Élie Metchnikoff

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Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (juga ditulis sebagai Élie Metchnikoff; 15 Mei 1845 - 15 Julai 1916)[1] ialah seorang zoologi Rusia terkenal dengan penyelidikan perintis dalam imunologi.[2][3][4]

Khususnya, beliau dikreditkan dengan penemuan fagosit (makrofaj) pada tahun 1882. Penemuan ini ternyata menjadi mekanisme pertahanan utama dalam kekebalan semula jadi. Beliau dan Paul Ehrlich dianugerahkan Hadiah Nobel dalam Fisiologi atau Perubatan pada tahun 1908 sebagai pengiktirafan terhadap kerja mereka terhadap imuniti. Beliau uga dikreditkan oleh beberapa sumber dengan memperkenalkan istilah gerontologi pada tahun 1903, untuk kajian yang semakin meningkat mengenai penuaan dan umur panjang.[5][6] Beliau menubuhkan konsep imuniti sel-mediasi, manakala Ehrlich menubuhkan konsep kekebalan humoral. Kerja-kerja mereka dianggap sebagai asas sains imunologi.[7] Dalam imunologi, beliau diberikan efitet sebagai "bapa imuniti semula jadi".[8]

Buku[sunting | sunting sumber]

Metchnikoff menulis buku-buku terkenal seperti:[8]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Ilya Mechnikov: Biographical". Nobel Prizes. Dicapai 14 May 2019. 
  2. ^ Belkin, R.I. (1964). "Commentary," in I.I. Mechnikov, Academic Collection of Works, vol. 16. Moscow: Meditsina. m/s. 434.  Belkin, a Russian science historian, explains why Metchnikoff himself, in his Nobel autobiography – and subsequently, many other sources – mistakenly cited his date of birth as May 16 instead of May 15. Metchnikoff made the mistake of adding 13 days to May 3, his Old-Style birthday, as was the convention in the 20th century. But since he had been born in the 19th century, only 12 days should have been added.
  3. ^ Vikhanski, Luba (2016). Immunity: How Elie Metchnikoff Changed the Course of Modern Medicine. Chicago Review Press. m/s. 278. ISBN 978-1613731109. The author cites Metchnikoff's death certificate, according to which he died on July 15, 1916 (the original is in the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Metchnikoff Fund, 584-2-208). Olga Metchnikoff did not provide a precise date for her husband's death in her book, and many sources erroneously cite it as July 16. 
  4. ^ "Ilya Mechnikov – Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Dicapai 16 March 2015. 
  5. ^ Vértes, L (1985). "The gerontologist Mechnikov". Orvosi hetilap. 126 (30): 1859–1860. PMID 3895124. 
  6. ^ Martin, D. J.; Gillen, L. L. (2013). "Revisiting Gerontology's Scrapbook: From Metchnikoff to the Spectrum Model of Aging". The Gerontologist. 54 (1): 51–58. doi:10.1093/geront/gnt073. PMID 23893558. 
  7. ^ Kaufmann, Stefan H E (2008). "Immunology's foundation: the 100-year anniversary of the Nobel Prize to Paul Ehrlich and Elie Metchnikoff". Nature Immunology. 9 (7): 705–712. doi:10.1038/ni0708-705. PMID 18563076. 
  8. ^ a b Gordon, Siamon (2008). "Elie Metchnikoff: Father of natural immunity". European Journal of Immunology. 38 (12): 3257–3264. doi:10.1002/eji.200838855. PMID 19039772.