Merkava (Hebrew: , Chariot) merupakan sebuah kereta kebal utama milik Pasukan Pertahanan Israel (IDF). Sejak awal tahun 1980-an, empat versi utama telah diaturgerak. Nama "Merkava" diterbitkan dari nama program pembangunan IDF.
Kereta kebal Merkava Mark III diperkenalkan pada Disember 1989, dan memiliki banyak peningkatan utama kepada drivetrain, powertrain, persenjataan, dan sistem keselamatan. Tambahan paling ketara merupakan pemasangan meriam IMI 120 mm yang dibangunkan sendiri. Meriam ini dan enjin disel yang lebih besar 1,200 kuasa kuda (890 kW) meningkatkan berat keseluruhan kereta kebal kepada 65 tan (140,000 lb), tetapi enjin yang lebih besar membolehkan kelajuan kruise maksima kepada 60 km/j (37 bsj).
Turetnya juga direka bagi pergerakan bebas dari badan kereta kebal, membenarkannya menjejak sasaran tanpa mengira pergerakan kereta kebal. Banyak peningkatan lain dilakukan termasuk:
- Telefon luaran dua hala bagi perhubungan selamat antara krew kereta kebal dengan infantri yang turun,
- Peningkatan simpanan amunasi bagi mengurangkan ledakan dalaman amunasi
- Tambahan pensasar laser
- Pemasangan sistem perisai Kasag, direka bagi penggantian dan pembaikian pantas di medan tempur dan bai peningkatan pantas apabila reka bentuk baru dan bahan sofsikated ada,
- Penciptaan Mark IIIB, dengan peningkatan perisai yang tidak didedahkan.
Sistem BAZ [sunting]
1995 Mark III BAZ (Singkatan Hebrew mewakili Barak Zoher) memiliki banyak peningkatan dan sistem tambahan termasuk:
- Komponen sistem kawalan tembakan dipertingkat, dari Electro Optics Industries (EL-OP) dan Elbit Ltd, memberikan kereta kebal dengan keupayaan bertempur dengan sasaran ketika bergerak (penjejak sasaran automatik),
- Sistem perlindungan dari senjata pemusnah besar-besaran "NBC",
- Sistem penyaman udara pusat dibangunkan sendiri,
- Peningkatan tambahan perlindungan balistik,
- Mark IIID memiliki perisai komposit modular boleh alih pada badan dan turet.
Generasi terakhir kereta kebal kelas Mark III adalah Mark IIID Dor-Dalet (Hebrew: Generasi Keempat), yang termasuk beberapa komponen sebagai prototaip yang akan diperkenalkan sebagai Mark IV.
- Peningkatan dan diperkukuh trek (dibina oleh Caterpillar, direka di Israel),
- Peningkatan Stesyen Senjata Atas Rafael - (R-OWS).
Merkava Mark IV [sunting]
The Mark IV is the most recent version of the Merkava tank and has been in development since 1999. Its development was announced in an October 1999 edition of the Bamachaneh (At the Camp) military publication. However, new Merkava Mark IIIs continued to be produced until 2003. The first Merkava IVs were in production in limited numbers by the end of 2004.
Ciri-ciri rekabentuk [sunting]
Model ini memiliki sistem kawalan tembak baru, El-Op Knight Mark 4. Perisai modular boleh alih, Merkava Mark IIID, digunakan disemua sisi, termasuk di atas dan paket perisai bentuk-V bagi bahagian bawah. Sistem modular direka bagi membenarkan kereta kebal rosak untuk dibaiki dengan mudah dan kembali ke lapangan.
Peluru kereta kebal disimpan dalam individual bekas tahan api, yang mengurangkan peluang ledakan dalam ("cookoffs") sekiranya berlaku kebakaran dalam kereta kebal. Turet adalah "kering"; tiada peluru aktif di simpan di situ.
Sesetengah ciri, seperti pembetukan badan, cat tidak memantul luaran, dan perisai bagi haba enjin dicampur dengan zarah udara bagi mengelirukan pengimej haba musuh, diwarisi dari program IAI Lavi bagi Pasukan Udara Israil bagi menjadikan kereta kebal lebih sukar dilihat.
