibraltar.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Keputusan pilihan raya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Parlimen United Kingdom
Pilihan raya umum Pemimpin Undi Kerusi kedudukan Kerajaan
#  % # ±
1835 Sir Robert Peel 261,269 40.8%
273 / 658
98 2 Whig (Whig)
1837 Sir Robert Peel 379,694 48.3%
314 / 658
41 2 Whig (Whig)
1841 Sir Robert Peel 379,694 56.9%
367 / 658
53 1 (Konservatif)
1847 The Earl of Derby 205,481 42.7%
325 / 656
Includes Peelites
42 1 Whig (Whig)
1852 The Earl of Derby 311,481 41.9%
330 / 654
Includes Peelites
5 1 (Konservatif)
1857 The Earl of Derby 239,712 34.0%
264 / 654
66 2 Whig (Whig)
1859 The Earl of Derby 193,232 34.3%
298 / 654
34 2 Whig (Whig)
1865 The Earl of Derby 346,035 40.5%
289 / 658
9 2 Liberal (Liberal)
1868[fn 1] Benjamin Disraeli 903,318 38.4%
271 / 658
18 2 Liberal (Liberal)
1874 Benjamin Disraeli 1,091,708 44.3%
350 / 652
79 1 (Konservatif)
1880 The Earl of Beaconsfield 1,462,351 42.5%
237 / 652
113 2 Liberal (Liberal)
1885[fn 2] Lord Salisbury 2,020,927 43.5%
247 / 670
10 2 Liberal minority (Liberal-Konservatif
1886 Lord Salisbury 1,520,886 51.1%
317 / 670
70 1 (Kesatuan Liberal)
1892 Lord Salisbury 2,159,150 47.0%
268 / 670
49 2 Liberal (Liberal)
1895 Lord Salisbury 1,894,772 49.0%
340 / 670
72 1 (Kesatuan Liberal)
1900 Lord Salisbury 1,767,958 50.3%
335 / 670
5 1 (Kesatuan Liberal)
1906 Arthur Balfour 2,422,071 43.4%
131 / 670
204 2 Liberal (Liberal)
Januari 1910 Arthur Balfour 3,104,407 46.8%
240 / 670
109 2 Liberal minority (Liberal-Konservatif)
Disember 1910 Arthur Balfour 2,420,169 46.6%
235 / 670
5 2 Liberal minority (Liberal-Konservatif)
Bergabung dengan Liberal Unionist Party pada tahun 1912 dan membentuk Conservative and Unionist Party
1918[fn 3] Bonar Law 3,472,738 33.3%
379 / 707
332 elected with Coupon
108 1 (Liberal-Konservatif)
1922 Bonar Law 5,294,465 38.5%
344 / 615
35 1 (Konservatif)
1923 Stanley Baldwin 5,286,159 38.0%
258 / 625
86 1 Labour minority (Buruh-Konservatif)
1924 Stanley Baldwin 7,418,983 46.8%
412 / 615
124 1 (Konservatif)
1929[fn 4] Stanley Baldwin 8,252,527 38.1%
260 / 615
152 2 Labour minority (Buruh-Konservatif)
1931 Stanley Baldwin 11,377,022 55.0%
470 / 615
210 1 (Konservatif-Buruh Kebangsaan)
1935 Stanley Baldwin 10,025,083 47.8%
386 / 615
83 1 (Konservatif-Buruh Kebangsaan)
1945 Winston Churchill 8,716,211 36.2%
197 / 640
189 2 Labour (Buruh)
1950 Winston Churchill 11,507,061 40.0%
282 / 625
85 2 Labour (Buruh)
1951 Winston Churchill 13,724,418 48.0%
302 / 625
20 1 (Konservatif-Liberal Kebangsaan)
1955 Anthony Eden 13,310,891 49.7%
324 / 630
22 1 (Konservatif-Liberal Kebangsaan)
1959 Harold Macmillan 13,750,875 49.4%
345 / 630
21 1 (Konservatif-Liberal Kebangsaan)
1964 Sir Alec Douglas-Home 12,002,642 43.4%
298 / 630
47 2 Labour (Buruh)
1966 Edward Heath 11,418,455 41.9%
250 / 630
48 2 Labour (Buruh)
1970[fn 5] Edward Heath 13,145,123 46.4%
330 / 630
80 1 (Konservatif)
Februari 1974 Edward Heath 11,872,180 37.9%
297 / 635
33 2 Labour minority (Buruh-Konservatif)
Oktober 1974 Edward Heath 10,462,565 35.8%
277 / 635
20 2 Labour (Buruh)
1979 Margaret Thatcher 13,697,923 43.9%
339 / 635
62 1 (Konservatif)
1983 Margaret Thatcher 13,012,316 42.4%
397 / 650
38 1 (Konservatif)
1987 Margaret Thatcher 13,760,935 42.2%
376 / 650
21 1 (Konservatif)
1992 John Major 14,093,007 41.9%
336 / 651
40 1 (Konservatif)
1997 John Major 9,600,943 30.7%
165 / 659
171 2 Labour (Buruh)
2001 William Hague 8,357,615 31.7%
166 / 659
1 2 Labour (Buruh)
2005 Michael Howard 8,785,941 32.4%
198 / 646
32 2 Labour (Buruh)
2010 David Cameron 10,704,647 36.1%
306 / 650
108 1 (Konservatif-Liberal Demokratik)
2015 David Cameron 11,334,920 36.9%
330 / 650
24 1 (Konservatif)
2017 Theresa May 13,632,914 42.3%
317 / 650
13 1 (Konservatif–DUP)
Nota
  1. ^ Pilihan raya pertama di bawah Akta Pembaharuan 1867.
  2. ^ Pilihan raya pertama di bawah Akta Perwakilan Rakyat 1884 dan Akta Pengagihan Kerusi 1885.
  3. ^ Pilihan raya pertama di bawah Akta Perwakilan Rakyat Tahun 1918 yang membenarkan kaum lelaki berumur 21 tahun dan keatas dan kaum perempuan berumur 30 tahun fmdan keatas boleh mengundi.
  4. ^ Pilihan raya pertama di bawah Akta Perwakilan Rakyat 1928 yang membenarkan kaum wanita berumur 21 tahun dan keatas mengundi.
  5. ^ Had umur rakyat Britain untuk mengundi digubal dari umur 18 hingga 20 tahun dan keatas di bawah Akta Perwailan Rakyat 1969.

