Masakan Thailand

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Kari makanan laut Thailand
Kari makanan laut Thailand
Kaeng phet ped yang: itik panggang dalam kari merah
Kaeng phet ped yang: itik panggang dalam kari merah

Templat:Contains Thai text Masakan Thailand adalah masakan kebangsaan Thailand. Masakan Thailand meletakkan emfasis pada hidangan dihidang ringan dengan komponen aromatik kuat. Masakan Thailand dikenali dengan menjadi pedas. Keseimbangan, perincian dan kepelbagain adalah penting dengan masakan Thailand. Masakan Thailand dikenali dengan keseimbangan lima perisa asas dalam setiap hidangan atau makanan keseluruhan: pedas, masan, manis, masin, dan pahit (sebagai pilihan).[1]

Pengaruh[sunting | sunting sumber]

Walaupun secara masyhur dianggap masakan satu, makanan Thailand akan menjadi lebih tepat dijelaskan sebagai empat masakan serantau berkorespon dengan empat rantau negara: Utara, Timur Laut (atau Isan), Tengah, dan Selatan, setiap masakan mengongsi makanan mirip atau makanan yang berasal dari negara dan rantau jiran: Burma, provinsi Cina Yunnan dan Laos di utara, Kemboja, Laos dan Vietnam di timur dan Malaysia di selatan Thailand. Tambahan pada empat masakan serantau ini, ada juga Thai Royal Cuisine yang dapat mengesan balik sejarahnya balik pada makanan istana kerajaan Ayutthaya (1351-1767 CE). Kehalusannya, teknik-teknik masakan dan kegunaan ramuannya adalah dari pengaruh hebat pada masakan tanah datar Thailand Tengah.

Tradisi berkaitan dengan masak-memasak dan masakan jiran-jiran Thailand telah mempengaruhi masakan Thailand untuk beberapa kurun. Kepelbagaian serantau berniat menghubungkaitkan pada negara-negara jiran dan juga cuaca dan geografi. Kari selatan berniat mengandungi susu kelapa dan kunyit segar, sementara hidangan timur laut sering termasuk jus limau. Hidangan Thailand Timur Luat (atau Isan) dipenagruh berat oleh masakan Laos. Banyak hidangan masyhur dimakan di Thailand terdahulunya hidangan Cina yang diperkenalkan ke Thailand terutamanya oleh orang Teochew yang mendirikan majoriti Cina Thai. Sebarang hidangan termasuk chok (bubur nasi), kuai tiao rat na (mi nasi goreng) dan khao kha mu (daging babi rebus dengan nasi). orang Cina juga memperkenalkan kegunaan sebuah kuali untuk masakan, teknik hidangan goreng dalam dan goreng kacau, dan mi dan hasil kicap.

Hidangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Makanan Thailand di sebuah pekong kampung
Tom yam kung nam khon (Tom yam udang dengan santan)
Phrik nam pla dihidang dengan hampir setiap makanan

Makanan Thailand biasnya terdiri dari sama ada satu hidangan ataupun nasi (khao dalam Bahasa Thai) dengan banyak hidangan saling melengkapi dihidang concurrently dan dikongsi oleh semua. Ia adalah kelazman untuk menghidang hidangan daripada adanya tetamu di sebuah meja.

Makanan Thai mengikut adat dimakan dengan tangan kanan tetapi ia kini biasanya dimakan dengan garpu dan sudu; ini diperkenalkan sebahagian dari Westernisasi sewaktu pemerintahan Raja Mongkut, Rama IV, dari "Th King and I". Ia adalah saudaranya, Vice-king Pinklao, yang, selepas menonton demonstrai etiket makan Barat oleh pengembang agama Amerika Dr. D. B. Bradley, yang memilih hanya garpu dan sudu gaya Barat dari keseluruhan set barangan perak meja untuk digunakan di meja makannya sendiri. Garpu, yang dipegang dalam tangan kiri, digunakan untuk menolak makanan ke dalam sudu. Sudu kemudian dibawa ke mulut. Sudu seramik tradisional kadang-kadang digunakan untuk sup. Pisau biasanya digunakan di meja. Penyepit digunakan asasnya untuk memakan sup mi, tetapi selain itu tidak digunakan.

