William Shockley

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William Bradford Shockley Jr. (13 Februari 1910 - 12 Ogos 1989) ialah ahli fizik dan pencipta Amerika. Shockley ialah pengurus kumpulan penyelidikan di Bell Labs yang termasuk John Bardeen dan Walter Brattain. Ketiga saintis itu dianugerahkan Hadiah Nobel dalam Fizik 1956 untuk "penyelidikan mereka mengenai semikonduktor dan penemuan kesan transistor mereka".

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Brittain, J.E. (1984). "Becker and Shive on the transistor". Proceedings of the IEEE. 72 (12): 1695. doi:10.1109/PROC.1984.13075. ISSN 0018-9219. an observation that William Shockley interpreted as confirmation of his concept of that junction transistorCS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Eysenck, Hans (1998). Intelligence: A New Look. New Brunswick (NJ): Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0707-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Giangreco, D. M. (1997). "Casualty Projections for the U.S. Invasions of Japan, 1945-1946: Planning and Policy Implications". Journal of Military History. 61 (3): 521–581. doi:10.2307/2954035. ISSN 0899-3718. JSTOR 2954035.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Goodheart, Adam (2 July 2006). "10 Days That Changed History". New York Times. Dicapai pada 2 January 2015.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Leslie, Mitchell (July–August 2000). "The Vexing Legacy of Lewis Terman". Stanford Magazine. Dicapai pada 5 June 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Park, Gregory; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P. (2 November 2010). "Recognizing Spatial Intelligence". Scientific American. Dicapai pada 5 June 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Shurkin, Joel (2006). Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8815-7. Rumusan ringkasan (2 June 2013).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Simonton, Dean Keith (1999). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512879-6. Rumusan ringkasan (14 August 2010).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Riordan, Michael; Hoddeson, Lillian (1997). Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. Sloan Technology Series. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04124-8. Rumusan ringkasanTechnology and Culture review by Arthur P. Molella (10 December 2014).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Saxon, Wolfgang (14 August 1989). "William B. Shockley, 79, Creator of Transistor and Theory on Race". New York Times. Dicapai pada 2 January 2015. He drew further scorn when he proposed financial rewards for the genetically disadvantaged if they volunteered for sterilization.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Shockley, William (1952). "Contributors to Proceedings of the I.R.E.". Proceedings of the I.R.E.: 1611.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=04050875
  • Sparks, Morgan; Hogan, Lester; Linville, John (1991). "[Obituary:] William Shockley". Physics Today. 44 (6): 130–132. Bibcode:1991PhT....44f.130S. doi:10.1063/1.2810155. ISSN 0031-9228.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Tucker, William H. (2007) [first published 2002]. The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Rumusan ringkasan (10 December 2014).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Riordan, Michael; Hoddeson, Lillian (1997). Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. Sloan Technology Series. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04124-8. Rumusan ringkasanTechnology and Culture review by Arthur P. Molella (10 December 2014).
  • Shurkin, Joel (2006). Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8815-7. Rumusan ringkasan (10 December 2014).