Projek MKUltra

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"MKULTRA" dilencongkan ke sini. Untuk kegunaan lain, sila lihat MKULTRA (nyahkekaburan).
Jangan dikelirukan dengan Edgewood Arsenal human experiments.
Declassified MKUltra documents

Project MKUltra, also called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the United States Central Intelligence Agency—and which were, at times, illegal.[1] Experiments on humans were intended to identify and develop drugs and procedures to be used in interrogations in order to weaken the individual and force confessions through mind control.

"MKULTRA" dilencongkan ke sini. Untuk kegunaan lain, sila lihat MKULTRA (nyahkekaburan).

Templat:Membezakan

Declassified MKUltra documents

'Project MKUltra' program ', adalah nama kod yang diberi kepada program eksperimen mengenai subjek manusia yang direka dan diusahakan oleh Agensi Perisikan Pusat Amerika Syarikat - dan yang kadang-kadang menyalahi undang-undang. [2] Eksperimen pada manusia bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti dan membangunkan ubat dan prosedur yang akan digunakan dalam soal siasat untuk melemahkan pengakuan individu dan berkuat kuasa melalui kawalan minda. The project was organized through the Office of Scientific Intelligence of the CIA and coordinated with the US Army Biological Warfare Laboratories.[3] The operation was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967, and officially halted in 1973.[4] The program engaged in many illegal activities,[5][6] Operasi ini secara rasmi diperkenankan pada tahun 1953, adalah dikurangkan dalam skop pada tahun 1964, dikurangkan lagi pada tahun 1967, dan secara rasmi dihentikan pada tahun 1973. [7] Program yang terlibat dalam banyak kegiatan yang menyalahi undang-undang, [5][8] [9] including the use of US and Canadian citizens as its unwitting test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy.[5] termasuk penggunaan warga AS dan Kanada sebagai subjek ujian yang tidak disengajakan, yang membawa kepada kontroversi mengenai legitimasinya. [5](p74)[10] (p74) [11][12] [13][14] [15] MKUltra used numerous methods to manipulate people's mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis,[16][17] sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse (including the sexual abuse of children), and other forms of torture.[18] [19] deria deria, pengasingan, penderaan lisan dan seksual (termasuk penyalahgunaan seksual kanak-kanak), dan bentuk penyeksaan lain. [20][21] The scope of Project MKUltra was broad with research undertaken at 80 institutions, including colleges and universities, hospitals, prisons, and pharmaceutical companies.[22] The CIA operated through these institutions using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement.[23] [24] Skop Projek MKUltra adalah luas dengan penyelidikan yang dijalankan di 80 institusi, termasuk kolej dan universiti, hospital, penjara, dan syarikat farmaseutikal. [22] organisasi, walaupun kadang-kadang pegawai tertinggi di institusi ini menyadari penglibatan CIA. [23] Project MKUltra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the United States Congress and a Gerald Ford's United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States. Pengubahsuaian Perilaku | pengarang = Senat Amerika Syarikat, Kongres ke-95, sesi 1 | kerja = Sidang Bersama Sebelum Jawatankuasa Pilih Perisikan dan Jawatankuasa Kecil Mengenai Penyelidikan Kesihatan dan Sains Jawatankuasa Sumber Manusia | tarikh = 3 Ogos 1977 | url = https: //www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/national/13inmate_ProjectMKULTRA.pdf}} </ ref> Projek MKUltra mula-mula dibawa ke perhatian umum pada tahun 1975 oleh Jawatankuasa Gereja Kongres Amerika Syarikat dan [[Komisi Presiden Amerika Syarikat mengenai aktiviti CIA di Amerika Syarikat] Gerald Ford]]. Investigative efforts were hampered by the fact that CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files to be destroyed in 1973; Usaha penyelidikan telah terhalang oleh hakikat bahawa Pengarah CIA Richard Helms memerintahkan semua fail MKUltra dimusnahkan pada tahun 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small number of documents that survived Helms's destruction order.[25] In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to project MKUltra which led to Senate hearings later that year.[5][26] ref name = "nytimes.com" /> [26] Some surviving information regarding MKUltra was declassified in July 2001.

==Background==

Sidney Gottlieb approved of an MKUltra sub-project on LSD in this June 9, 1953 letter.

The project's intentionally obscure CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph MK, meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency's Technical Services Staff, followed by the word Ultra which had previously been used to designate the most secret classification of World War II intelligence. ... Harris Isbell, yang menjalankan penyelidikan antara tahun 1952 dan 1963, menyalin surat rahsia dengan CIA | akhbar = New York Times | date = 2 Ogos 1977 | accessdate = 2014 -07-30}} </ ref> Beberapa maklumat yang masih hidup tentang MKUltra telah diklasifikasikan pada bulan Julai 2001.