The Mark IV includes the larger 120 mm main gun of the previous versions but can fire a wider variety of ammunition, including HEAT and sabot rounds like the APFSDS kinetic energy penetrator, using an electrical semi-automatic revolving magazine for 10 rounds. It also includes a much larger 12.7 mm machine gun for anti-vehicle operations (most commonly used against technicals).
Upgraded fire control system [sunting]
The new fire-control system enables the Merkava to shoot down helicopters and find and destroy armored attack helicopters such as the French Gazelle and the ubiquitous Russian Mil Mi-24, both used by Israel's neighbors.[petikan diperlukan]
Upgraded tracks [sunting]
The Mark IV has the Israeli-designed "TSAWS (Tracks, Springs, and Wheels System)" caterpillar track system, called "Mazkom" (Bahasa Ibrani: מערכת זחלים קפיצים ומרכובים) by troops. This system is designed to endure the harsh basalt rock conditions of Lebanon and the Golan Heights with minimal "track-shedding".
Digital battlefield management system [sunting]
The tank carries the Israeli Elbit Systems BMS (Battle Management System; Hebrew: צי"ד), a centralised system that from tracked units and UAVs in theater, displays it on color screens, and distributes it in encrypted form to all other units equipped with BMS in a given theater.
Combat history [sunting]
Many of Israel's casualties in the 2006 Lebanon War were Merkava tank crews. Only the minority of the tanks used during the war were Merkava Mark IVs, as by 2006 they had still only entered service in limited numbers. Hezbollah antitank missiles penetrated the armor in five Merkava Mark IV tanks killing 10. The penetrations were caused by Hezbollah tandem warhead missiles. Hezbollah weaponry was believed to include advanced Russian RPG-29 'Vampir', AT-5 'Konkurs', AT-13 'Metis-M', and laser-guided AT-14 'Kornet' HEAT missiles. The IDF reported finding the state-of-the-art Kornet ATGMs on Hezbollah positions in the village of Ghandouriyeh. Several months after the cease-fire, reports have provided detailed photographic evidence that Kornet ATGMs were indeed both in possession of, and used by, Hezbollah in this area. Another Merkava IV tank crewman was killed when a tank ran over an improvised explosive device (IED). This tank had additional V-shaped underside armor, limiting casualties to just one of the seven personnel (four crewmen and three infantrymen) onboard. In total, 50 Merkava tanks (predominantly Merkava IIs and IIIs) were damaged, eight of which remained serviceable on the battlefield. Two Merkava Mark IVs were damaged beyond repair, one by powerful IEDs, and another, it is believed, by Russian AT-14 'Kornet' missiles. All but two Merkava Mark IV tanks damaged during the war were repaired and returned to the IDF. The Israeli military said that it was satisfied with the Merkava Mark IV's performance, and attributed problems to insufficient training before the war.
After the 2006 war, and as the IDF becomes increasingly involved in unconventional and guerrilla warfare, some analysts say the Merkava is too vulnerable to advanced anti-tank missiles, that in their man-portable types can be fielded by guerilla warfare opponents. Other post-war analysts, including David Eshel, disagree, arguing that reports of losses to Merkavas were overstated and that "summing up the performance of Merkava tanks, especially the latest version Merkava Mark IV, most tank crews agree that, in spite of the losses sustained and some major flaws in tactical conduct, the tank proved its mettle in its first high-saturation combat." On a comparison done by the armor corps newsletter it was shown that the average number of crewmen killed per tank penetrated was reduced from 2 during the Yom Kippur War to 1.5 during the 1982 Lebanon War to 1 during the 2006 Lebanon War proving how, even in the face of the improvement in anti-tank weaponry, the Merkava Mark IV provides better protection to its crew (even though only a small number of the Israeli tanks used in 2006 were Merkava Mark IVs). The IDF wanted to increase orders of new Merkava Mark IV tanks, and planned to add the Trophy active protection system to Merkava Mark IV tanks, and to increase joint training between crews and Israeli antitank soldiers.