Ia adalah amalan umum untuk orang Thailan dan orang puak bukit di Utara dan Thailand Timur Laut untuk menggunakan pulut sebagai sebuah perkakas dapat dimakan dengna membentuknya ke dalam bebola yang kecil dan kadang-kadang pipih yang kemudian dicecah ke dalam hidangan tepi dan dimakan. Orang Thai Islam sering makan makanan dengan hanya tangan kanan mereka.

Makanan Thai sering dihidang dengan kepelbagaian sos (nam chim) dan perasa. Ini termasuk phrik nam pla/nam pla phrik (terdiri dari sos ikan, jus limau nipis, cili potong dan bawang putih), emping cili kering, sos cili manis, lada cili potong dalam cuka beras, sos sriracha, atau sos atau pes cili pedas digelar nam phrik. Dalam kebanyakan kedai makan Thailand, pemakan dapat mencari pilihan perasa Thailand, sering termasuk gula atau MSG, diadakan di meja makan dalam pembekal kecil degan sudu kecil. Dengan sesetengah hidangan, seperti khao kha mu (pork trotter stewed in soy sauce and served with rice), keseluruhan Thai pepper dan bawang putih mentah dihidang sebagai tambahan. Timun kadang-kadang dimakan untuk menyejukkan mulut selepas khususnya hidangan pedas. Mereka juga sering dicirikan sebagai hiasan, terutamanya dengan hidangan satu makanan. Nasi putih, pulut atau khanom chin (mi nasi Thailand) dihidang bersama dengan suatu kari pedas atau goreng ringan, lebih mirip kepada mengatasi kepedasan.

Sebuah makanan keluarga Thailand akan biasanya terdiri dari nasi dengan beberapa hidangan yang membentukkan suatu kontras berharmoni ramuan dan cara-cara persiapan. Hidangan semuanya dihidang pada masa yang sama. Suatu makanan di sebuah kedai makan untuk empat orang dapat, misalnya, terdiri dari ikan dalam kari merah kering (Chu chi pla), sebuah ulam betik hijau pedas dengan udang kering, tomato, kacang yardlong dan kacang tanah (Som tam Thai), kepak ayam dintipati goreng dalam (Pik kai sot sai thot), suatu ulam daging lembu panggang, bawang merah dan daun seleri atau pudina (Yam nuea yang), telur kurun goreng ringan pedas dengan selasih rangup (Khai yiao ma phat kaphrao krop), dan sup sayur bukan pedas dan rumpai laut (Tom chuet taohu kap sarai) untuk membajai kesemuanya.

Ramuan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Plathu (sejenis ikan mackerel) sering dimakan sama dengan nam phrik kapi
Beberapa jenis kapi (pes udang galah) dan beg-beg pla ra (kuah ikan) dijuah di sebuah pasar
Snakehead fish packed with lemon grass and lime leaves ready for steaming
Ingredients for green curry

Thailand mempunyai kawasan permukaan yang sama dengan Sepanyol dan panjang lebih kurang 1700 kilometer atau 1000 batu (Itali, dalam perbandingan, adalah lebih kurang 1200 kilometer atau 750 batu panjang) dengan kaki bukit Himalayas di utara, sebuah datar tinggi di timur laut, sebuah basin sungai verdant di tengah dan hutan tropika dan kepulauan di selatan. Dan dengan 40 lebih kumpulan etnik yang berbeza dengan tiap budaya mereka sendiri dan juga lebih bahasa,[2] ia tidak menjadi suatu kejutan bahawa masakan Thailand, sebagai keseluruhan, adalah sangat berlainan dan mencirikan banyak ramuan dan cara-cara menyedia makanan. Makanan Thailand dikenali dengan kegunaan enthusiasticnya herba segar (daripada kering). Herba umum termasuk daun ketumbar, lengkuang, Thai basils dan pudina. Sesetengah perisa lain umum dalam makanan Thailand datang dari halia, lengkuas, kunyit, bawang putih, kacang soya, bawang merah, white and biji lada hitam dan, sudah tentu, cili.