== Latar Belakang ==

Sidney Gottlieb

meluluskan sub-projek MKUltra di LSD dalam surat 9 Jun 1953 ini.]] Projek ini dengan sengaja mengaburkan CIA cryptonym terdiri daripada digraph ' MK , bermakna projek itu ditaja oleh Staf Teknikal Kakitangan Teknikal, diikuti oleh Ultra perkataan yang sebelum ini digunakan untuk menentukan klasifikasi rahsia kecerdasan Perang Dunia II . Other related cryptonyms include Project MKNAOMI and Project MKDELTA. Cryptonyms lain yang berkaitan termasuk Project MKNAOMI dan Projek MKDELTA. The project was headed by Sidney Gottlieb but began on the order of CIA director Allen Welsh Dulles on April 13, 1953.[27] Its aim was to develop mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques on US prisoners of war during the Korean War.[28] Tujuannya adalah untuk mengembangkan ubat pengendalian minda untuk digunakan terhadap blok Soviet sebagai tindak balas kepada Soviet, Cina, dan Korea Utara menggunakan teknik kawalan minda terhadap tawanan perang AS semasa Perang Korea. > [https: //web.archive.org/web/20041109061412/http: //www.eh. doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap3_4.html "Bab 3, bahagian 4: Pembela Mahkamah Agung Memohon Kod Nuremberg: CIA dan DOD Manusia Subjek Skandal Penyelidikan"] Check |archiveurl= value (bantuan). Diarkibkan daripada [http: //www.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap3_4.html asal] Check |url= value (bantuan) pada November 9, 2004. Dicapai 24 Ogos 2005.  Parameter |kerja= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan) "MKUltra, bermula pada tahun 1950 dan termotivasi sebahagian besarnya sebagai tindak balas terhadap dakwaan Soviet, Cina, teknik kawalan terhadap tawanan perang AS di K orea."</ref> The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives, and they were interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques[29] CIA ingin menggunakan kaedah yang sama pada tawanan mereka sendiri, dan mereka berminat untuk dapat memanipulasi pemimpin asing dengan teknik seperti [30] and invented several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. 391] "Prosedur khas, yang ditetapkan MKDELTA, ditubuhkan untuk mentadbir penggunaan bahan MKUltra di luar negara. Bahan-bahan tersebut telah digunakan pada beberapa kesempatan." </ Ref> dan mencipta beberapa skim untuk ubat Fidel Castro. They often conducted experiments without the subjects' knowledge or consent.[31] In some cases, academic researchers were funded through grants from CIA front organizations but were unaware that the CIA was using their work for these purposes.[32] dibiayai melalui geran dari organisasi hadapan CIA tetapi tidak menyedari bahawa CIA menggunakan karya mereka untuk tujuan ini. [33] The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and to explore other possibilities of mind control. projek ini cuba menghasilkan ubat kebenaran yang tepat untuk menginterogasi para pengintip Soviet yang disyaki semasa Perang Dingin, dan untuk meneroka lain-lain. [sunting | sunting sumber] kemungkinan kawalan minda. Subproject 54 was another MKUltra effort and was the Navy's top secret "Perfect Concussion" program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory. Subproject 54 adalah satu lagi usaha MKUltra dan merupakan program rahsia "Perfect Concussion" rahsia Angkatan Laut, yang sepatutnya menggunakan kekerapan frekuensi sub-aural untuk memadamkan ingatan. However, the program was never carried out.[34] Most MKUltra records were destroyed in 1973 by order of CIA director Richard Helms, so it has been difficult for investigators to gain a complete understanding of more than 150 funded research sub-projects sponsored by MKUltra and related CIA programs.[35] The project began during a period of what Rupert Cornwell described as "paranoia" at the CIA, when the US had lost its nuclear monopoly and fear of Communism was at its height.[36] CIA counter-intelligence chief James Jesus Angleton believed that a mole had penetrated the organization at the highest levels.[36] The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining methods of influencing and controllin eurl = https: //web.archive.org/web/20130331150116/http: //www.hss.doe.gov/healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap3_4.html | archivedate = 31 Mac 2013}} (identik "Oleh kerana kebanyakan rekod MK-ULTRA sengaja dimusnahkan pada tahun 1973 ... MK-ULTRA dan program CIA yang berkaitan." </ ref> Projek ini bermula pada suatu masa yang diterangkan oleh Rupert Cornwell sebagai "paranoia" di CIA, ketika AS telah kehilangan monopoli nuklirnya dan ketakutan Komunisme berada pada ketinggiannya. [36] CIA counter-intelligence ketua James Jesus Angleton percaya bahwa tahi lalat telah menembus organisasi pada tingkat tertinggi. [36] Agensi mencurahkan jutaan dolar ke dalam kajian-kajian yang meneliti cara-cara mempengaruhi dan mengawal g the mind and of enhancing their ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation.[37][38] [38] Some historians assert that one goal of MKUltra and related CIA projects was to create a "Manchurian Candidate" subject through mind control techniques.[39] Beberapa ahli sejarah menegaskan bahawa satu matlamat MKUltra dan projek-projek CIA yang berkaitan adalah untuk mencipta " Manchurian Candidate" subjek melalui teknik kawalan minda. [40] Alfred McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs so that the public would not look at the primary goal of the research, which was developing effective methods of interrogation.[37] One 1955 MKUltra document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort. isbn = 0-340-41230-5}} </ ref> Alfred McCoy telah mendakwa bahawa CIA cuba menumpukan perhatian media terhadap macam-macam program yang "tidak masuk akal" ini supaya orang ramai tidak akan melihat matlamat utama penyelidikan, yang sedang membangunkan kaedah-kaedah soal siasat yang berkesan. [37] Satu dokumen 1955 MKUltra memberikan petunjuk ukuran dan jangkauan usaha. It refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as follows:[41]

</ ref>

Ralat: Tiada teks yang diberikan untuk sebut harga (atau sama dengan tanda-tanda yang digunakan dalam hujah sebenar parameter 1 tidak dinamakan)

