Cuba

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Republik Cuba
República de Cuba
Flag of Cuba
Bendera
Moto: Patria o Muerte  (Bahasa Sepanyol)
"Tanah air atau Kematian" a
Lagu kebangsaan: La Bayamesa  ("Lagu Bayamo")
Kedudukan Cuba
Ibu negara
dan bandar terbesar
22px Havana
Bahasa rasmi Bahasa Sepanyol
Kerajaan Republik sosialis
Fidel Castro (de jure)
Raúl Castro (de facto)
Kemerdekaan daripada Sepanyol
• Diisytiharkan
10 Oktober 1868
• Republik diisytihar
20 Mei 1902
1 Januari 1959
• Air (%)
sedikit sahaja
Penduduk
• Anggaran 2006
11,382,820 (73)
• Bancian 2002
11,177,743
KDNK (PPP) anggr. 2005 
• Jumlah
39.17 billion (tidak tersenarai)
• Per capita
$3,900 (tidak tersenarai)
HDI (2004) 0.826
Error: Invalid HDI value · 50
Matawang Peso
Pertukaran Peso d (CUC)
Zon Waktu EST (UTC-5)
• Musim panas (DST)
(Bermula 1 April; tarikh akhir berubah) (UTC-4)
Kod panggilan 53
Internet TLD .cu
a Seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam syiling tahun 1992

Cuba, secara rasminya digelarkan Republik Cuba, terdiri daripada pulau Cuba (pulau terbesar di kalangan Greater Antilles), Isle of Youth, dan pulau-pulau kecil yang berhampiran. Cuba terletak:

Kepulauan Cayman dan Jamaica terletak di selatan negara Cuba.

Cuba ialah negara yang mempunyai paling banyak penduduk di Caribbean. Budaya dan adat resamnya berasal daripada beberapa sumber, termasuk zaman penjajahan Sepanyol, pembawaan masuk abdi-abdi Afrika, dan secara tidak begitu kuat, kedudukannya yang berhampiran dengan Amerika Syarikat. Pulau ini mempunyai iklim tropika yang disederhanakan oleh perairan disekitarnya; arus panas Laut Caribbean dan kedudukannya di tengah-tengah perairan yang besar juga menyebabkan Cuba kerap kali mengalami hurikan.

Sejarah tercatat Cuba bermula pada 24 Oktober 1492, ketika Christopher Columbus menemui pulau ini semasa pelayaran sulungnya dan menuntut pulau ini untuk Sepanyol. Ketika itu, pulau ini telah didiami oleh orang-orang Amerindian yang dikenali sebagai Taíno dan Ciboney. Nenek moyang mereka datang dari Amerika Selatan beberapa abad dahulu. Kaum Taino adalah petani, manakala kaum Ciboney adalah pemburu-pemungut. Nama Cuba berasal daripada perkataan Taino, cubanacán, yang bermaksud "tempat pusat".

Pantai Cuba dipetakan secara lengkap oleh Sebastian de Ocampo pada tahun 1511. Pada tahun itu, Diego Velazquez de Cuellar mengasaskan petempatan Sepanyol yang pertama di Baracoa. Bandar-bandar yang lain kemudian diasaskan, termasuk Havana pada 1515. Sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh mereka di seluruh benua Amerika, orang-orang Sepanyol menindas dan mengabdikan hampir 100,000 orang asli di pulau ini. Dalam tempoh satu abad, kesemua orang asli itu tidak wujud lagi, akibat kesan-kesan gabungan yang terdiri daripada penyakit, kerja paksa, dan pembunuhan kaum. Peneroka-peneroka Sepanyol kemudian membawa masuk abdi-abdi Afrika yang tidak lama kemudian merupakan sebahagian besar penduduk-penduduk di Cuba.


Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Sejarah Cuba

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Alba, Víctor 1968 Politics and the labor movement in Latin America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. ASIN B0006BNYGK

Álvarez Batista, Gerónimo 1983. III Frente a las puertas de Santiago. Editorial Letras Cubanas, Havana.