Pes dan sos[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahan yang digunakan di dalam hampir kesemua hidangan Thai dan daerah sekitarnya ialah nam pla, a very aromatic and strong tasting budu. Budu is a staple ingredient in Thai cuisine and imparts a unique character to Thai food. Budu is prepared with fermented fish that is made into a fragrant condiment and provides a salty flavor. There are many varieties of fish sauce and many variations in the way it is prepared. Some fish may be fermented with shrimp and/or spices.
Pla ra is also a sauce made from fermented fish. It is more pungent than nam pla, and, in contrast to nam pla which is a clear liquid, it is opaque and often contains pieces of fish. To use it in Som tam (spicy papaya salad) is a matter of choice.
Kapi, Thai shrimp paste, is a combination of fermented ground shrimp and salt. It is used, for instance, in red curry paste, in the famous chili paste called nam phrik kapi and in rice dishes such as Khao khluk kapi.

Nam phrik are Thai chilli pastes, similar to the Malaysian and Indonesian sambals. Each region has its own special versions. The wording "nam phrik" is used by Thais to describe any paste containing chilies used for dipping. Curry pastes are normally called phrik kaeng or khrueang kaeng, litt. curry ingredients) but some people also use the word nam phrik to designate a curry pastes. Red curry paste, for instance, could be called phrik kaeng phet or khrueang kaeng phet in Thai, but also nam phrik kaeng phet. Both Nam phrik and phrik kaeng are prepared by crushing together chillies with various ingredients such as garlic and shrimp paste using a mortar and pestle. Some nam phrik are served as a dip with vegetables such as cucumbers, cabbage and yard-long beans, either raw or blanched. One such paste is nam phrik num, a paste of pounded fresh green chilies, shallots, garlic and coriander leaves. The sweet roasted chili paste called nam phrik phao is often used as an ingredient in Tom yam or when frying meat or seafood, and it is also popular as a spicy "jam" on bread. The dry nam phrik kung, made with pounded dried prawns (kung haeng, Bahasa Thai: กุ้งแห้ง), is often eaten with rice and a few slices of cucumber.

The soy sauces which are used in Thai cuisine are of Chinese origin and the Thai names for them are (wholly or partially) loan words from the Teochew language: si-io dam (dark soy sauce), si-io khao (light soy sauce), and taochiao (fermented whole soy beans). Nam man hoi (oyster sauce) is also of Chinese origin. It is used extensively in vegetable and meat stir-fries.

Nasi dan mi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Khanom chin, freshly made Thai rice noodles

Rice is a staple grain of Thai cuisine, as in most Asian cuisines. The highly prized, sweet-smelling jasmine rice is indigenous to Thailand. This naturally aromatic long-grained rice grows in abundance in the verdant patchwork of paddy fields that blanket Thailand's central plains. Steamed rice is accompanied by highly aromatic curries, stir-fries and other dishes, sometimes incorporating large quantities of chili peppers, lime juice and lemon grass. Curries, stir-fries and others may be poured onto the rice creating a single dish called khao rat kaeng (Bahasa Thai: ข้าวราดแกง), a popular meal when time is limited. Sticky rice (khao niao) is a unique variety of rice that contains an unusual balance of the starches present in all rice, causing it to cook up to a sticky texture. It is the staple of Laos and substitutes ordinary rice in rural northern and northeastern Thai cuisine, areas directly adjacent to, and sharing many cultural traits with, Laos.