The Church Committee report in 1976 found that, in the MKDELTA program, "Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKULTRA/MKDELTA materials were also used for harassment, discrediting, or disabling purposes."[42][43][44] [43] [44] ===Other related projects=== In 1964, MKSEARCH was the name given to the continuation of the MKULTRA program. = 1964, MKSEARCH adalah nama yang diberikan kepada kesinambungan daripada program MKULTRA. The MKSEARCH program was divided into two projects dubbed MKOFTEN/CHICKWIT. Program MKSEARCH dibahagikan kepada dua projek yang dijuluki MKOFTEN / CHICKWIT. Funding for MKSEARCH commenced in 1965, and ended in 1971.[45] The project was a joint project between The US Army Chemical Corps and the Central Intelligence Agency's Office of Research and Development to find new offensive-use agents with a focus on incapacitating agents. Pembiayaan untuk MKSEARCH bermula pada tahun 1965, dan berakhir pada tahun 1971. [45] Projek ini merupakan projek bersama antara US Army Chemical Corps dan Office of Research and Development Agency Intelligence Central untuk mencari ejen penggunaan memberi tumpuan kepada agen yang tidak mampu. The purpose of the project was to develop, test, and evaluate capabilities in the covert use of biological, chemical, and radioactive material systems and techniques for producing predictable human behavioral and/or physiological changes in support of highly sensitive operational requirements.[45] By March 1971 over 26,000 potential agents had been acquired for future screening.[46] The CIA were interested in bird migration patterns for CBW research under MK/ULTRA where, a Subproject 139 designated "Bird Disease Studies" at Penn State.[47] MKOFTEN was to deal with testing and toxicological, transmissivity and behavioral effects of drugs in animals and, ultimately, humans.[45] MKCHICKWIT was concerned with acquiring information on new drug developments in Europe and the Orient, and with acquiring samples.[45] ==American Experiments== CIA documents suggest that they investigated "chemical, biological, and radiological" methods of mind control as part of MKUltra.[48] MKOFTEN adalah untuk menangani pengujian dan toksikologi, transmissivity dan kesan tingkah laku ubat-ubatan pada haiwan dan, pada akhirnya, manusia. [45] MKCHICKWIT bimbang dengan memperoleh maklumat tentang perkembangan ubat baru di Eropah dan Timur, sampel. [45] == American Experiments == Dokumen-dokumen CIA menunjukkan bahawa mereka menyiasat kaedah kawalan kimia minda, biologi dan radiologi sebagai sebahagian daripada MKUltra. [49] They spent an estimated $10 million or more, roughly $87.5 million adjusted for inflation.[50] ===LSD=== Early CIA efforts focused on LSD-25, which later came to dominate many of MKUltra's programs.[51] The CIA wanted to know if they could make Soviet spies defect against their will and whether the Soviets could do the same to the C Mereka membelanjakan kira-kira $ 10 juta atau lebih, kira-kira $ 87.5 juta diselaraskan untuk inflasi. [52] === LSD === Usaha awal CIA memberi tumpuan kepada LSD-25, yang kemudiannya menguasai banyak program MKUltra. [51] CIA ingin tahu sama ada mereka boleh membuat kecacatan mata-mata Soviet terhadap kehendak mereka dan sama ada Soviet boleh melakukan perkara yang sama dengan C IA's own operatives.[53] Once Project MKUltra got underway in April 1953, experiments included administering LSD to mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts, and sex workers—"people who could not fight back," as one agency officer put it.[54] Setelah Projek MKUltra dijalankan pada bulan April 1953, eksperimen termasuk menguruskan LSD kepada pesakit mental, tahanan, penagih dadah, dan pekerja seks & mdash; "orang yang tidak dapat melawan," sebagai seorang pegawai agensi meletakkannya. [54] In one case, they administered LSD to a mental patient in Kentucky for 174 days.[54] They also administered LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, and members of the general public to study their reactions. Mengambil LSD ke CIA | author = Tim Weiner | url = https: //www.nytimes.com/1999/03/10/us/sidney-gottlieb-80-dies-took-lsd-to-cia.html | newspaper = </ Ref> Dalam satu kes, mereka menguruskan LSD ke pesakit mental di Kentucky selama 174 hari. [54] Mereka juga menguruskan LSD ke Pekerja CIA, anggota tentera, doktor, ejen kerajaan lain, dan orang awam untuk mengkaji reaksi mereka. LSD and other drugs were often administered without the subject's knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code the US had agreed to follow after World War II. LSD dan ubat-ubatan lain sering ditadbir tanpa pengetahuan subjek atau persetujuan [informed informed]], pelanggaran terhadap Kod Nuremberg AS telah bersetuju untuk mengikuti Perang Dunia II. The aim of this was to find drugs which would bring out deep confessions or wipe a subject's mind clean and program him or her as "a robot agent."[55] In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels within agency safehouses in San Francisco, California, to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. Majalah Persepsi, hlm.56. </ Ref> Dalam Midnight Climax Operasi, CIA menubuhkan beberapa brothel di dalam peti besi agensi di San Francisco, California, untuk mendapatkan pilihan lelaki yang akan menjadi terlalu malu untuk bercakap tentang peristiwa. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study.[56] In other experiments where people were given LSD without their knowledge, they were interrogated under bright lights with doctors in the background taking notes. halaman = 106-7}} </ ref> Dalam eksperimen lain di mana orang diberi LSD tanpa pengetahuan mereka, mereka diinterogasi di bawah lampu terang dengan doktor di latar belakang yang mengambil nota. They told subjects they would extend their "trips" if they refused to reveal their secrets. Mereka memberitahu mata pelajaran mereka akan melanjutkan "perjalanan" mereka jika mereka enggan mendedahkan rahsia mereka. The people under this interrogation were CIA employees, US military personnel, and agents suspected of working for the other side in the Cold War. Orang-orang di bawah soal siasat ini adalah pekerja CIA, anggota tentera Amerika Syarikat, dan agen yang disyaki bekerja untuk pihak lain dalam Perang Dingin. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this.[55] Heroin addicts were bribed into taking LSD with offers of more heroin.[23] At the invitation of Stanford psychology graduate student Vik Lovell, an acquaintance of Richard Alpert and Allen Ginsberg, Ken Kesey volunteered to take part in what turned out to be a CIA-financed study under the aegis of MKULTRA,[57] at the Menlo Park Veterans' Hospital[58][59] where he worked as a night aide.[60] di Menlo Park Hospital Veteran [61] [62] The project studied the effects of psychoactive drugs, particularly LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, cocaine, aMT, and DMT on people.[63] The Office of Security used LSD in interrogations but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MKUltra, had other ideas; Projek ini mengkaji kesan Psychedelics, dissociatives, dan deliriants | ubat psikoaktif], terutamanya LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, [[ [63] Office of Security used LSD in interrogations but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, diarahkan MKUltra, mempunyai idea lain; he thought it could be used in covert operations. dia fikir ia boleh digunakan dalam operasi rahsia. Since its effects were temporary, he believed one could give it to high-ranking officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches etc. Since he realized there was a difference in testing the drug in a laboratory and using it in clandestine operations, he initiated a series of experiments where LSD was given to people in "normal" settings without warning. Oleh kerana kesannya bersifat sementara, beliau percaya seseorang dapat memberikannya kepada pegawai tinggi dan dengan cara ini mempengaruhi perjalanan mesyuarat penting, ucapan dan lain-lain. Oleh kerana dia menyedari terdapat perbezaan dalam menguji ubat di makmal dan menggunakannya dalam klandestin operasi, beliau memulakan siri eksperimen di mana LSD diberikan kepada orang dalam tetapan "biasa" tanpa amaran. At first, everyone in Technical Services tried it; Pada mulanya, semua orang dalam Perkhidmatan Teknikal mencubanya; a typical experiment involved two people in a room where they observed each other for hours and took notes. eksperimen biasa melibatkan dua orang di dalam bilik di mana mereka memerhatikan satu sama lain selama berjam-jam dan mengambil nota. As the experimentation progressed, a point arrived where outsiders were drugged with no explanation whatsoever and surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives. Apabila percubaan itu berkembang, satu titik tiba di mana orang luar dijangkiti tanpa penjelasan apa pun dan mengejutkan perjalanan asid menjadi sesuatu bahaya pekerjaan di kalangan koperasi CIA. Adverse reactions often occurred, such as an operative who received the drug in his morning coffee became psychotic and ran across Washington, seeing a monster in every car passing him. Reaksi buruk sering berlaku, seperti pengendali yang menerima ubat itu dalam kopi pagi menjadi psikotik dan berlari melintasi Washington, melihat raksasa di setiap kereta yang melaluinya. The experiments continued even after Dr. Eksperimen berlanjutan walaupun selepas Dr. Frank Olson, an Army scientist who had not taken LSD before, went into deep depression after a surprise trip and later fell from a thirteenth story window.[64][./Projek_MKUltra#cite_note-lee-64 [64]] Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in these cases they appeared to be singled out for even more extreme experiments. Grove Press. </ Ref> Penyertaan beberapa subjek adalah persetujuan, dan dalam kes-kes ini, mereka kelihatan dipilih untuk eksperimen yang lebih ekstrim. In one case, seven volunteers in Kentucky were given LSD for seventy-seven consecutive days.[65] MKUltra's researchers later dismissed LSD as too unpredictable in its results.[66] They gave up on the notion LSD was "the secret that was going to unlock the universe," but it still had a place in the cloak-and-dagger arsenal. </ Ref> Peneliti MKUltra kemudiannya menolak LSD sebagai terlalu tidak dapat diprediksi dalam hasilnya. [67] Mereka menyerah pada tanggapan LSD adalah "rahsia yang akan membuka kunci alam semesta," tetapi ia masih mempunyai tempat dalam senjata jubah-dan-keris. However, by 1962 the CIA and the army developed a series of superhallucinogens such as the highly touted BZ, which was thought to hold greater promise as a mind control weapon. Walau bagaimanapun, menjelang tahun 1962, CIA dan tentera membangunkan siri superhallucinogen seperti yang dipanggil [3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate | BZ, yang dianggap mempunyai janji yang lebih besar sebagai senjata kawalan minda. This resulted in the withdrawal of support by many academics and private researchers, and LSD research became less of a priority altogether.[64] ===Other drugs=== Another technique investigated was the intravenous administration of a barbiturate into one arm and an amphetamine into the other.[68] The barbiturates were released into the person first, and as soon as the person began to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released. halaman = 40-42}} </ ref> Barbiturates dikeluarkan kepada orang pertama, dan sebaik sahaja orang itu mula tidur, amphetamine dibebaskan. The person would begin babbling incoherently, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers. Orang itu akan mula mengejek, dan kadang-kadang mungkin untuk bertanya dan mendapatkan jawapan yang berguna. Other experiments involved heroin, morphine, temazepam (used under code name MKSEARCH), mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, cannabis, alcohol, and sodium pentothal.[69] ===Hypnosis=== Declassified MKUltra documents indicate they studied hypnosis in the early 1950s. isbn = 0-8129-0773-6}} </ ref> === Hipnosis === Mengkaji semula dokumen MKUltra menunjukkan bahawa mereka belajar hipnosis pada awal tahun 1950-an. Experimental goals included: the creation of "hypnotically induced anxieties," "hypnotically increasing ability to learn and recall complex written matter," studying hypnosis and polygraph examinations, "hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall complex arrangements of physical objects," and studying "relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis."[70] They conducted experiments with drug induced hypnosis and with anterograde and retrograde amnesia while under the influence of such drugs. Matlamat eksperimen termasuk: penciptaan "kebimbangan" kegelisahan, "" keupayaan meningkatkan hipnotis untuk belajar dan mengingat perkara yang kompleks, "mengkaji hipnosis dan pemeriksaan [" polygraph]], "meningkatkan keupayaan hypnotically untuk mengamati dan ingat penyusunan semula objek fizikal yang rumit, "dan mengkaji" hubungan keperibadian menjadi kerentanan kepada hipnosis. "[71] They conducted experiments with drug induced hypnosis and with anterograde and retrograde amnesia while under the influence of such drugs. ==Canadian experiments==