Ameringer, Charles D 1995 The Caribbean Legion Patriots, Politicians, Soldiers of Fortune, 1946-1950 Pennsylvania State University Press (December, 1995) (Paperback) ISBN 0271014520

Anderson, Jon Lee 1997. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, Bantam Press, ISBN 0553406647 or Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-1600-0

Anton, Alex and Roger E. Hernandez 2002 Cubans in America: A Vibrant History of a People in Exile Kensington Publishing Corporation (May, 2002) ISBN 157566593X

Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio 1939 Estoy con el Pueblo [I am With the People]. Havana.

Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio 1960: Repuesta. Manuel León Sánchez S.C.L., Mexico City.

Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio 1961: Piedras y leyes [Stones and Laws]. Mexico City.

Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio 1962: Cuba Betrayed. Vantage Press, New York ASIN B0007DEH9A

Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio 1962: To Rule is to Foresee ASIN B0007IYHK4

Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio 1964: The Growth and Decline of the Cuban Republic. (Blas M. Rocafort trans.) Devin-Adair Company, New York. ISBN 0815956142

Batista y Zaldivar, Fulgencio unfinished autobiography and archive in the University of Miami’s Cuban Heritage Collection [1] ]

Bonachea, Ramon L and Marta San Martin 1974. The Cuban insurrection 1952-1959. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswik, New Jersey ISBN 0878555765

Carrillo, Justo 1985 Cuba 1933: Estudiantes, Yanquis y Soldados. University of Miami Iberian Studies Institute ISBN 0935501002 Transaction Publishers (January 1994) ISBN 1560006900

Castro, Fidel 1972 (editors Bonachea, Rolando E. and Nelson P. Valdéz) Revolutionary Struggle. 1947-1958. MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts and London ISBN 0262020653

de la Cova 2006 The Moncada Attack: Birth of the Cuban Revolution. University of South Carolina Press (in press)

Duarte Oropesa, José 1989 Historiología Cubana. Ediciones Universal Miami Vol 1. ISBN 0897294904, All volumes ISBN 8439925808

El'Toro, John Demico Chicano 2005 Cuban Secrets: I look like a Jackson Tribunal Publishing Corporation (July, 2005) ISBN 0544235617

Enamorado, Calixto 1917 Tiempos. Heroicos Persecucion. Rambla, Bauza and Company, Havana.

Encinosa, Enrique G. l989 La Guerra Olvidada Un Libro Historico De Los Combatientes Anticastristas En Cuba (1960-1966). Editorial SIBI, Miami

Evans, Walker (Photographer), and Andrei Codrescu 2001 Walker Evans: Cuba (Hardcover) J. Paul Getty Trust Publications ISBN 0892366176

Fermoselle, Rafael 1992 Cuban leadership after Castro: Biographies of Cuba's top commanders. North-South Center, University of Miami, Research Institute for Cuban Studies; 2nd ed.

Fontova, Humberto 2005 Fidel: Hollywood's Favorite Tyrant. Regnery Publishing Company, Washington DC. ISBN 0895260433

Fox, Ofelia 2007 CUBA, PATRIA EN LAGRIMAS Y EL MENSAJE DE LIANSU. Rosalie G. Sanchez, Los Angeles, California. Qbnwriter@aol.com ISBN 9781424335633

Fuentes, Norberto 2004 La Autobiografia De Fidel Castro Editorial Planeta, Mexico D.F ISBN 8423336042, ISBN 9707490012

George, Edward 2005 The Cuban Intervention In Angola, 1965-1991: From Che Guevara To Cuito Cuanavale. Frank Cass Publishers, London & Portland, Oregon ISBN 0415350158

Gonzalez, Servando 2002 The Secret Fidel Castro: Deconstructing the Symbol. Spooks Books, U.S. ISBN 0971139105 ISBN 0971139113

Greene, Graham 1958 Our Man in Havana: Viking ISBN 067053141 laneta, Mexico D.F ISBN 8423336042, ISBN 9707490012

Guevara, Ernesto “Che” (and Waters, Mary Alice editor) 1996 Episodes of the Cuban Revolutionary War 1956-1958. Pathfinder New York (see reference to “El Viscaíno” on page 186). ISBN 0873488245.

Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara Guerrilla attack on the Barracks de la Plata. In: The Mammoth book of War Stories. Jon. E. Lewis, editor, Carroll & Graf Publishers, New York 1999 Edition Printed and bound in United Kingdom. ISBN 0786706295 pp. 507-512.

Gutiérrez, Pedro Juan 1998 (Translation 2001) Dirty Havana Trilogy, Faber and Faber, London ISBN 0571206263

Geyer, Georgie Anne 2002 Guerrilla Prince. Andrews McMeel Publishing Kansas City ISBN 0740720643

Jimenez Pastrana, Juan 1983. Los Chinos en la Historia de Cuba: 1847-1930. Editorial de Sciencias Sociales, Havana,

Kapcia A. 2002. The Siege of the Hotel Nacional, Cuba, 1933: A Reassessment. Journal of Latin American Studies, 34, 283-309.

Kelshall, Gaylord T. M. 1994 The U-Boat War in the Caribbean United States Naval Institute Annapolis Maryland ISBN 1557504520

Kissinger, Henry 2000 Years of renewal. Simon & Schuster ISBN 0684855720

Kost, William E. 2004 Cuban agriculture: to be or not to be organic. Cuba in Transition 14, 274-281.

Lagas, Jacques 1964 Memorias de un capitán rebelde. Editorial del Pácifico. Santiago, Chile.

Lazo, Mario 1968 Dagger in the heart: American policy failures in Cuba. Twin Circle. NewYork

Lazo, Rodrigo 2005 Writing to Cuba Filibustering and Cuban Exiles in the United States. University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0807855944

Loiret, F; Ortega, E; Kleiner, D; Ortega-Rodes, P; Rodes, R; Dong, Z 2004 A putative new endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Pantoea sp. from sugarcane J. Appl. Microbiol., 97 (3) 504-511.

Lowinger, Rosa and Ofelia Fox 2005 Tropicana Nights. The Life and Times of the Legendary Cuban Nightclub. Harcourt, Orlando, New York, London ISBN 0151012245

Marmol, Jose G. 1993 Donato Marmol, Mayor General en la Revolucion del Separatismo Cubano. Editorial Arenas, Miami, pp. 171-174, 191,193-197, 200, 202, 218, 243 ISBN 0918454964

Márquez, Nicolás 2004 La otra parte de la verdad. Ediciones de Autor ISBN 9874382678

Márquez-Sterling, Carlos and Manuel 1975, Historia de la Isla de Cuba, Regents Publishing Co., NY, ISBN 0-88345-251-0

Márquez-Sterling, Carlos 1969, Historia de Cuba (desde Cristobal Colon a Fidel Castro), Las Americas Publishing Co., NY [revision of 1963 original edition]

Marrero, Levi 1981 5th edition "Geografia de Cuba" La Moderna Poesia, Coral Gables Florida.

Marmol, Jose G. 1993 Donato Marmol, Mayor General en la Revolucion del Separatismo Cubano. Editorial Arenas, Miami, pp. 171-174, 191,193-197, 200, 202, 218, 243 ISBN 0918454964

Martin, Lionel 1978 The Early Fidel: Roots of Castro's Communism Lyle Stuart, Secaucus New Jersey; 1st ed edition ISBN 0818402547

Martin, Paul Sidney George L. Quimby and Donald Collier 1947 Indians before Columbus;: Twenty thousand years of North American history revealed by archeology, The University of Chicago press, Chicago Illinois . ASIN B0006AR3AE pp. 40-46.

Matos, Huber, 2002. Como llego la Noche. Tusquet Editores, SA, Barcelona. ISBN 8483109441

Morán Arce, Lucas 1980 La revolución cubana, 1953-1959: Una versión rebelde Imprenta Universitaria, Universidad Católica; ISBN

Orro Fernandez, Roberto 2004 Education and labor skills in Socialist Cuba. Cuba in Transition-ASCE 10, 224-230.