Noodles are popular as well but usually come as a single dish, like the stir-fried Phat Thai or in the form of a noodle soup. Many Chinese dishes have been adapted to suit Thai taste, such as kuai tiao ruea (a sour and spicy rice noodle soup). In Northern Thailand, khao soi, a curry soup with bami (egg noodles), is extremely popular in Chiang Mai.
Noodles are usually made from either rice flour, wheat flour or mung bean flour and include six main types. Rice noodles are called kuai tiao in Thailand and comes in three varieties: sen yai are wide flat noodles, sen lek are thin flat rice noodles, and sen mi (also known as rice vermicelli in the West) is round and thin. Bami is made from egg and wheat flour and usually sold fresh. It is similar to the Chinese mee pok and la mian. Wunsen are extremely thin noodles made from mung bean flour which are sold dried. They are called cellophane noodles in English. Khanom Chin is fresh Thai rice vermicelli made from fermented rice, well-known from dishes such as khanom chin kaeng khiaowan kai (rice noodles with green chicken curry).

Tepung beras (paeng khao chao) dan tepung ubi kayu (paeng man sampalang) sering digunakan dalam pencuci mulut dan sebagai bahan pemekat.

Buah-buahan, sayur-sayuran, herba dan rempah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fresh herbs, spices and vegetables at Thanin Market
Het fang (straw mushrooms) for sale at a market
Banana flowers and leaves at Thanin market
Mangkhut (Bahasa Thai: มังคุด), mangosteen

Thai dishes use a wide variety of herbs, spices and leaves rarely found in the West, such as kaffir lime leaves (bai makrut, Bahasa Thai: ใบมะกรูด). The characteristic flavor of kaffir lime leaves appears in nearly every Thai soup (e.g., the hot and sour Tom yam) or curry from the southern and central areas of Thailand. The Thai lime (manao, Bahasa Thai: มะนาว) is smaller, darker and sweeter than the kaffir lime, which has a rough looking skin with a stronger lime flavor. Kaffir lime leaves are frequently combined with garlic (krathiam Bahasa Thai: กระเทียม), galangal (kha), lemon grass (takhrai, turmeric (kha min) and/or fingerroot (krachai), blended together with liberal amounts of various chillies to make curry paste. Fresh Thai basils are also used to add spice and fragrance in certain dishes such as Green curry, of which kraphao has a distinctive scent of clove and leaves which are often tipped with a maroon color. Further often used herbs in Thai cuisine include phak chi, cilantro or coriander), rak phak chi (cilantro/coriander roots), culantro (phak chi farang, spearmint (saranae), and pandanus leaves (bai doei). Other spices and spice mixtures in Thai cuisine include phong phalo (five-spice powder), phong kari (curry powder), and fresh and dried peppercorns (phrik thai)

Besides kaffir lime leaves, several other tree leaves are use in Thai cuisine such as chaom. These are the young feathery leaves of the Acacia pennata tree, and they are used in omelettes, soups and (northern) curries. Banana leaves are often used as packaging for ready-made food or as steamer cups such as in homok pla, a spicy paté made with fish and coconut milk. Banana flowers are also used in Thai salads or minced and deep fried in to patties. The leaves and flowers of the neem tree (sadao) are also eaten blanched.

Five main chilies are generally responsible for Thai food's spiciness. One chili is very small (about 1.25 sentimeters (0.49 in)) and is known as the hottest chili: phrik khi nu suan ("garden mouse-dropping chili"). The slightly larger chili phrik khi nu ("mouse-dropping chili") is the next hottest. The green or red phrik chi fa ("sky pointing chili") is slightly less spicy that the smaller chilies. The very large phrik yuak, which is pale green in color, is the least spicy and used more as a vegetable. Lastly, the dried chilies: phrik haeng are spicier than the two largest chilies and dried to a dark red color.

Other typical ingredients are the several types of eggplant (makhuea) used in Thai cuisine, such as the pea-sized makhuea phuang and the egg-sized makhuea suai. Some types of eggplants are also eaten raw. Although broccoli is often used in Asian restaurants in the west in phat thai and rat na, it was never actually used in any traditional Thai food in Thailand and is still rarely seen in Thailand. Usually in Thailand, khana is used, for which broccoli is a substitute. Other cabbages include Chinese cabbage (phak kat khao) and choy sum (phak kwangtung). Other vegetables which are often eaten in Thailand are thua fak yao (yardlong beans), phak bung (morning-glory), thua ngok (bean sprouts), bamboo shoots, tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet potatoes (used more as a vegetable), a few types of squash, and corn. Several types of mushroom (het) also feature in Thai cuisine such as straw mushrooms (het fang) and white jelly fungus (het hu nu khao).