The Merkava IV was used more extensively during the Gaza War, as it had been received by the IDF in increasing numbers since 2006, replacing more of the Merkava II and III versions of the tank which were in service. One brigade of Merkava IVs managed to bisect the Gaza strip in five hours without casualties. The commander of the brigade stated that battlefield tactics had been greatly revised since 2006, with the IDF increasing its focus on aggressiveness, concentrated firepower, combining air and ground attacks, and the use of blitzkrieg maneuvers. Tactics had also been modified to focus on asymmetric or guerilla war threats, in addition to the conventional war scenarios that the Merkava had primarily been designed to combat. By October 2010, the IDF had begun to equip the first Merkava IVs with the Trophy active protection system, to improve the tanks' protection against advanced anti-tank missiles which use tandem-charge HEAT warheads. Added protection systems included an Elbit laser-warning system and IMI in-built smoke-screen grenades.
In December 2010, Hamas in Gaza fired an AT-14 Kornet anti-tank missile at a Merkava Mark III tank stationed on the Israel-Gaza border near Al-Bureij. It had hitherto not been suspected that Hamas possessed such a sophisticated missile. The missile penetrated the tank's armour, but in this instance caused no injuries among its crew. As a result of the attack, Israel decided to deploy, along the Gaza border, its first Merkava Mark IV battalion equipped with the Trophy active protection system.
On the 1 March 2011, a Merkava MK IV stationed near the Gaza border, equipped with the Trophy active protection system, successfully foiled a missile attack aimed towards it and became the first operational success of the system.
Specifications of models [sunting]
|Merkava Mark I||Merkava Mark II||Merkava Mark III||Merkava Mark IV|
|Type||main battle tank|
|Place of origin||Israel|
|In active service||1979–? (reserve forces only)||1983–||1990–||2004–|
|Used by||Israel Defense Forces|
|Wars||1982 Lebanon War, First Intifada||South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000), First Intifada, Second Intifada, 2006 Lebanon War, Gaza War||South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000), Second Intifada, 2006 Lebanon War, Gaza War||Second Intifada, 2006 Lebanon War, Gaza War|
|Designer||MANTAK (Merkava Tank Office)|
|Manufacturer||MANTAK (Merkava Tank Office)|
|Number built||250||580||780||320, another 300 are being delivered|
|Weight||~63 tonnes||~65 tonnes|
|Length||rear to muzzle: 8.30 m (27.2 ka)
without gun: 7.45 m (24.4 ka)
|rear to muzzle: 9.04 m (29.7 ka)
without gun: 7.60 m (24.9 ka)
|Width||3.70 m (12.1 ka) (without skirts)||3.72 m (12.2 ka) (without skirts)|
|Height||2.65 m (8.7 ka) (turret roof)||2.66 m (8.7 ka) (turret roof)|
|Crew||4 (tank commander, driver, gunner, loader-signaller). May also carry some infantrymen.|
|Armor||Rolled homogeneous armor||Spaced rolled homogeneous armor||Composite armor, modular design.||Composite matrix of laminated ceramic-steel-nickel alloy. Sloped modular design.|
|Primary armament||105 mm (4.1 in) M68 rifled tank gun with LAHAT ATGM capability.||120 mm (4.7 in) MG251 smoothbore tank gun with LAHAT ATGM capability.||120 mm (4.7 in) MG253 smoothbore tank gun with LAHAT ATGM capability.|
|Secondary armament||2–3 × 7.62 mm (0.300 in) MG
1 × 60 mm (2.4 in) external mortar
12 smoke grenades
|2–3 × 7.62 mm (0.300 in) MG
1 × 60 mm (2.4 in) internal mortar
12 smoke grenades
|3 × 7.62 mm (0.300 in) MG
1 × 60 mm (2.4 in) internal mortar
12 smoke grenades
|1 × 12.7 mm (0.50 in) MG
2 × 7.62 mm (0.300 in) MG
1 × 60 mm (2.4 in) internal mortar
12 smoke grenades
|Engine||Teledyne Continental AVDS-1790-6A 908 kk (677 kW) V12 air-cooled diesel engine||Teledyne Continental AVDS-1790-9AR 1,200 kk (895 kW) V12 air-cooled diesel||General Dynamics GD883 (MTU883) 1,500 kk (1,119 kW) V12 water-cooled diesel|
|Power / weight||~14.5 hp/ton||~18.5 hp/ton||~23 hp/ton|
