Bursa

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Rencana ini ialah mengenai kota. Untuk bursa di dalam tubuh manusia, sila lihat bursa Synovial. Untuk kegunaan lain, sila lihat Bursa (nyahkekaburan).
Bursa
Perbandaran Metropolitan
Perbandaran Metropolitan Bursa
Atas-kiri: Pusat bandar, Atas-kanan: Zafer Plaza AVM;Tengah-kiri: Jambatan Irgandı, Tengah: Patung Atatürk, Tengah-kanan: Menara Jam Bursa;Bawah-kiri: Taman Botani Bursa, Bawah-kanan: Pusat bandar
Atas-kiri: Pusat bandar, Atas-kanan: Zafer Plaza AVM;
Tengah-kiri: Jambatan Irgandı, Tengah: Patung Atatürk, Tengah-kanan: Menara Jam Bursa;
Bawah-kiri: Taman Botani Bursa, Bawah-kanan: Pusat bandar
Bursa is located in Turki
Bursa
Bursa
Lokasi Bursa
Coordinates: 40°11′N 29°03′E / 40.183°N 29.050°E / 40.183; 29.050Koordinat: 40°11′N 29°03′E / 40.183°N 29.050°E / 40.183; 29.050
Negara 800px-Flag of Turkey.svg-1-.png Turki
Kawasan Marmara
Wilayah Bursa
Didiami 202 SM
Kerajaan
 • Datuk Bandar Recep Altepe (AKP)
Luas
 • Kota 1,036 km2 (400 sq mi)
Ketinggian 100 m (300 ft)
Populasi (2011)[1][2]
 • Perbandaran Metropolitan 1,704,441
 • Kepadatan 1,508.52/km2 (3,907.0/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,948,744
Zon masa EET (UTC+2)
 • Musim Panas (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Poskod 16000
Kod kawasan (+90) 224
Plat lesen 16
Laman sesawang www.bursa.bel.tr

Bursa (sebutan Turki: [ˈbuɾsa]) adalah sebuah kota yang terletak di barat laut Anatolia, di dalam kawasan Marmara, Turki. Ia merupakan bandar ke-4 paling tinggi populasi penduduk dan salah sebuah pusat metropolitan dan industri di Turki. Kota ini juga merupakan pusat pentadbiran bagi wilayah Bursa.

Bursa merupakan ibu kota pertama empayar Uthmaniyyah antara tahun 1335 sehingga 1413. Kota ini dirujuk sebagai Hüdavendigar (makna "hadiah dari Tuhan") semasa zaman Uthmaniyyah, sementara gelaran sekarang iaitu Yeşil Bursa (makna "Bursa Hijau") merujuk akan taman-taman dan kebun-kebun yang melata di seluruh kotanya, selain hutan-hutan yang mengelilinginya. Resort ski di Gunung Uludağ gah berdiri. Gunung ini juga dikenali sebagai Olympus Mysia oleh orang-orang Rom yang tinggal di sana. Bursa memiliki pembangunan bandar yang seimbang dengan di kelilingi oleh dataran yang subur. Makam-makam para sultan Uthmaniyyah awal juga terletak di Bursa. Antara mercu tanda kota yang penting termasuk pelbagai istana yang dibina semasa zaman Uthmaniyyah. Bursa juga mempunyai mandian wap dan beberapa muzium termasuk sebuah muzium arkeologi.

Watak-watak wayang kulit seperti Karagöz dan Hacivat adalah berdasarkan tokoh-tokoh bersejarah yang tinggal dan meninggal dunia di Bursa. Bursa juga merupakan asal-usul bagi beberapa makanan Turki yang terkenal seperti kebab İskender, yang dimaniskan menggunakan halwa marron, pic dan manisan Turki. Bursa juga menempatkan Universiti Uludağ, dan penduduknya mendakwa ia adalah salah sebuah universiti terkenal di Turki. Bandar bersejarah di İznik (Nicaea), Mudanya dan Zeytinbağı juga terletak di wilayah Bursa.

Berdasarkan Institut Statistik Turki, setakat tahun 2011 bandar Bursa memiliki penduduk seramai 1,704,441 orang dan penduduk di dalam kawasan perbandaran metropolitan adalah 1,948,744 orang.[1][2]

History of Bursa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sejarah kependudukan
Tahun Bil. penduduk  %±
1487 45,000
1927 61,451 36.6%
1955 128,875 109.7%
1980 487,604 278.4%
2000 1,184,144 142.8%
[1]

The earliest known settlement at this location was the ancient Greek city of Cius, which Philip V of Macedon granted to Prusias, the King of Bithynia, in 202 BC. Prusias rebuilt the city and renamed it Prusa (Bahasa Yunani Kuno: Προῦσα). After 128 years of Bithynian rule, Nicomedes IV, the last King of Bithynia, bequeathed the entire kingdom to the Roman Empire in 74 BC.