Fruit forms a large part of the Thai diet and are customarily served after a meal. Although many of the exotic fruits of Thailand may have been sometimes unavailable in Western countries, many Asian markets import such fruits as rambutan and lychees. In Thailand one can find papaya, jackfruit, mango, mangosteen, langsat, longan, pomelo, pineapple, rose apples, durian and other native fruits. Chantaburi in Thailand each year holds the World Durian Festival in early May. This single province is responsible for half of the durian production of Thailand and a quarter of the world production.[3][4][5] Apples, grapes, pears and strawberries, which do not traditionally grow in Thailand, have become increasingly popular in recent years now they are being grown locally in the cooler highlands and mountains of Thailand, mainly in the North. The fruit of the tamarind is used for its tartness, and palm sugar, made from the sugary sap of the date palm, is used to sweeten dishes. From the coconut palm comes coconut sugar, coconut vinegar, and coconut milk. The juice of a green coconut can be served as a drink and the young flesh can be eaten.

Hidangan perwakilan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: List of Thai dishes
A typical family breakfast in Isan

Many Thai dishes are familiar in the West. In the many dishes below, different kinds of protein, or combinations of protein, can be chosen as ingredients, such as beef (nuea, Bahasa Thai: เนื้อ), chicken (kai, Bahasa Thai: ไก่), pork (mu, Bahasa Thai: หมู), duck (pet, Bahasa Thai: เป็ด), tofu (taohu, Bahasa Thai: เต้าหู้) or seafood.

Hidangan sarapan pagi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Thai cuisine doesn't have very specific breakfast dishes. Very often, a Thai breakfast can consist of the same dishes which are also eaten for lunch or dinner. Fried rice, noodle soups and steamed rice with something simple such as an omelette, fried pork or chicken, are commonly sold from street stalls as a quick take-out. The following dishes tend to be eaten only for breakfast:

  • Chok - a rice porridge very commonly eaten in Thailand for breakfast. Similar to the rice congee eaten in other parts of Asia.
  • Khao khai chiao - an omelet (khai chiao) with white rice, often eaten with a chili sauce and slices of cucumber.
  • Khao tom - a Thai style rice soup, usually with pork, chicken or shrimp.

Hidangan individu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Phat Thai kung
Khao man kai
Phat si-io
  • Khanom chin namya - round boiled rice noodles topped with a fish based sauce and eaten with fresh leaves and vegetables.
  • Khao khluk kapi - rice stir-fried with shrimp paste, served with sweetened pork and vegetables.
  • Khao man kai - rice steamed with garlic, with boiled chicken, chicken stock and a dipping sauce.
  • Khao phat - One of the most common dishes in Thailand, fried rice, Thai style. Usually with chicken, beef, shrimp, pork, crab or coconut or pineapple, or vegetarian (che (Bahasa Thai:

เจ).

  • Khao phat kai - fried rice with chicken.
  • Khao phat naem - fried rice with fermented sausage (naem, Bahasa Thai:

แหนม), a typically dish from the Northeast)

  • Khao soi - crispy wheat noodles in sweet chicken curry soup (a Northern dish).
  • Kuai tiao nam - rice-noodle soup can be eaten at any time of day; served with many combinations of proteins, vegetables, and spicy condiments. The word kuai tiao, although originally designating only one type of noodle, the sen yai (wide rice noodles), is used colloquially for all rice noodles in general.
  • Mi krop - deep fried rice vermicelli with a sweet and sour sauce.
  • Phat khi mao - noodles stir-fried with Thai basil.
  • Phat si-io - rice noodles (often kuai tiao) stir-fried with si-io dam (thick sweet soy sauce) and nam pla (fish sauce) and pork or chicken.
  • Phat Thai - rice noodles pan fried with fish sauce, sugar, lime juice or tamarind pulp, chopped peanuts, and egg combined with chicken, seafood, or tofu.
  • Kuai tiao rat na - wide rice noodles in gravy, with beef, pork, chicken, shrimp, or seafood.