Donald Ewen Cameron c.1967

They exported experiments to Canada when the CIA recruited British psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron, creator of the "psychic driving" concept, which the CIA found interesting. Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted from Albany, New York, to Montreal every week to work at the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 (which would be $603,580 in today's currency, adjusting for inflation) to carry MKUltra experiments there. These research funds were sent to Dr. Cameron by a CIA front organization, the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, and as shown in internal CIA documents, Cameron did not know the money came from the CIA.[72] In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well as electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power. His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced comas for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were often carried on patients who entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanent effects from his actions.[73] His treatments resulted in victims' incontinence, amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents.[74] Several of the children who Cameron experimented on were sexually abused, in at least one case by several men.[petikan diperlukan] One of the children claimed that she was filmed numerous times performing sexual acts with high-ranking federal government officials, in a scheme she said was set up by Cameron and other MKULTRA researchers, to blackmail the officials to ensure further funding for the experiments.[75] His work was inspired and paralleled by the British psychiatrist William Sargant at St Thomas' Hospital, London, and Belmont Hospital, Surrey, who was also involved in the Intelligence Services and who experimented on his patients without their consent, causing similar long-term damage.[76] In the 1980s, several of Cameron's former patients sued the CIA for damages, which the Canadian news program The Fifth Estate documented.[77] Their experiences and lawsuit was made into a 1998 television miniseries called The Sleep Room.[78] During this era, Cameron became known worldwide as the first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as president of the American and Canadian psychiatric associations. Cameron was also a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal in 1946–47.[79] Naomi Klein argues in her book The Shock Doctrine Cameron's research and his contribution to the MKUltra project was not about mind control and brainwashing, but about designing "a scientifically based system for extracting information from 'resistant sources.' In other words, torture."[80] Alfred W. McCoy writes "Stripped of its bizarre excesses, Dr. Cameron's experiments, building upon Donald O. Hebb's earlier breakthrough, laid the scientific foundation for the CIA's two-stage psychological torture method," which refers to first creating a state of disorientation in the subject, and then second creating a situation of "self-inflicted" discomfort in which the disoriented subject can alleviate their pain by capitulating.[81] ==Revelation==

Frank Church headed the Church Committee, an investigation into the practices of the US intelligence agencies.

In 1973, amid a government-wide panic caused by Watergate, CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed.[82] Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MKUltra impossible. A cache of some 20,000 documents survived Helms' purge, as they had been incorrectly stored in a financial records building and were discovered following a FOIA request in 1977. These documents were fully investigated during the Senate Hearings of 1977.[5] In December 1974, The New York Times alleged that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on US citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the US Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into the illegal domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI, and intelligence-related agencies of the military. In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to find out how to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject, Frank Olson had died after administration of LSD. Much of what the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission learned about MKUltra was contained in a report, prepared by the Inspector General's office in 1963, that had survived the destruction of records ordered in 1973.[83] However, it contained little detail. Sidney Gottlieb, who had retired from the CIA two years previously, was interviewed by the committee but claimed to have very little recollection of the activities of MKUltra.[22] The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that "[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects". The committee noted that the "experiments sponsored by these researchers [...] call into question the decision by the agencies not to fix guidelines for experiments." Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President Gerald Ford in 1976 issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence Activities which, among other things, prohibited "experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject" and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National Commission. Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded the directive to apply to any human experimentation.

1977 United States Senate report on MKUltra

In 1977, during a hearing held by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, to look further into MKUltra, Admiral Stansfield Turner, then Director of Central Intelligence, revealed that the CIA had found a set of records, consisting of about 20,000 pages,[petikan diperlukan] that had survived the 1973 destruction orders because they had been incorrectly stored at a records center not usually used for such documents.[83] These files dealt with the financing of MKUltra projects and contained few project details, but much more was learned from them than from the Inspector General's 1963 report. On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:

The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations."

At least one death, the result of the defenestration of Dr. Frank Olson, was attributed to Olson's being subjected, unaware, to such experimentation, nine days before his death. The CIA itself subsequently acknowledged that these tests had little scientific rationale. The agents conducting the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.[84][85] In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely known in 1984 on a CBC news show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron's efforts, but also that the Canadian government was fully aware of this, and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their US counterparts had, and the Canadian government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the 127 victims. Dr. Cameron died on September 8, 1967 after suffering a heart attack while he and his son were mountain climbing. None of Cameron's personal records of his involvement with MKUltra survived, since his family destroyed them after his death.[86][87] ===1984 US General Accounting Office report=== The US General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1984, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances. The quote from the study:[88]

Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects

==Deaths== Given the CIA's purposeful destruction of most records, its failure to follow informed consent protocols with thousands of participants, the uncontrolled nature of the experiments, and the lack of follow-up data, the full impact of MKUltra experiments, including deaths, may never be known.[35][41][88][89] Several known deaths have been associated with Project MKUltra, most notably that of Frank Olson. Olson, a United States Army biochemist and biological weapons researcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in November, 1953, as part of a CIA experiment and committed suicide by jumping out of a window a week later. A CIA doctor assigned to monitor Olson claimed to have been asleep in another bed in a New York City hotel room when Olson exited the window and fell thirteen stories to his death. In 1953, Olson's death was described as a suicide that had occurred during a severe psychotic episode. The CIA's own internal investigation concluded that the head of MKUltra, CIA chemist Sidney Gottlieb, had conducted the LSD experiment with Olson's prior knowledge, although neither Olson nor the other men taking part in the experiment were informed as to the exact nature of the drug until some 20 minutes after its ingestion. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account Olson's already-diagnosed suicidal tendencies, which might have been exacerbated by the LSD.[90] The Olson family disputes the official version of events. They maintain that Frank Olson was murdered because, especially in the aftermath of his LSD experience, he had become a security risk who might divulge state secrets associated with highly classified CIA programs, about many of which he had direct personal knowledge.[91] A few days before his death, Frank Olson quit his position as acting chief of the Special Operations Division at Detrick, Maryland (later Fort Detrick) because of a severe moral crisis concerning the nature of his biological weapons research. Among Olson's concerns were the development of assassination materials used by the CIA, the CIA's use of biological warfare materials in covert operations, experimentation with biological weapons in populated areas, collaboration with former Nazi scientists under Operation Paperclip, LSD mind-control research, and the use of psychoactive drugs during "terminal" interrogations under a program code-named Project ARTICHOKE.[92] Later forensic evidence conflicted with the official version of events; when Olson's body was exhumed in 1994, cranial injuries indicated that Olson had been knocked unconscious before he exited the window.[90] The medical examiner termed Olson's death a "homicide".[93] In 1975, Olson's family received a $750,000 settlement from the US government and formal apologies from President Gerald Ford and CIA Director William Colby, though their apologies were limited to informed consent issues concerning Olson's ingestion of LSD.[89][94] On 28 November 2012, the Olson family filed suit against the US federal government for the wrongful death of Frank Olson.[95] A 2010 book by HP Albarelli Jr. alleged that the 1951 Pont-Saint-Esprit mass poisoning was part of MKDELTA, that Olson was involved in that event, and that he was eventually murdered by the CIA.[96]< ref name="ABC2010">Schpolianksy, Christophe (23 March 2010). "Did CIA Experiment LSD on French Town?". ABCnews.com. ABC News. </ref> However, academic sources[oleh siapa?] attribute the incident to ergot poisoning through a local bakery.[97][98][99] ==Legal issues involving informed consent== The revelations about the CIA and the Army prompted a number of subjects or their survivors to file lawsuits against the federal government for conducting experiments without informed consent. Although the government aggressively, and sometimes successfully, sought to avoid legal liability, several plaintiffs did receive compensation through court order, out-of-court settlement, or acts of Congress. Frank Olson's family received $750,000 by a special act of Congress, and both President Ford and CIA director William Colby met with Olson's family to apologize publicly. Previously, the CIA and the Army had actively and successfully sought to withhold incriminating information, even as they secretly provided compensation to the families. One subject of Army drug experimentation, James Stanley, an Army sergeant, brought an important, albeit unsuccessful, suit. The government argued that Stanley was barred from suing under a legal doctrine—known as the Feres doctrine, after a 1950 Supreme Court case, Feres v. United States—that prohibits members of the Armed Forces from suing the government for any harms that were inflicted "incident to service." In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed this defense in a 5–4 decision that dismissed Stanley's case: United States v. Stanley.[100] The majority argued that "a test for liability that depends on the extent to which particular suits would call into question military discipline and decision making would itself require judicial inquiry into, and hence intrusion upon, military matters." In dissent, Justice William Brennan argued that the need to preserve military discipline should not protect the government from liability and punishment for serious violations of constitutional rights:

The medical trials at Nuremberg in 1947 deeply impressed upon the world that experimentation with unknowing human subjects is morally and legally unacceptable. The United States Military Tribunal established the Nuremberg Code as a standard against which to judge German scientists who experimented with human subjects... . [I]n defiance of this principle, military intelligence officials ... began surreptitiously testing chemical and biological materials, including LSD.

Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing a separate dissent, stated:

No judicially crafted rule should insulate from liability the involuntary and unknowing human experimentation alleged to have occurred in this case. Indeed, as Justice Brennan observes, the United States played an instrumental role in the criminal prosecution of Nazi officials who experimented with human subjects during the Second World War, and the standards that the Nuremberg Military Tribunals developed to judge the behavior of the defendants stated that the 'voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential ... to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts.' If this principle is violated, the very least that society can do is to see that the victims are compensated, as best they can be, by the perpetrators.

In another lawsuit, Wayne Ritchie, a former United States Marshal, after hearing about the project's existence in 1990, alleged the CIA laced his food or drink with LSD at a 1957 Christmas party which resulted in his attempting to commit a robbery at a bar and his subsequent arrest. While the government admitted it was, at that time, drugging people without their consent, US District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel found Ritchie could not prove he was one of the victims of MKUltra or that LSD caused his robbery attempt and dismissed the case in 2007.[101] ==Scientists involved== *Harold Alexander Abramson *Donald Ewen Cameron *Sidney Gottlieb *Harris Isbell[26] *Louis Jolyon West *José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado *Mark Hinton ==Notable subjects== * Ken Kesey, author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, volunteered for MKUltra experiments involving LSD and other psychedelic drugs at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Menlo Park while he was a student at nearby Stanford University. Kesey's experiences while under the influence of LSD inspired him to promote the drug outside the context of the MKUltra experiments, which influenced the early development of hippie culture.[102][63] * Robert Hunter is an American lyricist, singer-songwriter, translator, and poet, best known for his association with Jerry Garcia and the Grateful Dead. Along with Ken Kesey, Hunter was an early volunteer MKUltra test subject at Stanford University. Stanford test subjects were paid to take LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline, then report on their experiences. These experiences were creatively formative for Hunter:

Sit back picture yourself swooping up a shell of purple with foam crests of crystal drops soft nigh they fall unto the sea of morning creep-very-softly mist ... and then sort of cascade tinkley-bell-like (must I take you by the hand, every so slowly type) and then conglomerate suddenly into a peal of silver vibrant uncomprehendingly, blood singingly, joyously resounding bells... By my faith if this be insanity, then for the love of God permit me to remain insane.[103]

* Boston mobster James "Whitey" Bulger volunteered for testing while in prison in Atlanta in 1957.[104][105] ==Aftermath== At his retirement in 1972, Gottlieb dismissed his entire effort for the CIA's MKUltra program as useless.[36][106] The CIA insists that MKUltra-type experiments have been abandoned, although writer Elizabeth Nickson claims that they continue today under a different set of acronyms.[82] Writer Victor Marchetti stated that the CIA routinely conducted disinformation campaigns and that CIA mind control research continued, claiming that it was a "cover story" that the program had been abandoned[107][108] ==In popular culture==