A view of Bursa in the 1890s
A view of Bursa in 2013

Bursa became the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantines in 1326. As a result, the city witnessed a considerable amount of urban growth throughout the 14th century. After conquering Edirne (Adrianople) in 1365 the Ottomans turned it into a joint capital city for governing their European realms, but Bursa remained the most important Anatolian administrative and commercial center even after it lost its status as the sole Ottoman capital. The Ottoman sultan Bayezid I built the Bayezid Külliyesi (Bayezid I theological complex) in Bursa between 1390 and 1395[3] and the Ulu Cami (Great Mosque) between 1396 and 1400.[4] Bursa remained to be the most important administrative and commercial center in the empire until Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453. The population of Bursa was 45,000 in 1487.[5]

During the Ottoman period, Bursa continued to be the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local silk production, the city imported raw silk from Iran, and occasionally from China, and was the main production center for the kaftans, pillows, embroidery and other silk products for the Ottoman palaces until the 17th century.

Following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Bursa became one of the industrial centers of the country. The economic development of the city was followed by population growth and Bursa became the 4th most populous city in Turkey.

The city has traditionally been a pole of attraction, and was a major center for refugees from various ethnic backgrounds who immigrated to Anatolia from the Balkans during the loss of the Ottoman territories in Europe between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The most recent arrival of Balkan Turks took place in the 1940s until the 1990s, when the communist regime in Bulgaria expelled approximately 150,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey.[6] About one-third of these 150,000 Bulgarian Turkish refugees eventually settled in Bursa.

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bursa terletak di lereng timur laut Gunung Uludağ di selatan wilayah Marmara. Ia merupakan ibu kota bagi Provinsi Bursa bersempadan dengan Laut Marmara dan Yalova di utara; Kocaeli dan Sakarya di timur laut; Bilecik di timur; dan Kütahya dan Balıkesir di selatan.

Cuaca[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bursa memiliki iklim iklim Mediterranean/subtropika lembap (penggelasan iklim Köppen: Csa/Cfa). Ia mengalami musim panas yang panas dan lembap pada bulan Jun sehingga September. Musim sejuk yang sejuk dan lembap, juga mengalami hujan. Terdapat kemungkinan salji di atas tanah untuk selama satu atau dua minggu. Di kawasan pergunungan; terutamanya di Uludağ, cuacanya adalah sejuk dan bersalji pada sepanjang musim sejuk, manakala semasa musim panas ia agak suam.

Data iklim untuk Bursa
Bulan Jan Feb Mac Apr Mei Jun Jul Ogo Sep Okt Nov Dis Tahun
Rekod tertinggi °C (°F) 25.2
(77.4)
26.9
(80.4)
30.6
(87.1)
34.6
(94.3)
35.9
(96.6)
41.3
(106.3)
43.8
(110.8)
41.2
(106.2)
38.9
(102)
37.3
(99.1)
28.5
(83.3)
27.3
(81.1)
43.8
Purata tinggi °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
10.7
(51.3)
13.8
(56.8)
18.9
(66)
23.8
(74.8)
28.5
(83.3)
30.8
(87.4)
30.7
(87.3)
27.0
(80.6)
21.6
(70.9)
15.9
(60.6)
11.2
(52.2)
20.21
(68.38)
Purata rendah °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
2.1
(35.8)
3.7
(38.7)
7.3
(45.1)
11.2
(52.2)
15.1
(59.2)
17.4
(63.3)
17.3
(63.1)
13.6
(56.5)
10.1
(50.2)
5.7
(42.3)
3.3
(37.9)
9.03
(48.26)
Rekod terendah °C (°F) -11.8
(10.8)
-16.4
(2.5)
-8.0
(17.6)
-3.1
(26.4)
1.6
(34.9)
5.2
(41.4)
9.6
(49.3)
10.1
(50.2)
5.0
(41)
0.2
(32.4)
-4.4
(24.1)
-8.4
(16.9)
-16.4
Kerpasan mm (inci) 79.5
(3.13)
72.2
(2.843)
66.8
(2.63)
65.6
(2.583)
44.6
(1.756)
34.6
(1.362)
17.7
(0.697)
18.9
(0.744)
43.2
(1.701)
75.3
(2.965)
83.2
(3.276)
100.9
(3.972)
702.5
(27.657)
Kelembapan 75 75 75 72 72 67 65 65 67 73 75 76 71.4
Purata hari hujan 13.9 13.0 12.5 11.8 8.2 6.0 3.4 3.8 5.8 9.7 11.4 14.0 113.5
Purata hari salji 4 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 14
Jam cahaya matahari 96.1 89.6 130.2 168 251.1 303 334.8 306.9 234 167.4 120 89.9 2,291
Sumber: Turkish State Meteorological Service[7]

Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pusat membeli belah Kent Meydanı AVM
Pintu masuk piramid gelas di pusat membeli-belah Zafer Plaza AVM

Bursa adalah pusat industri automatif di Turki.[8][9] Kilang-kilang pengeluar kereta seperti Fiat, Renault dan Karsan, selain pengeluar komponen automatif seperti Bosch, Mako, Valeo, Johnson Controls dan Delphi aktif di bandar ini selama berdekad-dekad. Industi tekstil dan makanan juga bertapak di sini seperti Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola dan jenama-jenama minuman lain. Selain itu, industri makanan segar dan bertin juga terletak dalam sebuah zon industri yang tersusun.

Perbadanann industri 10 teratas di wilayah Bursa adalah:[10]

Selain industri automotif yang besar, Bursa juga mengeluarkan produk tenusu dalam jumlah yang besar (oleh Sütaş'),[11] makanan diproses (oleh Tat),[12] dan minuman (oleh Uludağ).[13]

Traditionally, Bursa was famous for being the largest center of silk trade in the Byzantine and later the Ottoman empires, during the period of the lucrative Silk Road. The city is still a major center for textiles in Turkey and is home to the Bursa International Textiles and Trade Center ( Bursa Uluslararası Tekstil ve Ticaret Merkezi, or BUTTIM). Bursa was also known for its fertile soil and agricultural activities, which have decreased in the recent decades due to the heavy industrialization of the city.

Bursa is a major center for tourism. One of the most popular skiing resorts of Turkey is located at Mount Uludağ, just next to the city proper. Bursa's thermal baths have been used for therapeutical purposes since Roman times. Apart from the baths that are operated by hotels, Uludağ University has a physical therapy center which also makes use of thermal water.

Transportation[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bursa has a metro (Bursaray), tram[14] and bus system for inner-city public transport, while taxi cabs are also available. Bursa's Yenişehir Airport is 20 bt (32 km) away from the city center. The citizens of Bursa also prefer Istanbul's airports such as Atatürk International Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport for flights to foreign countries, due to Istanbul's vicinity to Bursa. There are numerous daily bus and ferry services between the two cities. Prices of bus tickets can be seen in Otobusbileti

The 8.8 km (5.5 bt) long Bursa Uludağ Gondola (Bahasa Turki: Teleferik) connects Bursa with the ski resort areas 1,870 m (6,140 ka) high on the mountain Uludağ.

Pendidikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bursa mempunyai dua buah universiti awam dan sebuah universiti swasta. Universiti Uludağ yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 1975, merupakan institusi pendidikan tinggi tertua di kota ini. Ia mulanya dikenali sebagai Universiti Bursa sebelum dinamakan semula sebagai Universiti Uludağ pada tahun 1982. Universiti ini mempunyai seramai 47,000 pelajar dan merupakan salah sebuah universiti terbesar di Turki. Universiti Teknikal Bursa[15] adalah universiti awam kedua di Bursa dan ditubuhkan pada tahun 2010, serta memulakan sesi akademik bermula pada tahun akademik 2011–2012.

Universiti swasta pertama di Bursa adalah Universiti Orhangazi Bursa,[16] yang mana memulakan tahun akademik pada 2012–2013. Universiti Perdagangan Istanbul mula membuka program siswazah di kota ini pada tahun 2013.[17]

Sports[sunting | sunting sumber]

The city has one professional football club, Bursaspor, which competes in the Turkish Super League, the top-tier of Turkish football. Bursaspor has won its first league title in the 2009–10 Turkish Super League season, becoming the second Anatolian club to ever win the league title after Trabzonspor. Bursaspor is today considered one of the five biggest football clubs in Turkey along with Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş and Trabzonspor.

The city had a professional basketball team in the Turkish Basketball League, Tofaş S.K., which was among the most successful teams; until it stopped participating in the league following a decision by the automobile manufacturer Tofaş, its sponsor and parent company.

Main sights[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Interior of the Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque), showing the fountain (şadırvan) for ritual ablutions.

Ulu Cami is the largest mosque in Bursa and a landmark of early Ottoman architecture, which carried many elements from the Seljuk architecture. Ordered by Sultan Bayezid I, the mosque was designed and built by architect Ali Neccar in 1396–1400. It is a large and rectangular building, with a total of twenty domes that are arranged in four rows of five, and are supported by 12 columns. Supposedly the twenty domes were built instead of the twenty separate mosques which Sultan Bayezid I had promised for winning the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. The mosque has two minarets.

Inside the mosque there are 192 monumental wall inscriptions written by the famous calligraphers of that period. There is also a fountain (şadırvan) where worshipers can perform ritual ablutions before prayer; the dome over the şadırvan is capped by a skylight which creates a soft, serene light below; thus playing an important role in the illumination of the large building.