|Payload capacity||53 up to 62 rounds, 6 per container||46 rounds, 5 ready in a mechanical drum||48 rounds, 10 ready in an electrical drum|
|Transmission||Allison Transmission CD850-6BX hydromechanical semiautomatic||Ashot Ashkelon hydromechanical automatic, 4 gears.||Ashot Ashkelon hydromechanical automatic, 5 gears (licensed copy of Renk RK325).|
|Ground clearance||0.53 m (1.7 ka)||0.45 m (1.5 ka)|
|Fuel capacity||1100–1400 litres||1400 litres|
|Operational range||400 km (250 bt) – 500 km (310 bt)||500 km (310 bt)|
|Speed on road||50 km/j (31 bsj)||60 km/j (37 bsj)||64 km/j (40 bsj)|
Merkava LIC [sunting]
These are Merkava Mark III BAZ or Mark IV tanks, converted for urban warfare. The LIC designation stands for "Low intensity conflict", underlining its emphasis on counter-insurgency, street-to-street inner-city asymmetrical type warfare of the 21st century.
The Merkava is equipped with a turret 12.7 mm caliber coaxial machine gun which enables the crew to lay down fairly heavy cover fire without the use of the main gun, which is relatively ineffective against individual enemy combatants. Like the new remote-operated weapon station, the coaxial machine-gun is fired from inside the tank without exposing the crew to small-arms fire and snipers.
The most sensitive areas of a tank, its optics, exhaust ports and ventilators, are all protected by a newly-developed high-strength metal mesh, to prevent the possibility of explosives charges being planted there.
Rubber whip pole-markers with LED tips and a driver's rear-facing camera have been installed to improve navigation and maneuverability in an urban environment by day or by night.
Merkava Tankbulance [sunting]
Some Merkava tanks have been fitted with full medical and ambulance capabilities while retaining their armament (but carrying less ammunition than the standard tank). The cabin area has been converted for carrying injured personnel and has had two stretchers and life support medical station systems added with a full medical team complement to operate under combat conditions with a Merkava battalion. The vehicle has a rear door to facilitate evacuation under fire, and can provide covering fire.
The "tankbulance" is not an unarmed ambulance and as such is not protected by the Geneva Conventions provisions regarding ambulances, but it is far less vulnerable to accidental or deliberate fire than an ambulance or armored personnel carrier.
Merkava IFV Namer [sunting]
Namer (Hebrew: leopard, which is also an abbreviating of "Nagmash (APC) Merkava") is a infantry fighting vehicle based on Merkava Mark IV chassis. In service since 2008. The vehicle was initially called Nemmera (Hebrew: leopardess), but later renamed to Namer.
Namer is armed with either M2 Browning or Mk 19 grenade launcher mounted on a Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station, another 7.62 mm MAG machine gun, 60 mm mortar and smoke grenades. Like Merkava Mark IV it is optimized for high level of crew survival on the battlefield. Namer may carry up to 12 crewmen and infantrymen and a stretcher, or two stretchers and medical equipment.
On July 20, 2007, StrategyPage reported that the first fifteen Namers will be delivered in 2008, and over a hundred more will finally equip two combat brigades. Golani Brigade used two Namer IFVs during Cast Lead operation.
Merkava ARV Nemmera [sunting]
The Merkava Armored Recovery Vehicle initially called Namer (Hebrew: leopard), but subsequently renamed to Nemmera (Hebrew: leopardess). It is an armored recovery vehicle based on a Merkava Mark III or IV chassis. It can tow disabled tanks and carries a complete Merkava back-up power pack that can be changed in the field in under 90 minutes.
Merkava Howitzer Sholef [sunting]
Two prototypes of Sholef ("Gunslinger" or "Slammer") 155 mm self-propelled howitzer with automatic loading system were built by Soltam in 1984–1986. The 45-ton vehicle had a long 155 mm calibre gun barrel giving a range of 45+ km. Using GPS, inertial navigation, and an internal fire control computer, it was also capable of direct fire while on the move. It never entered production.
