Setiausaha Perang Amerika Syarikat

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Setiausaha Perang Amerika Syarikat
Seal of the United States Department of War.png
Flag of the United States Secretary of the Army.svg
Bendera Setiausaha Perang
Jabatan Perang Amerika Syarikat
Gelaran Tuan Setiausaha
Anggota Kabinet
Lapor kepada Presiden
Kawasan Washington, D.C.
Pelantik Presiden
atas nasihat dan persetujuan Senat
Tempoh Tiada tempoh ditetapkan
Prekursor Setiausaha masa Perang
Pembentukan 1789
Pemegang pertama Henry Knox
Pemegang terakhir Kenneth C. Royall
Dimansuhkan 1947
Perwarisan Setiausaha Pertahanan
Setiausaha Tentera Darat
Setiausaha Tentera Udara

Setiausaha Perang adalah anggota Kabinet Presiden Amerika Syarikat, bermula dengan pentadbiran George Washington. Satu jawatan yang sama, samada dipanggil "Setiausaha masa Perang" atau "Setiausaha Perang," telah dilantik untuk berkhidmat dengan Kongres Konfederasi dibawah Artikel Konfederasi antara tahun 1781 dan 1789. Benjamin Lincoln dan kemudian Henry Knox menyandang jawatan itu. Apabila Washington dilantik sebagai presiden pertama dibawah Perlembagaan, beliau melantik Knox untuk terus berkhidmat.

Setiausaha Perang merupakan ketua Jabatan Perang. Pada mulanya, beliau bertanggungjawab bagi semua urusan ketenteraan, termasuk hal ehwal tentera laut. Pada tahun 1798, Setiausaha Tentera Laut telah diwujudkan oleh statut, dan skop tanggungjawab bagi pejabat ini dikurangkan kepada hal ehwal Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat. Dari tahun 1886 seterusnya, Setiausaha Perang berada di tempat ketiga dalam susunan penggantian jawatan presiden, selepas Naib Presiden Amerika Syarikat dan Setiausaha Negara.

Pada tahun 1947, dengan pelulusan Akta Keselamatan Negara 1947, Setiausaha Perang digantikan oleh Setiausaha Tentera Darat dan Setiausaha Tentera Udara, yang, berserta dengan Setiausaha Tentera Laut, sejak tahun 1949 menjadi subordinat bukan-Kabinet dibawah Setiausaha Pertahanan. Pejabat Setiausaha Tentera Darat secara umumnya dianggap pengganti terus kepada Setiausaha Perang walaupun Setiausaha Pertahanan mengambil tempat Setiausaha Perang dalam Kabinet, dan susunan penggantian jawatan presiden.

Senarai Setiausaha[sunting | sunting sumber]

Setiausaha masa Perang (1781–1789)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pejabat Setiausaha masa Perang dimodelkan mengikut Setiausaha masa Perang Great Britain, iaitu William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, pada masa Revolusi Amerika. Pejabat Setiausaha masa Perang bertujuan menggantikan Panglima Tertinggi dan Lembaga Perang, dan seperti Presiden Lembaga, Setiausaha tidak memakai insignia khas. Inspektor Jeneral, Kuartermaster Jeneral, Komisari Jeneral, dan Ajutan Jeneral berkhidmat pada staf Setiausaha. Bagaimanapun, Tentera Darat sendiri dibawah Setiausaha Henry Knox hanya terdiri daripada 700 anggota.