MKUltra plays a part in many conspiracy theories due to its nature and the destruction of most records.[109] Lawrence Teeter was the attorney for Sirhan Sirhan who assassinated Robert F. Kennedy, and he believed that Sirhan was "operating under MK-ULTRA mind control techniques".[110] American fashion model and radio host Candy Jones claimed to have been a victim of mind control in the 1960s.[111] ===Films=== *Pineapple Express (film) depicts Project MKULTRA in the intro scene, although it is portrayed as taking place in 1937. *Mr. Right (the 2015 US film) Hopper (portrayed by Tim Roth) mentions the CIA ULTRA program (at 27 minutes 15 seconds) as part of the foundation to the main character's motives and backstory. *The Killing Room invokes Project MKULTRA as the foundation to the base plot. *The Banshee Chapter is largely based around MKULTRA. *Jacob's Ladder alludes to Project MKULTRA throughout the movie. *The 1997 film Conspiracy Theory Project MKULTRA is referred to by Dr. Jonas (Patrick Stewart) who says he headed the project. Also, the protagonist, Jerry (Mel Gibson) is reported by Dr. Jonas to be a test subject of Project MKULTRA. *In American Ultra (2015), Jesse Eisenberg plays a stoner slacker who discovers he is the sole survivor of the "Ultra" program, which turned him into the ultimate assassin. *The Jason Bourne books and films starring Matt Damon, written by Robert Ludlum, are all based on MKULTRA techniques, which turned him into the ultimate assassin. *The film The Men Who Stare At Goats is based on the MKULTRA experiments. It is based on a book by Jon Ronson and its accompanying TV series. *2006 movie The Shadow Man starring Steven Seagal has a plot that revolves around MKUltra.[petikan diperlukan] *Marvin Boggs (played by John Malkovich) in the films RED (2010) and RED 2 (2013) had unknowingly been provided daily doses of LSD over a period of 11 years, making him highly paranoid, echoing the actions of MKULTRA. *Captain America: The Winter Soldier (the 2014 US film) Sebastian Stan portrays Bucky Barnes who is subjected to MKUltra-like mind control experiments by the Nazis and Soviets AKA "Hydra" to turn him into the ultimate assassin, "The Winter Soldier".[112] ===Television=== *The 1998 CBC miniseries The Sleep Room dramatizes brainwashing experiments funded by MKUltra that were performed on Canadian mental patients in the 1950s and 60's, and their subsequent efforts to sue the CIA.[78] *BYUtv's drama Granite Flats is a fictional dramatization of the implementation of MKUltra by a military hospital in Colorado. *In season 2, episode 19 of Bones, "Spaceman in a Crater", Jack Hodgins mentions that Frank Olson was an unwitting participant and committed suicide, but that an exhumation 45 years later proved he was murdered.[113] *In an episode of ABC's Marvel's Agents of SHIELD, "The Things We Bury", one of the characters makes a reference to MKUltra. *In season 2, episode 5 of Fringe, "Dream Logic", Walter Bishop briefly mentions his involvement with MKUltra. *In season 6, episode 7 of Archer, "Nellis", Archer briefly mentions MKUltra while bluffing his way into Area 51; in season 7, episode 8, "Liquid Lunch", the program is explained to Archer's colleagues. *In episode "Via Negativa" from the eighth season of The X-Files, The Lone Gunmen mention MKUltra while discussing a case with Agent Doggett. *In The X-Files third-season episode "Jose Chung's From Outer Space", Jose Chung mentions the experiments as an example of the powerful effect "mere words" can have over the human mind. *In Alphas, events imply that the Alphas program had its starts in the MKUltra program, and Dr. Rosen has access to certain files from the MKUltra project. *In season 3, episode 10 of NUMB3RS, Don Eppes investigates the assassinations of a Senator and a Psychiatrist with links to MKUltra. *In the fourth episode of Season 2 of The Blacklist, Cooper mentions Project MKUltra while talking to Elizabeth Keen. The entire episode is based on the premise of using genetic predisposition to make someone commit an act that they most likely would not have done in the first place. *In season 1 of Stranger Things, the antagonist Dr. Martin Brenner is discovered to have been involved in MKUltra. One of the young protagonists, Eleven, was raised in a government laboratory after being born to an MKUltra test subject. *In Season 5, Episode 10 of The West Wing, the White House press secretary is questioned by a reporter about mind control, leading her to investigate MKUltra and the budgetary allocations of DARPA for the project. *Netflix original series Manhunt: Unabomber portrays the psychological torture of 16-year old-Harvard student Theodore Kaczynski by MKUltra researchers. Kaczynski was the perpetrator of serial bombings over a 17-year period and became known as the Unabomber. *The 2017 Netflix documentary re-enactment mini-series Wormwood tells the story of Frank Olson and MKUltra through the eyes of his son, Eric. ===Audio=== *The song, "MK Ultra", by British band Muse makes direct reference to this project in the title and uses lyrics to convey the effects of the project directly on a subject. *Lyrics of "Look... The Sun is Rising", the opening track to The Flaming Lips' 2013 album The Terror, narrate "a little spaceship" as a mechanism for MKUltra mind control. *The song, "The 4th Branch" by rapper Immortal Technique from his album Revolutionary Volume 2, compares modern media to MKUltra, "controlling your brain". *The songs, "US Government" and "MK Ultra" by Black Rebel Motorcycle Club make direct reference to the project, as well as more oblique references in the lyrics. *The Providence, Rhode Island-based hardcore punk band Violent Sons named a song "MK Ultra" on their 2013 full-length, Nothing as It Seems. *The song, "MK Ultra", by progressive metal band Periphery makes direct reference to the project in the title and speaks of the abuse children received from the CIA during the experiments. *Olympia-based band Unwound recorded a song named "Mkultra" on both theA Single History: 1991–1997 and Rat Conspiracy compilations. *The song "They. Resurrect. Over. New." by rapper Lupe Fiasco from his 2015 album Tetsuo & Youth mentions MKUltra. *The album Chemistry of Consciousness by heavy metal band Toxic Holocaust contains several references to the experiments, including a song titled "Mkultra". *On metal band Arsonists Get All the Girls' 2013 album, Listen to the Color, a song references the program through title and lyrics called "MK-ULTRA: Psychotropic Puppets". Another song of the album is titled "MK-DELTA: Glorified Killers". ===Others=== *The Stephen King book Firestarter is based on a fictionalized version of the MK Ultra experiments, and the protagonists all acquire powers as a result of the experimentation. *The horror game Outlast makes several major references to MK Ultra and implies that the experiments on the asylum inmates in the game are either a part of or associated with the program. *Project MKUltra is mentioned in Call Of Duty: Black Ops as the Soviet Union's attempt to turn protagonist Alex Mason into a Soviet sleeper agent with orders to assassinate President Kennedy. Mason's handler, CIA agent Jason Hudson, even mentions it when telling Mason he had been brainwashed by the Soviets. *The manga Lost+Brain mentions MKUltra when speaking about using hypnosis to control the country. *Science Fiction/Fantasy novel Omens by Kelley Armstrong uses MKUltra as a driving portion of its plot. *The game Manhunt 2 is based around "The Pickman Project" which has several similarities to MKUltra and it is likely it was directly inspired by it. *A cannabis strain called MKUltra has been developed by THSeeds of Amsterdam.[114] *Project MKUltra is mentioned in the 2016 video game Mafia III. It is mentioned by one of the characters, an ex-CIA agent John Donovan. *In the broadway musical under the title of "We Will Rock You" MK Ultra is referred to as the Bohemians are brainwashed and experimented on to become vegetables. *The online, anonymously-written science fiction and horror story 9MOTHER9HORSE9EYES9 borrows from and refers to the MKUltra project directly.[115] *The fictitious video game known as Polybius had spread around as an urban myth in 1981. Many of the key points of Polybius allude to government control testing and other "men in black" type figures, suggesting Polybius took inspiration from project MKUltra at the time of its creation.[116] ==See also== === Domestic === * CIA activities in the United States * Operation Midnight Climax * Project ARTICHOKE ===International=== * Human experimentation in North Korea * Human radiation experiments *Human rights violations by the CIA * Nazi human experimentation * Poison laboratory of the Soviet secret services * Unethical human experimentation in the United States * Unit 731 ===Operations=== * Category:Central Intelligence Agency operations * Project MKCHICKWIT * Project MKOFTEN ===Other=== * Harold Blauer ==References==

