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Masakan Lao adalah masakan kumpulan etnik Lao dari Laos dan Thailand Timur Laut (Isan). Masakan Lao berbeza dari masakan Asia Tenggara lain. Makanan asasi Laos adalah pulut dimakan dengan. Galangal, lemongrass dan padaek (kuah ikan Lao) adalah ramuan penting. Hidangan termasyhur adalah laap (Templat:Lang-lo; kadang-kadang dieja larb), suatu campuran pedas marinated meat and/or fish that is sometimes raw (prepared like ceviche) with a variable combination of herbs, greens, and spices. Another Lao staple dish is a spicy green papaya salad dish known as tam mak hoong (Templat:Lang-lo) or som tam.
Lao cuisine has many regional variations, according in part to the fresh foods local to each region. A French legacy is also apparent in the capital city, Vientiane, such that baguettes are sold on the street, and French restaurants (often with a naturally Lao, Asian-fusion touch) are common and popular.
- Galangal: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ข่า, IPA: kʰaː), typically used in soups, mixed dishes and marinades
- Kaffir lime: (Templat:Lang-lo, maak-khii-huut), typically used in soups and stews
- Lemon grass: (Templat:Lang-lo, hua sing-khai), used in soups, stews and marinades
- Lao eggplant: (Templat:Lang-lo; IPA: maːk kʰɯːa), small and round Kermit eggplant, used in stews or eaten raw
- Papaya (green): (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: มักหุ่ง, IPA: maːk huŋ), shredded and used in spicy papaya salad.
- Tamarind: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ใบหมากขาม, IPA: baj maːk kʰaːm), sour fruit used in soups or as a snack.
- Tamarind leaf: (Templat:Lang-lo used in soups
- Cha-om (acacia): used in soups, curries, omelettes, and stir-fries
- Coriander (cilantro): (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ผักซี, IPA: pʰak siː), both leaves and seeds added to dips, marinades, and a wide variety of dishes.
- Chile pepper: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: พริก, IPA: pʰik), seven popular types
- Lao basil: eaten raw with feu
- Mint: Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ใบสะระแหน่, IPA: baj saʔlaʔnɛː), used in goy/laap, and eaten raw
- Lao coriander: ("Lao dill"), used in stews and eaten raw
- Lemon basil: แมงลัก used in soups and stews
- Garlic: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: กระเทียม, IPA: gaʔ tʰiːam)
- Ginger root: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ขิง, IPA: kʰiŋ)
- Banana flower: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: หมากปี, IPA: maːk piː), a raw accompaniment to noodle soup or cooked in others.
- Ginger flower
- Bamboo shoots: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: หน่อไม้, IPA: nɔː mɑj), used in stews or boiled as a side dish
- Rattan shoots: typically used in stews (bitter)
- Mushrooms: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: เห็ด, IPA: het), used in soups and stir-fries.
- Yanang leaf: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ใบย่านาง, IPA: baj jaːnaːŋ), used as a green colouring agent and as a seasoning or thickener for soups and stews.
- Turkey berry: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: หมากแค้ง, IPA: mak kʰɛːŋ), Solanum torvum, typically used in stews and curries.
- Yard long beans: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: หมากถั่ว, IPA: maːk tʰua), eaten raw, in stews, and can be made into a spicy bean salad (tam mak thoua).
- Phak kadao: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ผักกะเดา, IPA: pʰak gaʔdaw), Azadirachta indica or neem, a bitter vegetable often eaten raw.
- Phak lin may: a bitter green, eaten raw
- Wild betel leaves: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ผักอีเลิด, IPA: pʰak iːlɤt), Piper sarmentosum, a green, eaten raw
- Scarlet wisteria: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan:ดอกแค, IPA: dɔːk kʰɛː) Sesbania grandiflora, blossom eaten as vegetable in soups and curries.
- Phak bong: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ผักบุ้ง, IPA: pak buŋ), Ipomoea aquatica, stir-fried, steamed, or eaten as raw vegetable accompaniment.
- Nam pa: clear fish sauce (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: น้ำปลา, IPA: nam paː), used as a general condiment.
- Padaek: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ปลาแดก, IPA: paː dɛːk), Lao-style fish paste.
- "Three-layer pork": pork belly
- Dried water buffalo skin: used in jaew bong and stews
- Sa khan: stem of Piper ribesioides, used in stews
- Kaipen: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: ไกแผ่น, IPA: kʰaj pʰɛːn), dried sheets of edible Mekhong River algae, similar to nori.
- Lime: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: หมากนาว, IPA: maːk naːw), common ingredient to many dishes.
- Tomato: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: หมากเล่น, IPA: maːk leːn), eaten as a garnish item or in papaya salad.
- Cucumber: (Templat:Lang-lo, Isan: หมากแตง, IPA: maːk tɛːn), eaten as a garnish or as a substitute for green papaya in salad.
Kitchen utensils [sunting]
The typical Lao stove, or brazier, is called a tao-lo and is fueled by charcoal. It is shaped like a bucket, with room for a single pot or pan to sit on top. The wok, maw khang in Lao, is used for frying and stir frying. Sticky rice is steamed inside of a bamboo basket, a huad, which sits on top of a pot, which is called the maw nung.