No. Potret Nama Negeri kediaman Ambil jawatan Lepas jawatan Kongres
1 General Benjamin Lincoln-restored.jpg Benjamin Lincoln Massachusetts 1781 1783 Kongres Konfederasi
2 Henry Knox by Gilbert Stuart 1806.jpeg Henry Knox Massachusetts March 8, 1785 September 12, 1789

Setiausaha Perang (1789–1947)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dwight F. Davis mengangkat sumpah sebagai Setiausaha Perang pada tahun 1925. Mantan Setiausaha John W. Weeks dan Ketua Hakim William Howard Taft berdiri disebelahnya.
Parti

      Tiada parti (1)       Federalis (3)       Demokrat-Republikan (8)       Demokrat (14)       Whig (5)       Republikan (25)

No. Potret Nama Negeri kediaman Ambil jawatan Lepas jawatan Presiden
1 Henry Knox by Gilbert Stuart 1806.jpeg Henry Knox Massachusetts September 12, 1789 December 31, 1794 George Washington
style="background: Templat:Federalist Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 2 Timothy-Pickering.jpg Timothy Pickering Pennsylvania[1] January 2, 1795 December 10, 1795
rowspan=2 style="background: Templat:Federalist Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 3 JMcHenry.jpg James McHenry Maryland January 27, 1796 June 1, 1800[2]
rowspan=2 style="background: Templat:Federalist Party (United States)/meta/color;" | John Adams
style="background: Templat:Federalist Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 4 Samuel Dexter.jpg Samuel Dexter Massachusetts June 1, 1800 January 31, 1801
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 5 Henry Dearborn by Gilbert Stuart.jpeg Henry Dearborn Massachusetts March 5, 1801 March 4, 1809 style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | Thomas Jefferson
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 6 William Eustis.jpg William Eustis Massachusetts March 7, 1809 January 13, 1813 rowspan=4 style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | James Madison
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 7 John Armstrong Jr..jpg John Armstrong, Jr. New York January 13, 1813 September 27, 1814
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 8 Jamesmonroe-npgallery.jpg James Monroe Virginia September 27, 1814 March 2, 1815
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 9 WilliamHarrisCrawford5.jpg William H. Crawford Georgia August 1, 1815 October 22, 1816
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 10 JCCalhoun-1822.jpg John C. Calhoun South Carolina October 8, 1817 March 4, 1825 style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | James Monroe
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 11 BarbourT.jpg James Barbour Virginia March 7, 1825 May 23, 1828 rowspan=2 style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | John Quincy Adams
style="background: Templat:Democratic-Republican Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 12 Peter Buell Porter.jpg Peter Buell Porter New York May 23, 1828 March 9, 1829
13 John Eaton.jpg John H. Eaton Tennessee March 9, 1829 June 18, 1831 Andrew Jackson
14 Lewis Cass 2.jpg Lewis Cass Ohio August 1, 1831 October 5, 1836
15 Jrpoinsett.jpg Joel Roberts Poinsett South Carolina March 7, 1837 March 4, 1841 Martin Van Buren
rowspan=2 style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 16 JBell.jpg John Bell Tennessee March 5, 1841 September 13, 1841 style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | William Henry Harrison
rowspan=4 style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | John Tyler
style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 17 SpencerJohn.jpg John Canfield Spencer New York October 12, 1841 March 4, 1843
style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 18 PorterJM.jpg James Madison Porter Pennsylvania March 8, 1843 February 14, 1844
19 William Wilkins United States Senator - Brady-Handy.jpg William Wilkins Pennsylvania February 15, 1844 March 4, 1845
20 William L. Marcy.png William Learned Marcy New York March 6, 1845 March 4, 1849 James K. Polk
style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 21 GWCrawford2.jpg George W. Crawford Georgia March 8, 1849 July 22, 1850 style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | Zachary Taylor