Ortiz, Fernando 1995 edition, (translated from 1947 original by Harriet de Onís) Cuban counterpoint Tobacco and Sugar. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina and London ISBN 08223161161

de Paz-Sánchez, Manuel 1997. Zona Rebelde. La diplomacia Española ante la revolución cubana. Litografía Romero. S.A. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain ISBN 847926263X

de Paz-Sánchez, Manuel 2001. Zona de Guerra. España ante la Revolución Cubana. Litografía Romero. S.A. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain ISBN 8479263644

Nuñez Jimenez, Antonio 1959 Geografía de Cuba. Lex. Havana

Phillips, R Hart 1935 Cuban side show. Cuban Press, Havana 2nd edition. ASIN: B000860P60

Phillips, R Hart. 1959 Cuba, Island of Paradox. McDowell Obolensky, New York, NY ASIN: B0007E0OAU

Phillips, R Hart. 1960 Cuba Island of Paradise 1960 Astor-Honor Inc, ISBN 0839250126

Phillips, Ruby Hart 1961- The Tragic Island: How Communism Came to Cuba. Englewood Cliffs, NJ

Phillips, R Hart. 1962 The Cuban dilemma McDowell Obolensky, New York, NY Library of Congress number 6218787

Pirala, Antonio (1895, 1896 and some from 1874) Anales de la Guerra en Cuba. Felipe González Rojas, Madrid

Priestland, Jane (editor) 2003 British Archives on Cuba: Cuba under Castro 1959-1962. Archival Publications International Limited, 2003, London ISBN 1903008204

Puebla, Teté (Brigadier General Cuban Armed Forces) 2003 Marianas in Combat: and the Mariana Grajales Women's Platoon in Cuba's Revolutionary War 1956-58, New York Pathfinder ISBN 0873489578

Ramos, M. G., Villatoro, MAA, Urquiaga, S, Alves, BJR and: Boddey, RM 2001 Quantification of the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to tropical green manure crops and the residual benefit to a subsequent maize crop using super(15)N-isotope techniques J. Biotechnol. 91 (2-3)105-115

Reira Hernandez, Mario 1974. Cuba Republicana 1899-1958. Editorial AIP,Miami Fl Library of Congress number 74-16982

Rodriguez, Felix I. and John Weisman 1989 Shadow Warrior/the CIA Hero of a Hundred Unknown Battles Simon & Schuster, New York ISBN 0671667211

Rojo del Río, Manuel. 1981 La Historia Cambio En La Sierra. Editorial Texto, San José, Costa Rica 2a Ed. Aumentada

Roloff y Mialofsky, Carlos and Gerardo Forrest 1901. Yndice Alfabetico y Difunctiones del Ejercito Libertador de Cuba. Edited under the official direction of Leonard Wood. Printed in Havana by Rambla y Bauza

Ros, Enrique 2003 Fidel Castro y El Gatillo Alegre: Sus A~nos Universitarios (Coleccion Cuba y Sus Jueces) Ediciones Universal Miami ISBN 1593880065

La Rosa Corzo, Gabino (translated by Mary Todd) [1988] 2003 Runaway Slave Settlements in Cuba: Resistance and Repression University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill ISBN 0807828033 ISBN 0807854794

Rowan, Andrew Summers 1896 The island of Cuba; A descriptive and historical account of the "Great Antilla." H. Holt and company, ASIN B00086NGHU

Rowan, Andrew Summers 1922 How I carried the message to Garcia W.D. Harney ASIN B00086V3FW

Rubens, Horatio S. 1932 “Liberty. The Story of Cuba” AMS Press New York, 1970 reprint of 1932 edition. SBN 404-00633-7

Smith, Earl T. 1962 (1990 edition) The fourth floor. Selous Foundation Press, Washington DC. ISBN 09442730682

