Robert Edwards

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Sir Robert Geoffrey Edwards, FRS CBE MAE[1][2][3] (27 September 1925 - 10 April 2013) ialah ahli fisiologi Inggeris dan perintis dalam bidang perubatan reproduktif, dan persenyawaan in-vitro (IVF) khususnya. Bersama ahli bedah Patrick Steptoe,[4] dan jururawat Jean Purdy, Edwards berjaya merintis konsepsi melalui IVF, yang membawa kepada kelahiran Louise Brown pada 25 Julai 1978.[5][6][7] Mereka mendirikan IVF pertama program untuk pesakit subur dan ahli sains lain yang terlatih dalam teknik mereka. Edwards adalah pengasas pengarang utama Reproduksi Manusia pada tahun 1986.[8] Pada tahun 2010, beliau dianugerahkan Hadiah Nobel dalam Fisiologi atau Perubatan "untuk pembangunan persenyawaan in vitro".[9][10][11]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Gardner, Richard (2015). "Sir Robert Geoffrey Edwards CBE. 27 September 1925 – 10 April 2013". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Royal Society. 61: 81–102. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2014.0020. ISSN 0080-4606. 
  2. ^ Johnson, M. H. (2011). "Robert Edwards: The path to IVF". Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 23 (2): 245–262. doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2011.04.010. PMC 3171154Boleh dicapai secara percuma. PMID 21680248. 
  3. ^ Fisher, S. J.; Giudice, L. C. (2013). "Robert G. Edwards (1925-2013)". Science. 340 (6134): 825. doi:10.1126/science.1239644. PMID 23687039. 
  4. ^ Edwards, R. G. (1996). "Patrick Christopher Steptoe". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 42: 435–52. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1996.0027. PMID 11619339. 
  5. ^ Steptoe, P. C.; Edwards, R. G. (1978). "Birth After the Reimplantation of a Human Embryo". The Lancet. 312 (8085): 366. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(78)92957-4. PMID 79723. 
  6. ^ "1978: First 'test tube baby' born". BBC. 25 July 1978. Dicapai 13 June 2009. The birth of the world's first "test tube baby" has been announced in Manchester (England). Louise Brown was born shortly before midnight in Oldham and District General Hospital 
  7. ^ Moreton, Cole (14 January 2007). "World's first test-tube baby Louise Brown has a child of her own". Independent. London. Dicapai 22 May 2010. The 28-year-old, whose pioneering conception by in-vitro fertilisation made her famous around the world ... The fertility specialists Patrick Steptoe and Bob Edwards became the first to successfully carry out IVF by extracting an egg, impregnating it with sperm and planting the resulting embryo back into the mother. 
  8. ^ Fraser LR (2000). "In Appreciation of Professor R. G. Edwards, Founding Editor of the Human Reproduction Journals". MHR. 6 (5): 3. doi:10.1093/molehr/6.5.3. 
  9. ^ "The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Press Release". Nobelprize.org. 4 October 2010. Dicapai 4 October 2010. 
  10. ^ Jones Jr, H. W.; Gosden, R. G. (2013). "Professor Sir Robert Edwards, 1925–2013". Fertility and Sterility. 99 (7): 1799–800. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.04.042. PMID 23726252. 
  11. ^ Johnson, M. H.; Franklin, S. B.; Cottingham, M.; Hopwood, N. (2010). "Why the Medical Research Council refused Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe support for research on human conception in 1971". Human Reproduction. 25 (9): 2157–74. doi:10.1093/humrep/deq155. PMC 2922998Boleh dicapai secara percuma. PMID 20657027.