  1. ^ "One of the Most Shocking CIA Programs of All Time: Project MKUltra" (dalam bahasa Inggeris). 2013-09-23. Dicapai 2016-08-18. 
  2. ^ [http: //www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2013/09/one-shocking-cia-programs-time-project-mkultra/ "Salah satu program CIA yang paling mengejutkan sepanjang masa: Projek MKUltra"] Check |url= value (bantuan) (dalam bahasa Inggeris). 2013-09-23. Dicapai 2016-08-18. 
  3. ^ Advisory on Human Radiation Experiments, July 5, 1994, National Security Archives, retrieved January 16, 2014 Diarkibkan July 13, 2013, di Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ Jo Thomas (3 Sep 1977). "CIA Says It Found More Secret Papers on Behavior Control: Senate Panel Puts Off Hearing to Study Data Dozen Witnesses Said To Have Misled Inquiry". New York Times. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f healthsafety/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap3_4.html Chapter 3: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals Diarkibkan 2013-03-31 di Wayback Machine. Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "nytimes.com" defined multiple times with different content Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "nytimes.com" defined multiple times with different content
  6. ^ Projek ini dianjurkan menerusi CIA Office of Intelligence Scientific dan diselaraskan dengan Laboratorium Peperangan Biologi AS. <Ref> [http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/radiation/ dir / mstreet / commeet / meet4 / trnsct04.txt Penasihat mengenai Eksperimen Sinaran Manusia, 5 Julai 1994, Arkib Keselamatan Nasional, diambil 16 Januari 2014 Ralat Lua pada baris 395 di Modul:Webarchive: attempt to concatenate field 'host' (a nil value).
  7. ^ Jo Thomas (3 Sep 1977). "CIA Says Ia Menemukan Lebih Kertas Rahsia Mengenai Kawalan Perilaku: Panel Senat Menutup Pendengaran untuk Belajar Data Sedozen Saksi Said Mempunyai pertanyaan yang tersesat".  Parameter |akhbar= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan);
  8. ^ US Senate Report on CIA MKULTRA Behavioral Modification Program 1977 | Kesihatan / Kesan / Roadmap / achre / chap3_4.html Bab 3: Pembebanan Mahkamah Agung Memohon Kod Nuremberg: CIA dan DOD Skandal Penyelidikan Subjek Manusia <! - Bot dijana tajuk -> Ralat Lua pada baris 395 di Modul:Webarchive: attempt to concatenate field 'host' (a nil value).
  9. ^ Laporan Senat AS mengenai Program Pengubahsuaian Perilaku CIA MKULTRA 1977 | Public Intelligence
  10. ^ . 8 Ogos 1977.  Teks " Pengawasan Bersama di hadapan Jawatankuasa Pilih Perisikan dan Jawatankuasa Kecil Mengenai Penyelidikan Kesihatan dan Ilmiah Jawatankuasa Sumber Manusia, Senat Negara Bersatu, Kongres Sembilan puluh Kelima, Sesi Pertama" diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter |penerbit= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Missing or empty |title= (bantuan);
  11. ^ Empty citation (bantuan) 
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  15. ^ Empty citation (bantuan) 
  16. ^ "Dialogue Sought With Professor In CIA Probe" (PDF) (dalam bahasa Inggeris). 1977-08-27. Dicapai 2017-12-27. 
  17. ^ "Statement of Director of Central Intelligence Before Subcommittee On Health And Scientific Research Senate Committee on Human Resources" (PDF) (dalam bahasa Inggeris). 1977-09-21. Dicapai 2017-12-27. 
  18. ^ {{Cite book|title=American Torture: From the Cold War to Abu Ghraib and Beyond|last=Otterman|first=Michael|publisher=Melbourne Univ MKUltra menggunakan banyak kaedah untuk memanipulasi keadaan mental orang dan mengubah fungsi otak, termasuk pentadbiran ubat-ubatan (terutama LSD) dan bahan kimia lain, hipnosis, <ref> [https: //www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP88-01315R000400250013-0.pdf "Dialogue Sought With Professor In CIA Probe"] Check |url= value (bantuan) (PDF) (dalam bahasa Inggeris). 1977-08-27. Dicapai 2017-12-27. 
  19. ^ [https: //www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA- RDP99-00498R000300020007-3.pdf "Pernyataan Pengarah Perisikan Pusat Sebelum Jawatankuasa Kecil Mengenai Jawatankuasa Senat Penyelidikan Kesihatan dan Sains di Sumber Manusia"] Check |url= value (bantuan) (PDF) (dalam bahasa Inggeris). 1977-09-21. Dicapai 2017-12 -27.  Check date values in: |access-date= (bantuan)
  20. ^ Otterman, Michael (2007). Perang Dingin ke Abu Ghraib dan Beyond. Melbourne Univ ersity Publishing. m/s. 24. ISBN 0522853331. 
  21. ^ McCoy, Alfred (2007). A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror. Macmillan. m/s. 29. ISBN 1429900687. 
  22. ^ a b c Horrock, Nicholas M. (4 Aug 1977). "80 Institutions Used in CIA Mind Studies: Admiral Turner Tells Senators of Behavior Control Research Bars Drug Testing Now". New York Times.  Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "autogenerated6" defined multiple times with different content
  23. ^ a b c Project MKUltra, The CIA's Program of Research in Sesi Penerbitan (Laporan). 2007. m/s 24. ISBN 0522853331. Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ReferenceA" defined multiple times with different content
  24. ^ McCoy, Alfred (2007). A Question of Slaughtering: Perang ke Perang pada Keganasan. Macmillan. m/s. 29. ISBN 1429900687. 
  25. ^ {{cite news | penyiasatan Komite Gereja dan Komisi Rockefeller bergantung pada kesaksian para peserta langsung dan pada jumlah dokumen yang relatif kecil yang selamat dari perintah pemusnahan Helms. <ref name = "Cia"> Empty citation (bantuan) 
  26. ^ a b c {{cite news |author= |coauthors= |title=Private Institutions Used In CIA Effort To Control Behavior. Pada tahun 1977, sebuah Kebebasan Maklumat Maklumat meminta mengungkap cache 20,000 dokumen yang berkaitan dengan projek MKUltra yang membawa kepada pemeriksaan Senat pada tahun itu. Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "mk1977" defined multiple times with different content
  27. ^ Church Committee; Projek ini diketuai oleh Sidney Gottlieb tetapi bermula dengan arahan pengarah CIA Allen Welsh Dulles pada 13 April 1953. <ref> Jawatankuasa Gereja; p. [http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/church/reports/book1/html/ChurchB1_0199b.htm ms. 390 "MKUltra was approved by the DCI [Director of Central Intelligence] on April 13, 1953"
  28. ^ "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada November 9, 2004. Dicapai August 24, 2005.  "MKUltra, began in 1950 and was motivated largely in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean uses of mind-control techniques on US prisoners of war in K "MKUltra telah diluluskan oleh DCI [ Director of Central Intelligence] pada 13 April 1953"
  29. ^ Church Committee;
  30. ^ Jawatankuasa Gereja; p. [http://www.aarclibrary.org/publib/church/reports/book1/html/ChurchB1_0200a.htm ms. 391 "A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKUltra materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions."
  31. ^ Church Committee; Mereka sering melakukan eksperimen tanpa pengetahuan atau persetujuan mata pelajaran. <Ref> Jawatankuasa Gereja; "The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that '[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects.'"
  32. ^ {{cite journal | "Jawatankuasa kongres yang menyelidiki penyelidikan CIA, dipimpin oleh Senator Frank Church, menyimpulkan bahawa persetujuan '[p] rior jelas tidak diperoleh dari mana-mana subjek.'"