Spikes, Daniel 1993 Angola and the Politics of Intervention: From Local Bush War to Chronic Crisis in Southern Africa McFarland & Company Jefferson, North Carolina and London ISBN 089950888X

Tejera, Noel; Ortega, Eduardo; Rodes, Rosa; and Lluch, Carmen 2006 Nitrogen compounds in the apoplastic sap of sugarcane stem: Some implications in the association with endophytes. J. Plant Physiology, 163 (1)80-85

Tennant, Gary 1999 Dissident Cuban communism: the case of Trotskyism, 1932-1965 PhD Thesis, University of Bradford, England . http://www.cubantrotskyism.net/PhD/central.html

Thomas, Gordon and Max Morgan Witts 1974 Voyage of the Damned Stein and Day Publishers; 1st Edition edition (1974) Stein and Day, Briarcliff Manor, New York ASIN B000BKOCGM

Hugh Thomas Cuba or the Pursuit of Freedom (Paperback) Da Capo Press; Updated edition (April, 1998) ISBN 0306808277

Thomas-Woodward, Tiffany (accessed 1/29/2006) Towards the gates of eternity: Celia Sánchez Manduley and the creation of Cuba’s new woman. Project Muse http://muse.jhu.edu

U.S. State Department 1950-1954. Confidential Central files Cuba 1950-1954 Internal Affairs Decimal Numbers 737, 837 and 937, Foreign Affairs decimal numbers 637 611.37 Microfilm Project University of Publications of America, Inc. http://web.archive.org/web/20110904234327/http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/us-cuba/Confidential_Files-Nov-1952-July-1953.pdf http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/us-cuba/Confidential_Files-Aug-1953-Oct-1954.pdf

Vásquez, Aysa (editor) 1970. Días de Combate. Colección Uvero, Instituto del Libro, Havana

Velazquez, Loreta Janeta 1876 (2003 Editor Andrews, William L.) The Woman in Battle (The Civil War Narrative of Loreta Janeta Velazques, Cuban Woman and Confederate Soldier). University of Wisconsin Press 2003 ISBN 0299194248

Volkman, Ernest 1995 Our man in Havana. Cuban double agents 1961-1987 Castro stings the CIA in: Espionage: The Greatest Spy Operations of the Twentieth Century Wiley, New York ISBN 0471161578

Wegman ME Infant mortality: some international comparisons. Pediatrics; 98(6 Pt 1):1020-7, 1996 “Comparison of infant mortality rates (IMRs) among the world's countries requires assessment of completeness and accuracy of data. The United Nations Statistical Office classifies as [quot ]C[quot ], complete, meaning at least 90% of events are actually recorded, 1994 data supplied by 80 governments,”

Weiland, C. F. (Carl Ferdinand), (d. 1847) 1855 West Indien. Geographisches Institut (Weimar, Germany) [2]

Zayas y Alfonso, Alfredo 1914. “Lexografía Antillana” El Siglo XX Press, Havana

Zimmerman, Robert 1958 Our Man in Havana: Viking ISBN 067053141 laneta, Mexico D.F ISBN 8423336042, ISBN 9707490012

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Laman web rasmi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perkara am[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wikivoyage memiliki panduan pelancongan bagi Cuba.


Negara-negara di Caribbean
Negara merdeka
Alam Komanwel: Antigua & BarbudaBahamasBarbadosGrenadaJamaicaSanto Kitts dan NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent & Grenadines
Republik Komanwel: DominikaTrinidad dan Tobago
Republik lain: CubaRepublik Dominika & Haiti (kedua-dua di Hispaniola)

Wilayah tanggungan
Amerika Syarikat: Kepulauan Virgin Amerika SyarikatPuerto RicoPulau NavassaTeluk Guantanamo (enklaf di Cuba) •
Belanda: Aruba & Antillen BelandaBritish: AnguillaKepulauan CaymanKepulauan Turks dan CaicosKepulauan Virgin BritishMontserrat
Perancis: Guadeloupe & Martinique