A large, deep mortar called a khok is used for pounding tam mak hoong and other foods. It is indispensable in the Lao kitchen.
Cooking methods [sunting]
Grilling, boiling, stewing, steaming, searing and mixing (as in salads) are all traditional cooking methods. Stir-frying is now common, but considered to be a Chinese influence. Stews are often green in color, because of the large proportion of vegetables used as well as ya nang leaf. Soups are categorized as follows, tom, tom jeud, keng, and keng soua. Keng is soup that contains ginger and padek, and keng soua is keng that contains both galangal and ginger. Tom Jeud is mild soup that isn't flavored with strong spices.
"Ping" means grilled. It is a favorite cooking method. Ping gai is grilled chicken, ping sin is grilled meat, and ping pa is grilled fish. Before grilling, the meat is typically seasoned with minced garlic, minced coriander root, minced galangal, salt, soy sauce, and fish sauce, each in varying quantities, if at all, according to preference. The Lao seem to prefer a longer grilling at lower heat. The result is grilled meat that is typically drier than what Westerners are accustomed to. The Lao probably prefer their food this way, because they wish to keep their hands dry and clean for handling sticky rice. They also typically eat the grilled food with a hot sauce (chaew) of some sort, which takes away the dryness.
Lao food differs from neighboring cuisines in multiple respects. One is that the Lao meal almost always includes a large quantity of fresh raw greens, vegetables and herbs served undressed on the side. Another is that savory dishes are never sweet. "Sweet and sour" is generally considered bizarre and foreign in Laos. Yet another is that some dishes are bitter. There is a saying in Lao cuisine, "van pen lom; khom pen ya," which can be translated as, "sweet makes you dizzy; bitter makes you healthy." A couple of the green herbs favored in Lao cuisine but generally ignored by their neighbors are mint and dill, both of paramount importance. Galangal is a cooking herb that is heavily favored in Laos, unlike in neighboring countries. It appears in probably the majority of Lao dishes, along with the conventional herbs: garlic, shallots, lemongrass, etc. Another distinctive characteristic of Lao food or more properly, Lao eating habits, is that food is frequently eaten at room temperature. This may be attributable to the fact that Lao food served with sticky rice is traditionally handled by hand.
Eating customs [sunting]
The traditional manner of eating was communal, with diners sitting on a reed mat on the wooden floor around a raised platform woven out of rattan called a ka toke. Dishes are arranged on the ka toke, which is of a standard size. Where there are many diners, multiple ka tokes will be prepared. Each ka toke will have one or more baskets of sticky rice, which is shared by all the diners at the ka toke.
In recent times, eating at a ka toke is the exception rather than the rule. The custom is maintained, however, at temples, where each monk is served his meal on a ka toke. Once food is placed on the "ka toke" it becomes a "pha kao." In modern homes, the term for preparing the table for a meal is still taeng pha kao, or prepare the phah kao.
Traditionally, spoons were used only for soups and white rice, and chopsticks were used only for noodles. Most food was handled by hand. The reason this custom evolved is probably due to the fact that sticky rice can only be easily handled by hand.
Lao meals typically consist of a soup dish, a grilled dish, a sauce, greens, and a stew or mixed dish (koy or laap). The greens are usually fresh raw greens, herbs and other vegetables, though depending on the dish they accompany, they could also be steamed or more typically, parboiled. Dishes are not eaten in sequence; the soup is sipped throughout the meal. Beverages, including water, are not typically a part of the meal. When guests are present, the meal is always a feast, with food made in quantities sufficient for twice the number of diners. For a host, not having enough food for guests would be humiliating.
The custom is to close the rice basket when one is finished eating.
- Jaew Mak Khua: Dips made from roasted eggplant
- Jaew Mak Len: Dips made from roasted sweet tomatoes
- Jaew Bong: sweet and spicy Lao paste made with roasted chilies, pork skin, galangal and other ingredients.
- Kaipen: fried snack made of fresh water algae, usually served with jaew bong
- Lao meatball
- Khua Pak Bong
- som moo: pickled pork ("ham")
- som pa: pickled fish
- som khai pa: pickled fish roe
- som phak kad: pickled greens
- Lao sausage(sai kok): chunky pork sausage
- sai ua
- Lao beef jerky: flash-fried beef
- khai khuam: stuffed eggs "upside down"
- seen tork
- larb: a spicy meat salad (Lao: ລາບ, Isan: ลาบ, IPA: laːp)
- Larb Pa: Lao-style fish salad
- Larb Ped
- Larb Gai
- Larb Muh
- Larb Ngua
- tam mak hoong (Lao: ຕໍາໝາກຫຸ່ງ, Isan: ตำบักหุ่ง, IPA: ɗammakhuŋ): green papaya salad
- pon: spicy puree of cooked fish
- raw banana salad
- yard long bean salad
- Cucumber salad: Lao-style spicy cucumber salad
- or lam: Luang Prabang style green vegetable stew
- or: green vegetable stew
- kaeng nor mai (Lao: ຊຸບໜໍ່ໄມ່, Isan: ฃุบหน่อไม้, IPA: sup nɔːmɑj): green bamboo stew
- tom padaek: fish stewed in padaek
- kaeng kalee: Lao curry
Grilling dishes [sunting]
- ping gai: grilled chicken (ປິງໄກ່, IPA: piŋ gɑj, Isan: ไก่ย่าง, IPA: gɑj ɲːaŋ)
- ping pa: grilled fish mixed with Spiced and Herbs.