Hubungan diplomatik antara United Kingdom dan Malaysia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menurut Tunku Zain Al-'Abidin ibni Tuanku Muhriz daripada IDEAS menyatakan beberapa orang pemimpin Parti Konservatif juga membantu Malaysia selepas Perang Dunia Kedua. Antaranya David Gammans dan Lord Marchwood berjasa menolong para pejuang kemerdekaan menentang Malayan Union. Malaysia menandatangani Perjanjian Pertahanan Lima Negara dengan Perdana Menteri daripada Parti Konservatif Edward Heath. Perjanjian ini terus memberi manfaat kepada negara Malaysia. Margaret Thatcher dan John Major pernah melawat Malaysia semasa menjadi Perdana Menteri United Kingdom. Malangnya Tony Blair, bekas Perdana Menteri Parti Buruh hanya melawat Malaysia setelah pencen. Malah Tony Blair menyokong George W. Bush habis-habisan semasa mahu menjajah Iraq pada 2003.

Prinsip 1Malaysia juga menyamai konsep "Konservatisme Satu Negara (One Nation Conservatism)" yang diperkenalkan oleh Margaret Thatcher. Pada 1986, Margaret Thatcher menyatakan dasar Penswastaan dipelajari dan dikuti dari Malaysia hingga ke Mexico.

Dasar liberalisasi pasaran di Britain yang dipelopori oleh Margaret Thatcher membawa kepada pembangunan yang pesat. Margaret Thatcher berjaya menyekat penganut fahaman sosialis dan marxist dalam pelbagai kesatuan sekerja yang cuba menghalang pembangunan.[5]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Andrew Sparrow (17 Disember 2009). "Only 12% of Tory MPs choose Cameronism as political philosophy". The Guardian. London. 
  2. ^ Pemimpin parti kini David Cameron menyatakan yang beliau seorang konservatif liberal (James Kirkup (3 September 2008). "David Cameron rejects neo-conservative foreign policy". Telegraph.co.uk. London. Dicapai pada 2 Julai 2009. )
  3. ^ Keith Edkins (30 November 2009). "Local Council Political Compositions". Dicapai pada 2 Disember 2009. 
  4. ^ Nicholas Whyte (10 Mei 2005). "The 2005 Local Government Elections in Northern Ireland". Northern Ireland Social and Political Archive. Dicapai pada 2 Disember 2009. 
  5. ^ Eratkan hubungan dengan Parti Konservatif

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bale, Tim (2011). The Conservative Party: From Thatcher to Cameron. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-4858-3. 
Blake, Robert (2011). The Conservative Party from Peel to Major (edisi 4th). London: Faber Finds. 
Bulmer-Thomas, Ivor. The Growth of the British Party System Volume I: 1640–1923 (1965); The Growth of the British Party System Volume II: 1924–1964, revised to 1966 Conservative-Labour Confrontation (1967)
Evans, Eric J. (2004). Thatcher and Thatcherism. 
Garnett, Mark, and Philip Lynch. The conservatives in crisis: the Tories after 1997 (1994)
Paterson, David (2001). Liberalism and Conservatism, 1846–1905. 

