Negara-negara di United Kingdom

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Negara-negara di United Kingdom
نڬارا٢ د اونيتد كيڠدوم
KategoriPembahagian pentadbiran
LokasiUnited Kingdom
Ditubuhkan diBidang kuasa perundangan
Jumlah4
Status mungkinKawasan NUTS 1 (3)
Kawasan pilihan raya Eropah (3)
Bidang kuasa undang-undang (2)
Status tambahanHome Nations
KerajaanPerundangan terturun (3)
Tiada (1)

United Kingdom (UK) terdiri daripada empat buah negara: England, Scotland dan Wales (yang membentuk Great Britain) serta Ireland Utara[1][2] (dengan pelbagai gambaran sebagai sebuah negara, wilayah atau kawasan).[3][4][5]

Di dalam United Kingdom, sebuah negara berdaulat kesatuan, Ireland Utara, Scotland dan Wales telah memeperoleh satu tahap autonomi melalui proses penurunan kuasa. Parlimen United Kingdom dan Kerajaan Baginda Ratu bertanggungjawab dalam semua perkara khusus untuk Ireland Utara, Scotland dan Wales, tetapi bukan dalam perkara-perkara umum yang telah diturunkan kepada Dewan Undangan Ireland Utara, Parlimen Scotland dan Perhimpunan Kebangsaan Wales. Tambahan pula, penurunan kuasa di Ireland Utara adalah bersyarat atas kerjasama Eksekutif Ireland Utara dan Pemerintah Ireland (lihat Majlis Kementerian Utara/Selatan) dan Kerajaan British berunding dengan Pemerintah Ireland untuk mencapai persetujuan mengenai beberapa perkara yang tidak diserahkan untuk Ireland Utara (lihat Persidangan Antara Kerajaan British–Ireland). England yang merangkumi majoriti jumlah penduduk dan keluasan UK,[6][7] sepenuhnya tetap menjadi tanggungjawab Parlimen UK yang berpusat di London.

Fakta utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Bendera Ibu negara Badan perundangan Sistem undang-undang Bidang kuasa
England Flag of England.svg London tiada Undang-undang Inggeris England dan Wales
Ireland Utara tiada Belfast Dewan Undangan Ireland Utara Undang-undang Ireland Utara, Undang-undang tanah Ireland Ireland Utara
Scotland Flag of Scotland.svg Edinburgh Parlimen Scotland Undang-undang Scotland Scotland
Wales Flag of Wales (1959–present).svg Cardiff Perhimpunan Kebangsaan Wales Undang-undang Inggeris, Undang-undang Wales England dan Wales
United Kingdom Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London Parlimen UK Undang-undang pentadbiran UK United Kingdom

Parlimen UK menggubal kesemua perundangan Inggeris.
Bekas bendera Ireland Utara, Panji-panji Ulster, masih digunakan dalam beberapa konteks yang berkaitan dengan sukan.

Perangkaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama Jumlah penduduk Keluasan Kepadatan penduduk
(per km²; 2011)
GVA*
Bil. pada
2015[8]
(%)[7] (km²) (%) (£; 2015)[9] (%; 2015) per kapita*
(£; 2015)[9]
England 54,786,300 84% 130,279 54% 406.55 1,433 bilion 86% 26,159
Ireland Utara 1,851,600 3% 13,562 6% 130.81 34 bilion 2% 18,584
Scotland 5,373,000 8% 77,933 32% 67.22 127 bilion 8% 23,685
Wales 3,099,100 5% 20,735 9% 147.43 56 bilion 3% 18,002
United Kingdom 65,110,000 100% 242,509 100% 259.16 1,666 bilion 100% 25,351

* Nilai tambah kasar. Angka-angka untuk GVA tidak termasuk hasil-hasil minyak dan gas yang diperoleh di luar perairan wilayah UK, di pentas benua negara.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Petikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "The Countries of the UK" (dalam bahasa Inggeris). statistics.gov.uk. Dicapai 12 Julai 2015. 
  2. ^ "Devolution Glossary". Pejabat Kabinet (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 25 November 2010. "United Kingdom: Term used most frequently for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the modern sovereign state comprising England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. 
  3. ^ S. Dunn; H. Dawson (2000), An Alphabetical Listing of Word, Name and Place in Northern Ireland and the Living Language of Conflict, Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, One specific problem – in both general and particular senses – is to know what to call Northern Ireland itself: in the general sense, it is not a country, or a province, or a state – although some refer to it contemptuously as a statelet: the least controversial word appears to be jurisdiction, but this might change. 
  4. ^ J. Whyte; G. FitzGerald (1991), Interpreting Northern Ireland (dalam bahasa Inggeris), Oxford: Oxford University Press, One problem must be adverted to in writing about Northern Ireland. This is the question of what name to give to the various geographical entities. These names can be controversial, with the choice often revealing one's political preferences. ... some refer to Northern Ireland as a 'province'. That usage can arouse irritation particularly among nationalists, who claim the title 'province' should be properly reserved to the four historic provinces of Ireland-Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connacht. If I want to a label to apply to Northern Ireland I shall call it a 'region'. Unionists should find that title as acceptable as 'province': Northern Ireland appears as a region in the regional statistics of the United Kingdom published by the British government. 
  5. ^ D. Murphy (1979), A Place Apart (dalam bahasa Inggeris), London: Penguin Books, Next – what noun is appropriate to Northern Ireland? 'Province' won't do since one-third of the province is on the wrong side of the border. 'State' implies more self-determination than Northern Ireland has ever had and 'country' or 'nation' are blatantly absurd. 'Colony' has overtones that would be resented by both communities and 'statelet' sounds too patronizing, though outsiders might consider it more precise than anything else; so one is left with the unsatisfactory word 'region'. 
  6. ^ 2011 Census – Population. According to the 2011 census, the population of England was 53,012,456, and the population of the United Kingdom was 63,181,775, therefore England comprises 84% of the UK population.
  7. ^ a b "Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles October 2013" (dalam bahasa Inggeris). ONS. Dicapai 9 Ogos 2015. According to the ONS, England has an area of 130,279 km², and the UK has an area of 242,509 km², therefore England comprises 54% of the area of the UK. 
  8. ^ "Population estimates - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai 30 Jun 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Pejabat Perangkaan Kebangsaan. "Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2015, December 2015" (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai 5 Mac 2017. 

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