  33. ^ . June 2007.  Parameter | jumlah= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | isu= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | halaman= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | <span class= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | title= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | jurnal= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | accessdate= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | url= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | pertama= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | format= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter |tarikh= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | last= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Missing or empty |title= (bantuan)
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  35. ^ a b [https: //web.archive.org/web/20100620105003/http: //druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/e1950/mkultra Sebanyak rekod MKUltra telah dimusnahkan pada tahun 1973 oleh perintah pengarah CIA Richard Helms, jadi sukar bagi penyidik ​​untuk mendapatkan pemahaman yang lengkap. </ P> <p align = "justify" lebih daripada 150 projek subjek yang dibiayai oleh MKUltra dan program CIA berkaitan. chap3_4.html "Bab 3, bahagian 4: Mahkamah Agung Penasihat Menyeru Kod Nuremberg: CIA dan DOD Skala Penyelidikan Subjek Manusia"] Check |archiveurl= value (bantuan). Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada March 31, 2013. Dicapai April 16, 2013.  Teks "archiv Namun, program ini tidak pernah dilaksanakan. Druglibrary.org" diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter |kerja= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter |arkib <span class= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); zero width space character dalam |archiveurl= di kedudukan 228 (bantuan) (identical sentence) "Because most of the MK-ULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 ... MK-ULTRA and the related CIA programs."
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  38. ^ a b {{cite book| g minda dan meningkatkan keupayaan mereka untuk mengekstrak maklumat dari subjek yang tahan semasa soal siasat. <ref name = "question-torture"> McCoy, Alfred (2006). A Question of Slaughter: CIA Interrogation from Perang Dingin ke Perang pada Keganasan. Buku Metropolitan. m/s. 8, 22, 30. ISBN 0-8050-8041-4.  Parameter |lokasi= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan) Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "shock-doctrine" defined multiple times with different content
  39. ^ Empty citation (bantuan) 
  40. ^ Templat:Cite buku
  41. ^ a b {{cite web | Ia merujuk kepada kajian tentang pelbagai bahan pemikiran yang digambarkan seperti berikut: <ref name = "arts.rpi.edu"> . Diarkibkan daripada yang asal|archive-url= memerlukan |url= (bantuan) pada 2007-11-28.  Parameter | tarikh= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | penerbit= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | format= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | url= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter | <span class= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Missing or empty |title= (bantuan);
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  44. ^ a b {{cite book|last1=Thomas|first1=Gordon|title=Journey into madness : the true story of secret CIA mind control and me Laporan dari Church Committee pada tahun 1976 menemukan bahwa, dalam program MKDELTA, "Obat-obatan digunakan terutama sebagai bantuan untuk interogasi, tetapi bahan MKULTRA / MKDELTA juga digunakan untuk mengganggu, mendiskreditkan, atau melumpuhkan tujuan." < ref> [https: //archive.org/stream/finalreportofsel01unit#page/390/mode/2up Buku 1: Laporan akhir Jawatankuasa Pilihan untuk Menjalankan Operasi Kerajaan dengan Menghormati Aktiviti Perisikan, Senat Amerika Syarikat: bersama-sama dengan pandangan tambahan, tambahan dan berasingan] Check |url= value (bantuan).  Parameter |tarikh= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter |halaman= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); Parameter |penerbit= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan) Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Thomas1989" defined multiple times with different content
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  69. ^ {{cite book | Eksperimen lain melibatkan heroin, morfin, temazepam (digunakan di bawah nama kod MKSEARCH), mescaline, psilocybin, Hyoscine hydrobromide | scopolamine] [cannabis (dadah) | cannabis]], alkohol, dan sodium pentothal. <ref> Empty citation (bantuan) 
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==Further reading== * "US Congress: The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence (Church Committee report), report no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, DC: GPO, 1976), 394".  * "US Senate: Joint Hearing before The Select Committee on Intelligence and The Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, 95th Cong., 1st Sess. August 3, 1977".  * "The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control: The Secret History of the Behavioral Sciences".  *Acid: The Secret History of LSD, by David Black, London: Vision, 1998, ISBN 1901250113. Later edition exists. *Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond by Martin Lee and Bruce Shlain, New York: Grove Press, 1985, ISBN 0802130623 *The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, by John Ranelagh, p208-210. *80 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time, by Jonathan Vankin and John Whalin, chapter 1, "CIAcid Drop". *In the Sleep Room: The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada, Anne Collins, Lester & Orpen Dennys (Toronto), 1988. *Journey into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse, by Gordon Thomas, NY: Bantam, 1989, ISBN 0553284134 *Operation Mind Control: Our Secret Governments's War Against Its Own People, by WH Bowart, New York: Dell, 1978, ISBN 0440167558 *The Men Who Stare at Goats, by Jon Ronson, Picador, 2004, ISBN 0330375482 *The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, by John Marks, WW Norton & Company Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0393307948 *Storming Heaven: LSD and The American Dream, by Jay Stevens, New York: Grove Press, 1987, ISBN 0802135870 ==External links==

* Entire Four (4) CD-ROM set of CIA / MKUltra Declassified documents released by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), image format, The Black Vault * MKUltra Declassified documents, PDF format * US Supreme Court, CIA v. Sims, 471 US 159 (1985) 471 US 159, Findlaw * US Supreme Court, United States v. Stanley, 483 US 669 (1987) 483 US 669, Findlaw * Mind Control and MKULTRA by Richard G. Gall * The Most Dangerous Game Downloadable 8 minute documentary by independent filmmakers GNN * Results of the 1973 Church Committee Hearings, on CIA misdeeds, and the 1984 Iran/Contra Hearings * gtesting-report.htm XXVII. Testing and Use of Chemical and Biological Agents by the Intelligence Community * List of MKULTRA Unclassified Documents including subprojects * http://www.commissiononassisteddying.co.uk/mk-ultra-project/ Templat:US chemical weapons