Hidangan berkongsi Thailand Tengah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Thot man plakrai with fried basil
Ho mok pla, fish curry paté
Phak bung fai daeng: fried morning-glory
Pla samrot
Phak khana mu krop
  • Chu chi pla kraphong - snapper in chu-chi curry sauce (thick red curry sauce)
  • Ho mok pla - a paté of fish, spices, coconut milk and egg, steamed in a banana leaf cup and topped with thick coconut cream before serving.
  • Kai phat khing - chicken stir-fried with sliced ginger.
  • Kaeng khiaowan - called "green curry" in English, it is a coconut curry made with fresh green chillies and flavoured with Thai basil, and chicken or fish meatballs. This dish can be one of the spiciest of Thai curries.
  • Kaeng phanaeng - a mild creamy coconut curry with beef (Phanaeng nuea, Bahasa Thai:

พะแนงเนื้อ), chicken, or pork. It includes some roasted dried spices similar to Kaeng matsaman.

ช้าพลู) leaves; often eaten as a snack or a starter.

ไก่ผัดกะเพรา), with minced chicken.

  • Phat phak ruam - stir fried combination of vegetables depending on availability and preference.
  • Phat phrik - usually beef stir fried with chilli, called Nuea phat phrik (Bahasa Thai:

เนื้อผัดพริก).

  • Pla nueng manao - steamed fish with a spicy lime juice dressing.
  • Pla samrot - literally "Three flavours fish": deep fried fish with a sweet, tangy and spicy tamarind sauce.
  • Pu cha - a mixture of cooked crab meat, pork, garlic and pepper, deep fried inside the crab shells and served with a simple spicy sauce, such as Sri Rachaa sauce, sweet-hot garlic sauce, nam phrik pao (Bahasa Thai:

น้ำพริกเผา, roasted chilli paste), nam chim buoy (Bahasa Thai: น้ำจิ้มบ๋วย, plum sauce), or in a red curry paste, with chopped green onions. It is sometimes also served as deep fried patties instead of being fried in the crab shell.

  • Sate - grilled meat, usually pork or chicken, served with cucumber salad and peanut sauce (actually of Indonesian origin, but now a popular street food in Thailand).
  • Suki - a Thai variant of the Chinese hot pot.
  • Thot man - deep fried fishcake made from knifefish (Thot man pla krai, Bahasa Thai:

ทอดมันปลากราย) or shrimp (Thot man kung, Bahasa Thai: ทอดมันกุ้ง).

ต้มยำกุ้ง), with seafood (typically shrimp, squid, fish) Tom yam thale (Bahasa Thai: ต้มยำทะเล), with chicken Tom yam kai (Bahasa Thai: ต้มยำไก่).

ยำวุ้นเส้น), with seafood (Yam thale, Bahasa Thai: ยำทะเล), or grilled beef (Yam nuea Bahasa Thai: ยำเนื้อ). The dressing of a "Yam" will normally consist of shallots, fish sauce, tomato, lime juice, sugar, chilies and Thai celery (khuen chai, Bahasa Thai: คื่นช่าย) or coriander.

  • Yam pladuk fu - crispy fried catfish with a spicy, sweet-and-sour, green mango salad.

Hidangan berkongsi Timur Laut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Som tam (papaya salad), kai yang (grilled chicken) and khao niao (sticky rice) is a very popular combination
Mu nam tok or Nam tok mu: sliced pork with a sour and spicy dressing
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Lap kai (chicken lap)

The cuisine of Northeastern Thailand is shared with the cuisine of Laos, as Isarn people are of Lao heritage and speak a language that is generally mutually intelligible with the Lao language.

