Kebuluran Bengal 1943

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Kebuluran Bengal 1943 (Bengali: pañcāśēra manvantara) merupakan suatu bencana utama di wilayah Benggala[A] dalam India semasa Perang Dunia Kedua. Dianggarkan sebanyak 2.1–3 juta,[B] daripada 60.3 juta penduduk kawasan tersebut mati akibat kelaparan, malaria dan penyakit teruk lain akibat kekurangan gizi, pemindahan penduduk, keadaan yang tidak bersih dan kekurangan penjagaan kesihatan. Jutaan penduduk jatuh miskin aikbat krisis yang menjejaskan lapisan masyarakat dan ekonomi kawasan tersebut dengan besarnya. Sejarawan telah sering menggambarkan bencana ini sebagai hasil "buatan manusia",[C] menegaskan bahwa dasar-dasar kolonial menyukarkan lagi krisis ini. Ada pula suatu kelompok minoriti yang melihat bencana ini lebih berpunca daripada faktor penyebab semulajadi.[D]

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Kebuluran ini mempercepatkan jalan sosioekonomi yang membawa kepada kemiskinan dan ketidaksamaan pendapatan,[10]merosakkan ekonomi dan struktur sosial Bengal serta menghancurkan jutaan keluarga.[11] Krisis ini menjejaskan kesemua lapisan ekonomi masyarakat. Punca utama meluasnya penderitaan ini ialah pemakaian strategi menjual aset demi mendapatkan makanan secara besar-besaran. Sebanyak hampir 1.6 juta keluarga—kira-kira satu suku daripadanya pekebun kecil—cuba menyelamatkan diri dengan menjual atau menggadaikan sawah mereka, secara langsungnya menjatuhkan status mereka dari pemilik tanah kepada buruh.[12] Pemindahan tanah meningkat sebanyak dengan 504%, 665%, 1,057% dan 872% pada empat tahun berikutan 1941.

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  1. ^ The area now constitutes part of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura. The famine also affected the neighbouring province of Orissa, albeit to a far smaller degree.[1] Orissa was hit by a cyclone on 10 April 1943.[2]
  2. ^ The estimates do not include Orissa. There has been a wide range of estimates since the famine. The range of 2.1–3 million is taken from a table in Devereux (2000, p. 6). Devereux derived the lower figure from Dyson & Maharatna (1991) and the upper from Amartya Sen's "widely quoted figure of 3 million".[3] Sen estimated between 2.7 and 3 million deaths for the period 1943–1946.[4]Templat:Pb Cormac Ó Gráda (2007): "[E]stimates of mortality in Bengal range from 0.8 million to 3.8 million; today the scholarly consensus is about 2.1 million (Hall-Matthews 2005; Sen 1981; Maharatna 1996)."[5]Templat:Pb Vasant Kaiwar (2017): "The Bengal Famine of 1943 took anywhere from 1 million to 3.8 million starvation victims ..."[6]Templat:Pb Paul R. Greenough (1982) suggested there had been 3,685,140 (3.7 million) deaths in Bengal in 1943, based on data from the Indian Statistical Institute. That, minus a normal mortality figure of 1.7 million based on 1941–1942 data, gave him the figure of 2 famine-related million deaths in 1943, 800,000 more than Sen had calculated for 1943. Adding 800,000 to Sen's figure of 2.7 to 3 million for 1943–1946 produces a total of 3.5 to 3.8 million famine-related deaths.[7]Templat:Pb Contemporaneous estimates included, in 1945, that of the Famine Inquiry Commission—appointed in 1944 by the government of India and chaired by Sir John Woodhead, governor of Bengal—of around 1.5 million famine-related deaths out of Bengal's population of 60.3 million.[8] That figure covered January 1943 to June 1944.[9] K. P. Chattopadhyay, a University of Calcutta anthropologist, estimated in 1944 that 3.5 million famine-related deaths had occurred in 1943; this was widely believed at the time, but subsequently rejected by many scholars as too high (Greenough 1982, halaman 300–301; Dyson and Maharatna 1991, halaman 281Templat:Incomplete short citation). In 1946 Chattopadhyay estimated that 2.7 million had died in 1943 and the first half of 1944.[6] See Maharatna (1996, pp. 214–231), especially table 5.1 on page 215, for a review of the data.
  3. ^ Noted in several sources (e.g., Arnold 1991, halaman 97–98). According to Greenough (1980, p. 234) this explanation is conventional wisdom in Bengal itself. The classic academic version of this argument, in A. Sen (1976) and A. Sen (1981a), has become generally accepted (Ó Gráda 2015, p. 90). For a less technical and more elaborated discussion, see either Hungry Bengal by historian Janam Mukherjee (J. Mukherjee 2015) or the considerably more nationalist Churchill's Secret War by journalist Madhusree Mukerjee (Mukerjee 2010).
  4. ^ See especially Bowbrick (1986) and Tauger (2003).

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  1. ^ Famine Inquiry Commission 1945a, m/s. 1, 144–45; Maharatna 1992, m/s. 320–33.
  2. ^ Pati 1999.
  3. ^ Devereux 2000, m/s. 5.
  4. ^ A. Sen 1980, halaman 202; A. Sen 1981a, halaman 201.
  5. ^ Ó Gráda 2007, m/s. 19.
  6. ^ a b Kaiwar 2017, m/s. 90–91.
  7. ^ Greenough 1982, m/s. 299–309.
  8. ^ Famine Inquiry Commission 1945a, m/s. 109–110.
  9. ^ Greenough 1982, m/s. 300.
  10. ^ Mahalanobis, Mukherjea & Ghosh 1946.
  11. ^ Greenough 1982.
  12. ^ Mahalanobis, Mukherjea & Ghosh 1946, m/s. 339 and 365.

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