- ping sin: dry grilled beef
Steaming dishes [sunting]
- mok pa: fish steamed in banana leaf
- mok gai: chicken steamed in banana leaf
- mok khai
- mok kai pa
- ua dok kae
- Kaeng Pa: Fish soup
- Tom Gai: chicken soup with herbs (Lemongrass, Coriander,...etc)
- kaeng phak (Lao: ຊຸບຜັມ, Isan: ฃุบผัก, IPA: sup pʰak): vegetable soup
- tom kha: fragant galangal soup
- tom yum: tangy lemongrass soup
- kaeng nor mai som: sour bamboo shoot soup
- sousi pa: spicy lemongrass fish soup
- tom mak ha: bitter melon soup
- kaeng som gai: sour chicken soup
- tom tin moo: pig's trotter soup
- nam khao: fried rice ball salad and lettuce wraps
- khao khua: Lao-style fried rice
- khao ping or khao chee: baked sticky rice seasoned with eggs.
- khao piak khao: Lao porridge
- khao niaw: steamed sticky rice
- khao piak sen: Laotian noodle soup
- khao poon: rice vermicelli soup
- mee kati
- mee num
- pad Lao: stir-fried noodles in sweet sauce
- pad sen lon: stir-fried glass noodles
- yum sen lon: tangy salad made with glass noodles
- khua mee: pan-fried rice noodles
- lard na: stir-fried noodles covered in gravy
- num wahn
- khao pard
- khao tom: steamed rice wrapped in banana leaf
- khao khohp
- khanom maw kaeng: coconut custard cake
- sweet steamed pumpkin
- Fruits: water melon, pineapple, sugar apple (custard apple or sweetsop), longan, mango, rose apple (water apple), banana, jackfruit, rambutan, young coconut, orange, sweet tamarind, papaya, durians, sugarcanes, pomelos, sapodilla, guava, star apple, mangosteen, melon, santol, langsat, grapes,corossolier (soursop), mak yom, mak num nom
- lau-lao (Lao whisky)
Lao coffee is often called Pakxong coffee (cafe pakxong in Lao), which is grown on the Bolovens Plateau around the town of Pakxong. This area is sometimes said to be the best place in Southeast Asia for coffee cultivation. Both robusta and arabica are grown in Laos, and if you ask for arabica, there is a very good chance the proprietor will know what you are talking about. Most of the arabica in Laos is consumed locally and most of the robusta is exported to Thailand, where it goes into Nescafe. The custom in Laos is to drink coffee in glasses, with condensed milk in the bottom, followed by a chaser of green tea. The highly-regarded tea is also grown on the Bolovens Plateau.
There are two general types of traditional alcoholic beverages, both produced from rice: lao hai and lao lao. Lao hai means jar alcohol and is served from an earthen jar. It is communally and competitively drunk through straws at festive occasions. It can be likened to sake in appearance and flavor. Lao lao or Lao alcohol is more like a whiskey. It is also called lao khao or, in English, white alcohol. However, there is also a popular variant of lao lao made from purple rice, which has a pinkish hue.
In more recent times, the Laotian state-owned brewery's Beerlao has become ubiquitous in Laos and is highly regarded by expatriates and residents alike. The Bangkok Post has described it as the Dom Perignon of Asian beers. In 2004, Time magazine described it as Asia's best beer. In June 2005, it beat 40 other brews to take the silver prize at Russia's Osiris Beer Festival, which it had entered for the first time.
See also [sunting]
Further reading [sunting]
- Davidson, Alan (1975). Fish and Fish Dishes of Laos. Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Co. ISBN 0-907325-95-5.
- Du Pont De Bie, Natacha (2004). Ant Egg Soup: The Adventures of a Food Tourist in Laos. London: Sceptre. ISBN 0-340-82567-7.
- Sing, Phia. Alan Davidson and Jennifer Davidson, eds. (1981) Traditional Recipes of Laos: Being the Manuscript Recipe Books of the Late Phia Sing, from the Royal Palace at Luang Prabang, Reproduced in Facsimile and Furnished With an English Translation. London: Prospect Books. ISBN 0-907325-02-5.
Pautan luar [sunting]
|Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan: Masakan Laos|
- Lao Cuisine - Flavours of Laos
- Lao Cuisine on No Reservation
- Tastes and Markets of Laos
- The Lao Cook
- Lao Gastronomy
- New York Times Article on Lao food
- Excerpts from Traditional Recipes of Laos
- Article on Lao coffee
- Another Article on Lao coffee
- wokme.com Asian Cooking Guide - Laotian Cuisine
- Some Lao recipes from the Boat Landing
- Video instructions on Thai & Lao food recipes
- Difference between Lao and Thai food