- "The Institute for National Security Studies", chapter Israel, 2009,  June 17 2009.
- Israel Military Industries 120 mm smoothbore tank gun MG251 (Israel) - Jane's Armour and Artillery Upgrades
- "Merkava Mk 3". Israeli-Weapons. http://www.israeli-weapons.com/weapons/vehicles/tanks/merkava/MerkavaMk3.html. Capaian 2008-07-04.
- Merkava Mk IV breaks cover Janes.com, David Donald, 14 June 2010
- "Merkava Mk4 Detailed". Defense Update. http://www.defense-update.com/directory/merkava4.htm.
- "Apparent vulnerability of Israeli armour to Hezbollah anti-tank rockets", BBC, 2006-08-15. Dicapai pada 2010-03-27.
- Blomfield, Adrian. "Israel humbled by arms from Iran", The Daily Telegraph, 2006-08-15. Dicapai pada 2010-04-23.
- "Hezbollah's use of Lebanese civilians as human shields" (PDF), Center for Special Studies.
- "Kornet ATGMs captured in Ghandouriyeh" (JPEG), Center for Special Studies.
- "Why did Armored Corps fail in Lebanon?". Ynet. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3297431,00.html.
- Barzilai, Amnon (30 August 2006). "Defense establishment favors Rafael tank protection system". Globes Online. http://google.com/search?q=cache:qe6SDt20ZOMJ:www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1692424/posts+%22Defense+establishment+favors+Rafael+tank+protection+system%22,+Amnon+Barzilai,+Globes+Online&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari. Capaian 11 September 2009.
- "God’s chariot". Aljazeera. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8853586453841327363. Capaian 2008-07-04.
- "Tough lessons for Israeli armour", BBC, 2006-08-15. Dicapai pada 2008-07-04.
- "Assessing the performance of Merkava Tanks". Defense Update. http://www.defense-update.com/analysis/lebanon_war_3.htm.
- "IDF mulls spending plan". Ynetnews. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3439667,00.html. Capaian 2008-07-04.
- Yaakov Katz. "New training aims to help tanks cope in hostile territory", The Jerusalem Post, August 31, 2007.
- Katz, Yaakov (Aug 13, 2009 21:20), Security and Defense: 'The tank is one of the most technologically advanced platforms around, Jerusalem Post .
- Lappin, Yaakov (2010-10-13), IDF launches massive Ground Forces exercise, Jerusalem Post, http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=191194
- Weiss, Efrat. "IDF successfully tests new tank defense system", Ynetnews, 2009-08-07. Dicapai pada 2009-08-07.
- Katz, Yaakov; Stoil, Rebecca Anna (12/21/2010 15:43), IDF predicts violence to subside despite Gaza pounding, The Jerusalem Post, http://www.jpost.com/Defense/Article.aspx?id=200423 .
- Harel, Amos. "IDF armor-defense system foils attack on tank for first time", Haaretz, 2011-03-01.
- Israel at Eurosatory 2010 - Merkava Mark 4
- "LIC Modeled Merkava Mk-3 Baz". Defense Update. http://www.defense-update.com/products/m/merkava-lic.htm. Capaian 2008-07-04.
- "Slammer". Israeli-Weapons. Diarkibkan dari yang asal on June 17, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080617225521/http://www.israeli-weapons.com/weapons/vehicles/self_propelled_artillery/slammer/Slammer.html. Capaian 2008-07-04.
Pautan luar [sunting]
|Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan: Merkava|
- Merkava Family
- Mark I, II, III, IIIBAZ, IVLIC, IVBAZ Tanker Insider
- Merkava Mk 3, Merkava Mk 4 at Army-technology.com
- Merkava Mk 3 LIC, Merkava Mk 4 at Defense-Update
- Merkava Mk 1,2,3,4 at War Online.
- Merkava Mk 1,2,3 at voodoo-world.cz.
- Continued Evolution of the Merkava Program at Defense Update
- The Armor Site! page on Merkava
- Israeli-Weapons.com Merkava Page
- Merkava Mk4 interior video