The horizontally spacious and dimly lit interior is designed to feel peaceful and contemplative. The subdivisions of space formed by multiple domes and pillars create a sense of privacy and even intimacy. This atmosphere contrasts with the later Ottoman mosques (see for example the works of Suleiman the Magnificent's chief architect Mimar Sinan.) The mosques that were built after the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, and influenced by the design of the 6th century Byzantine basilica of Hagia Sophia, had increasingly elevated and large central domes, which create a vertical emphasis that is intended to be more overwhelming; in order to convey the divine power of Allah, the majesty of the Ottoman Sultan, and the governmental authority of the Ottoman State.

Tempat tarikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

A brief list of places of interest in and around Bursa is presented below. For a longer list, see places of interest in Bursa.

Kompleks masjid dan külliye[sunting | sunting sumber]

külliye

külliye

külliye

külliye

külliye

  • Masjid Orhan dan

külliye

külliye

  • Masjid Koca Sinan Paşa dan

külliye

  • Masjid İshak Paşa dan

külliye

  • Masjid Besar Karacabey
  • Pusat Budaya Karabaş-i Veli

Bazar dan karavanserai[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bazar Yıldırım
  • Koza Han
  • Pirinç Han

Monumen bersejarah lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Istana kota Bursa
  • Jambatan Irgandı

Muzium[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Muzium Arkeologi Bursa
  • Muzium Kota Bursa
  • Muzium Atatürk Bursa
  • Muzium Senibina Turki Bursa
  • Muzium Kerja-kerja Islam Bursa
  • Muzium Armistis Mudanya
  • Muzium İznik

Taman dan kebun[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mata air dan mandian panas[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Mata air panas Keramet
  • Mata air panas Çekirge
  • Mata air panas Armutlu
  • Mata air panas Oylat
  • Mata air panas Gemlik
  • Mandian panas Çelik Palas

Pantai[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Pantai Armutlu
  • Pantai Kumla
  • Pantai Kurşunlu
  • Pantai Orhangazi
  • Pantai Mudanya

Imej dari Bursa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bandar berkembar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bandar-bandar yang diistiharkan berkembar dengan Bursa adalah:[18]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota dan rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota
Rujukan
  1. 1.0 1.1 - 2011
  2. 2.0 2.1 Büyükşehir belediyeleri ve bağlı belediyelerin nüfusları - 2011
  3. "Bayezid I Complex". ArchNet. Dicapai pada 2009-06-28. 
  4. "Great Mosque of Bursa". ArchNet. Dicapai pada 2009-06-28. 
  5. The city in the Islamic world, Volume 1, ed. Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Renata Holod, Attilio Petruccioli, André Raymond, page 362.
  6. Eminov, Ali, Turks and Other Muslim Minorities in Bulgaria, New York, Routledge, 1997, Hoepken, W., "Modernnisierung und Nationalismus: Sizialgeschichtliche Aspeckte der Bulgarischen Minder hertenpolitik gegennüber den Türken", Schönfeld, R., ed, Nationalitätenprobleme in Südosteuropa, Munich, Oldenbourg, 1997, p. 255-303, Erdinç, Didar, "Bulgaristan'daki Değişim Sürecinde Türk Azınlığın Ekonomik Durumu", Türkler, Ankara, 2002, s.394–400.
  7. Turkish State Meteorological Service
  8. "Turkey's automotive industry going nonstop". Today's Zaman. 2007-05-05. Dicapai pada 2009-06-28.  [pautan putus]
  9. "TAYSAD met its members from Bursa". TAYSAD. 2008-02-08. Dicapai pada 2009-06-28. 
  10. "Bursa'nın İlk 250 Sanayi Kuruluşu". BTSO. 2008. 
  11. Sütaş Dairy Products
  12. Tat Food Company
  13. Uludağ Beverages
  14. Bursa circular tramway opens - Railway Gazette
  15. "Bursa Teknik Üniversitesi". Btu.edu.tr. Dicapai pada 2013-03-26. 
  16. "Bursa Orhangazi Üniversitesi". Bou.edu.tr. Dicapai pada 2013-03-26. 
  17. "Istanbul Commerce University at Bursa".  (Turki)
  18. "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Dicapai pada 2013-07-27. 
  19. "Städtepartnerschaften und Internationales". Büro für Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen (dalam bahasa German). Dicapai pada 2013-07-26. 
  20. "Ystävyyskaupungit (Twin Cities)". Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (dalam bahasa Finnish). Dicapai pada 2013-07-27. 
  21. "Turkey's Bursa, Kosovo's Pristina become sister cities" worldbulletin.net 2 September 2010 Link accessed 2 September 2010
  22. "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Dicapai pada 2013-07-27. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Metropolitan centers in Turkey