Lain-lain rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bale, Tim. The Conservatives since 1945: the Drivers of Party Change. (2012, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-923437-0)
  • Beer, Samuel. "The Conservative Party of Great Britain," Journal of Politics Vol. 14, No. 1 (February 1952), pp. 41–71 in JSTOR
  • Blake, Robert and Louis William Roger, eds. Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War (Oxford UP, 1992), 581 pp; 29 essays by scholars on specialized topics
  • Blake, Robert. The Conservative Party From Peel To Churchill (1970) online
  • Campbell, John. Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady (Pimlico (2003). ISBN 0-7126-6781-4
  • Dorey, Peter; Garnett, Mark; Denham, Andrew. From Crisis to Coalition: The Conservative Party, 1997–2010 (2011) Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-54238-9 excerpt and text search
  • British conservatism: the politics and philosophy of inequality (IB Tauris, 2010), Covers more than just political party.
  • Green, E. H. H. Ideologies of conservatism: conservative political ideas in the twentieth century (2004)
  • The Crisis of conservatism: The politics, economics, and ideology of the British Conservative Party, 1880–1914 (1996)
  • Harris, Robert. The Conservatives – A History (2011) Bantam Press ISBN 978-0-593-06511-2
  • King, Anthony, ed. British Political Opinion 1937–2000: The Gallup Polls (2001)
  • Lawrence, Jon. Electing Our Masters: The Hustings in British Politics from Hogarth to Blair (Oxford University Press, 2009) excerpt and text search
  • McKenzie, R. T. and A. Silver. Angels in Marble: Working-class Conservatives in Urban England (1968)
  • Mowat, Charles Loch. Britain between the Wars, 1918–1940 (1955) 694 pp; Detailed clinical history during
Norton, Bruce F. Politics in Britain (2007) textbook
  • Parry, J. P. "Disraeli and England," Historical Journal Vol. 43, No. 3 (September 2000), pp. 699–728 in JSTOR
  • Powell, David. British Politics, 1910–1935: The Crisis of the Party System (2004)
  • Reitan, Earl Aaron. The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair, and the Transformation of Modern Britain, 1979–2001 (2003) Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2203-2
  • Searle, G. R. A New England?: Peace and War 1886–1918 (2005) 976pp broad survey
  • Seldon, Anthony and Stuart Ball, eds. Conservative Century: The Conservative Party since 1900 (1994) 896pp; essays by experts Contents
  • Snowdon, Peter. Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party (2010) HarperPress ISBN 978-0-00-730884-2
  • Taylor, A. J. P. English History, 1914–1945 (1965), a standard political history of the era
  • Thackeray, David. "Home and Politics: Women and Conservative Activism in Early Twentieth‐Century Britain," Journal of British Studies (2010) 49#4 pp. 826–48.
  • Windscheffel, Alex. "Men or Measures? Conservative Party Politics, 1815–1951," Historical Journal Vol. 45, No. 4 (December 2002), pp. 937–51 in JSTOR
  • Crowson, N. J., ed. The Longman Companion to the Conservative Party Since 1830 (2001); chronologies; relations with women, minorities, trade unions, EU, Ireland, social reform and empire.
  • Harrison, Brian. "Margaret Thatcher’s Impact on Historical Writing", in William Roger Louis, ed., Irrepressible Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics, and Culture in Britain (London, 2013), 307–21.
  • Kowol, Kit. "Renaissance on the Right? New Directions in the History of the Post-War Conservative Party." Twentieth Century British History 27#2 (2016): 290–304. online
  • Porter, Bernard. "‘Though Not an Historian Myself…’Margaret Thatcher and the Historians." Twentieth Century British History 5#2 (1994): 246–56.
  • Turner, John. "The British Conservative Party in the Twentieth Century: from Beginning to End?." Contemporary European History 8#2 (1999): 275–87.

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