  • Kai yang - marinated, grilled chicken.
  • Khao niao - Glutinous rice is eaten as a staple food both in the Northeast as in the North of Thailand.
  • Lap - sour salads containing meat, onions, chillies, roasted rice powder and garnished with mint.
  • Nam chim chaeo - is a sticky, sweet and spicy dipping sauce made with dried chilies, fish sauce, palm sugar and black roasted rice flour. It is often served as a dip with mu yang (Bahasa Thai:

หมูย่าง, grilled pork).

  • Nam tok - made with pork (moo) or beef (nuea) and somewhat identical to lap, except that the pork or beef is cut into thin strips rather than minced.
  • Som tam - grated papaya salad, pounded with a mortar and pestle. There are three main variations: Som tam pu (Bahasa Thai:

ส้มตำปู) with salted black crab, and Som tam Thai (Bahasa Thai: ส้มตำไทย) with peanuts, dried shrimp and palm sugar and Som tam plara (Bahasa Thai: ส้มตำปลาร้า) from north eastern part of Thailand (Isan), with salted gourami fish, white eggplants, fish sauce and long bean. Som tam is usually eaten with sticky rice but a popular variation is to serve it with khanom chin (rice noodles) instead.

  • Suea rong hai - grilled beef brisket.
  • Tom saep - Northeastern-style hot & sour soup.

Hidangan berkongsi utara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sai oua, also known as Chiang Mai sausage
  • Kaeng hanglay - a Burmese influenced stewed pork curry which uses peanuts, dried chilies and tamarind juice in the recipe but containing no coconut milk.
  • Kaeng khae - is a spicy northern Thai curry of herbs, vegetables, the leaves of an acacia tree (chaom) and meat (chicken, water buffalo, pork or frog). It also does not contain any coconut milk.
  • Kaep mu - deep fried crispy pork rinds, often eaten with nam phrik num. Also eaten as a snack.
  • Nam phrik num - a chili paste of pounded large green chilies, shallots, garlic, coriander leaves, lime juice and fish sauce; eaten with steamed and raw vegetables, and sticky rice.
  • Nam phrik ong - resembling a thick Bolognese sauce, it is made with dried chilies, minced pork and tomato; eaten with steamed and raw vegetables, and sticky rice.
  • Sai oua - a grilled sausage of ground pork mixed with spices and herbs, and which is often served with chopped fresh ginger and chilies at a meal. It is also sold at markets in Chiang Mai as a snack.

Hidangan kongsi selatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Kaeng Lueang - a sour spicy yellow curry that does not contain coconut milk, often with fish and vegetables.
  • Kaeng matsaman - also known in English as Massaman curry, it is an Indian style curry, usually made by Thai-Muslims, of stewed beef and containing roasted dried spices, such as coriander seed, that are rarely found in other Thai curries.
  • Kaeng tai pla - a thick sour vegetable curry made with with tumeric and shrimp paste, often containing roasted fish or fish innards, bamboo shoots and eggplant.
  • Khua kling - a very dry spicy curry made with minced or diced meat with sometimes yardlong beans added to it; often served with fresh green phrik khi nu (thai chilies) and copious amounts of finely shredded bai makrut (kaffir lime leaves).

Pencuci mulut, snek manis dan minuman[sunting | sunting sumber]

Desserts and sweet snacks

Khao niao mamuang, Thai mango with glutinous rice
Chao kuai at the Sunday evening walking street market in Chiang Mai

Most Thai meals finish with fresh fruit but sometimes a sweet snack will be served as a dessert.