style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | 22 Charles Magill Conrad.jpg Charles Magill Conrad Louisiana August 15, 1850 March 4, 1853 style="background: Templat:Whig Party (United States)/meta/color;" | Millard Fillmore
23 President-Jefferson-Davis.jpg Jefferson Davis Mississippi March 7, 1853 March 4, 1857 Franklin Pierce
24 John Buchanan Floyd.jpg John B. Floyd Virginia March 6, 1857 December 29, 1860 James Buchanan
25 Joseph Holt.jpg Joseph Holt Kentucky January 18, 1861 March 4, 1861
26 Smn Cameron-SecofWar.jpg Simon Cameron Pennsylvania March 5, 1861 January 14, 1862 Abraham Lincoln
27 Edwin McMasters Stanton Secretary of War.jpg Edwin M. Stanton Pennsylvania January 20, 1862 May 28, 1868
Andrew Johnson
28 John Schofield.jpg John McAllister Schofield Illinois June 1, 1868 March 13, 1869
29 John Aaron Rawlins - Brady-Handy.jpg John Aaron Rawlins Illinois March 13, 1869 September 6, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant
30 WWBelknap.jpg William W. Belknap Iowa October 25, 1869 March 2, 1876
31 Alphonso Taft seated.jpg Alphonso Taft Ohio March 8, 1876 May 22, 1876
32 JDonaldC2.jpg J. Donald Cameron Pennsylvania May 22, 1876 March 4, 1877
33 GWMcCrary.jpg George W. McCrary Iowa March 12, 1877 December 10, 1879 Rutherford B. Hayes
34 Alexander Ramsey - Brady-Handy.jpg Alexander Ramsey Minnesota December 10, 1879 March 4, 1881
35 Robert Todd Lincoln, Brady-Handy bw photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg Robert Todd Lincoln Illinois March 5, 1881 March 4, 1885 James A. Garfield
Chester A. Arthur
36 William Endicott, bw photo portrait, 1886.jpg William Crowninshield Endicott Massachusetts March 5, 1885 March 4, 1889 Grover Cleveland
37 Redfield Proctor, bw photo portrait, 1904.jpg Redfield Proctor Vermont March 5, 1889 November 5, 1891 Benjamin Harrison
38 SBElkins.jpg Stephen Benton Elkins West Virginia December 17, 1891 March 4, 1893
39 Daniel Lamont, bw photo portrait, 1904.jpg Daniel S. Lamont New York March 5, 1893 March 4, 1897 Grover Cleveland
40 Russell Alexander Alger by by The Detroit Publishing Co..jpg Russell A. Alger Michigan March 5, 1897 August 1, 1899 William McKinley
41 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg Elihu Root New York August 1, 1899 January 31, 1904
Theodore Roosevelt
42 William Howard Taft.jpg William Howard Taft Ohio February 1, 1904 June 30, 1908
43 Luke Edward Wright.jpg Luke Edward Wright Tennessee July 1, 1908 March 4, 1909
44 Jacob Dickinson, bw photo portrait standing, 1909.jpg Jacob M. Dickinson Tennessee March 12, 1909 May 21, 1911 William Howard Taft
45 HLStimson.jpg Henry L. Stimson New York May 22, 1911 March 4, 1913
46 Lindley Garrison, BW photo portrait, 1913.jpg Lindley Miller Garrison New Jersey March 5, 1913 February 10, 1916 Woodrow Wilson
47 Newton Baker, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Newton D. Baker Ohio March 9, 1916 March 4, 1921
48 John Wingate Weeks, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg John W. Weeks Massachusetts March 5, 1921 October 13, 1925 Warren G. Harding
Calvin Coolidge
49 Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Dwight F. Davis Missouri October 14, 1925 March 4, 1929
50 James William Good, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919.jpg James William Good Illinois March 6, 1929 November 18, 1929 Herbert Hoover
51 PJayHurl.jpg Patrick J. Hurley Oklahoma December 9, 1929 March 4, 1933
52 George Dern, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg George Dern Utah March 4, 1933 August 27, 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt
53 Harry Hines Woodring, 53rd United States Secretary of War.jpg Harry Hines Woodring Kansas September 25, 1936 June 20, 1940
54 Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929.jpg Henry L. Stimson New York July 10, 1940 September 21, 1945
Harry S. Truman
55 Robert P. Patterson, 55th United States Secretary of War.jpg Robert P. Patterson New York September 27, 1945 July 18, 1947
56 KCR portrait.jpg Kenneth C. Royall North Carolina July 19, 1947 September 18, 1947

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]