James Tobin

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James Tobin (1962)

James Tobin (5 Mac 1918 - 11 Mac 2002) ialah seorang ahli ekonomi Amerika yang berkhidmat di Majlis Penasihat Ekonomi dan Lembaga Gabenor Sistem Rizab Persekutuan, dan mengajar di Universiti Harvard dan Yale. Beliau mengembangkan idea-idea ekonomi Keynes, dan menganjurkan campur tangan kerajaan untuk menstabilkan pengeluaran dan mengelakkan kemelesetan. Kerja akademiknya termasuk sumbangan perintis kepada kajian pelaburan, dasar monetari dan fiskal dan pasaran kewangan. Beliau juga mencadangkan model ekonometrik untuk pembolehubah endogen yang ditapis, yang dikenali sebagai "model Tobit". Tobin menerima Hadiah Peringatan Nobel dalam Sains Ekonomi pada tahun 1981.

Di luar akademik, Tobin terkenal kerana cadangannya mengenai cukai ke atas urus niaga pertukaran asing, kini dikenali sebagai "cukai Tobin". Ini direka untuk mengurangkan spekulasi di pasaran mata wang antarabangsa, yang dilihatnya sebagai berbahaya dan tidak produktif.[1]

Penerbitan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Tobin, James (1941). "A note on the money wage problem". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 55 (3): 508–16. doi:10.2307/1885642. JSTOR 1885642.
  • Tobin, James (1955). "A Dynamic Aggregative Model". Journal of Political Economy. 63.2 (2): 103–15. doi:10.1086/257652.
  • Tobin, James (1956). "The Interest-Elasticity of Transactions Demand For Cash". The Review of Economics and Statistics. 38, no. 3 (3): 241–47. doi:10.2307/1925776. JSTOR 1925776. also: Google Scholar
  • Tobin, James (1958a). "Estimation of relationships for limited dependent variables". Econometrica. 26 (1): 24–36. doi:10.2307/1907382. JSTOR 1907382
  • Tobin, James (1958b). "Liquidity Preference as Behavior Towards Risk". Review of Economic Studies. 25.1 (2): 65–86. doi:10.2307/2296205. JSTOR 2296205.
  • Tobin, James (1961). "Money, Capital, and Other Stores of Value," American Economic Review, 51(2), pp. 26–37. Reprinted in Tobin, 1987, Essays in Economics, v. 1, pp. 21727. MIT Press.
  • Tobin, James (1969). "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory". Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking. 1.1 (1): 15–29. doi:10.2307/1991374. JSTOR 1991374.
  • Tobin, James (1970). "Money and Income: Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc?" Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(2), pp. 301–17.
  • Tobin, James and William C. Brainard (1977a). "Asset Markets and the Cost of Capital". In Richard Nelson and Bela Balassa, eds., Economic Progress: Private Values and Public Policy (Essays in Honor of William Fellner), Amsterdam: North-Holland, 235–62.
  • Tobin, James (1977b). "How Dead is Keynes?". Economic Inquiry. XV (4): 459–68. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.1977.tb01111.x.
  • Tobin, James (1992). "money", The New Palgrave Dictionary of Finance and Money, v. 2, pp. 770–79 & in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2008, 2nd Edition. DOI:10.1057/978-1-349-95121-5_2742-1 Reprinted in Tobin (1996), Essays in Economics, v. 4, pp. 139163. MIT Press.
  • Tobin, James, Essays in Economics, MIT Press:
    v. 1 (1987), Macroeconomics. Scroll to chapter-preview links.
    v. 2 Consumption and Economics. Description.
    v. 3 (1987). Theory and Policy (in 1989 paperback as Policies for Prosperity: Essays in a Keynesian Mode). Description and links.
    v. 4 (1996). National and International. Links.
  • Tobin, James, with Stephen S. Golub (1998). Money, Credit, and Capital. Irwin/McGraw-Hill. TOC.
  • Tobin, James (2008). David R. Henderson (penyunting). Monetary Policy. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (ed. 2nd). Indianapolis: Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN 978-0865976658. OCLC 237794267.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Tobin, James. "Autobiography", published in Nobel Lectures. Economics 1981–1990, Editor Karl-Göran Mäler, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]