  • Chao kuai - grass jelly is often served with only shaved ice and brown sugar.
  • Khanom bua loitaro root mixed with flour into balls in coconut milk.
  • Khanom chan – multi-layers of pandan-flavored sticky rice flour mixed with coconut milk.
  • Khanom mo kaeng - a sweet baked pudding containing coconut milk, eggs, palm sugar and flour, sprinkled with sweet fried onions.
  • Khanom tan – palm flavored mini cake with shredded coconut on top.
  • Khanom thuai talai' - steamed sweet coconut jelly and cream
  • Khao niao mamuang - sticky rice cooked in sweetened thick coconut milk, served with slices of ripe mango.
  • Lot chong nam kathipandan flavored rice flour noodles in coconut milk, similar to the Indonesian cendol.
  • Ruammit – mixed ingredients, such as chestnuts covered in flour, jackfruit, lotus root, tapioca, and lot chong, in coconut milk.
  • Sangkhaya fak thong - egg and coconut custard served with pumpkin, similar to the coconut jam of Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
  • Tako - jasmine scented coconut pudding set in cups of fragrant pandanus leaf.

Drinks

Other alcoholic beverages from Thailand include Mekhong whiskey and Sang Som. Several brands of beer are brewed in Thailand, the two biggest brands being Singha and Chang.

Serangga dalam masakan Thailand[sunting | sunting sumber]

A street stall selling fried insects

Certain insects are also eaten in Thailand, especially in Isan and in the North. Many markets in Thailand feature stalls which sell deep-fried grasshoppers, crickets (jing reed, Bahasa Thai: จิ้งหรีด), bee larvae, silkworm (non mai, Bahasa Thai: หนอนไหม), ant eggs (khai mot, Bahasa Thai: ไข่มด). The culinary creativity even extends to naming: one tasty larva, which is also known under the name "bamboo worm" (non mai phai, Bahasa Thai: หนอนไม้ไผ่, Omphisa fuscidentalis),[6] is colloquially called "freight train" (rot duan; Bahasa Thai: รถด่วน) due to its appearance.
Most of the insects taste fairly bland when deep-fried, somewhat like popcorn and prawns, which is still fairly tasty, but when deep-fried together with kaffir lime leaves, chilies and garlic, the insects become an excellent snack to go with a drink. In contrast to the bland taste of most of these insects, the maengda or maelong da na (Bahasa Thai: แมลงดานา, Lethocerus indicus) has been described as having a very penetrating taste, similar to that of a very ripe gorgonzola cheese. This giant water bug is famously used in a chili dip called nam phrik maengda. Some insects, such as ant eggs and silk worms, are also eaten boiled in a soup in Isan.

Lawatan berkaitan masakan dan kursus msakan[sunting | sunting sumber]

A street vendor selling different types of salapao (steamed buns) from a street stall fixed to the side car of his motorbike

Culinary tours of Thailand have gained popularity in recent years. Alongside other forms of tourism in Thailand, food tours have carved a niche for themselves. Many companies offer culinary and cooking tours of Thailand and many tourists visiting Thailand attend cooking courses offered by hotels, guesthouses and cooking schools.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. http://www.seeyouinthailand.com/activities/9
  2. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=TH
  3. "World Durian Festival 2005". Thailand News -- Thailand official news and information. Foreign Office, The Government Public Relations Department. 2005-06-05. Diperoleh pada 2008-11-20. 
  4. "Thailand's Durian growing areas". Food Market Exchange. 2003. Diperoleh pada 2008-11-20. 
  5. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/MEETING/004/Y1982E.HTM#P33_1883
  6. http://www.dnp.go.th/FOREMIC/NForemic/this_month/Omphisa/omphisa.htm
  • Ang, Eng Tie. Delightful Thai Cooking, 132 pages, Seattle: Ambrosia, 1990
  • Bhumichitr, Vatcharin. The Essential Thai Cookbook, 192 pages, New York: Clarkson N. Potter Inc., 1994
  • Californis Culinary Academy. Cuisines of Southeast Asia, 128 pages, Sant Rosa, CA: California Culinary Academy, 1994.
  • Kahrs, Kurt. Thai Cooking, 96 pages, Dallas: Hackberry Press, 2003.
  • Osborne, Christine. Southeast Asian Food and Drink, 48 pages, New York: Bookwright Press, 1989.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Cuisine of Thailand Templat:Southeast Asia topic

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