Senarai empayar terbesar

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Empayar melibatkan perluasan kedaulatan sebuah negara ke atas wilayah luar. Sebagai contoh, dahulu Empayar Sepanyol dan kemudian Empayar British dipanggil dengan "Empayar di mana matahari tidak pernah terbenam", di sebabkan wilayahnya di seluruh dunia. Rencana ini menyediakan satu senarai empayar terbesar di dalam sejarah dunia.

Empayar terbesar mengikut luas tanah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Untuk perhatian, jumlah keluasan tanah di Bumi kurang sedikit daripada 149 juta km2.[1]

Kesemua empayar pada zaman kemuncaknya[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Empayar British - 33.7 juta km2 (1923)[2][3]
  2. Empayar Mongol - 24.0 juta km2 (1270 or 1309)[4]
  3. Empayar Rusia - 23.7 juta km2 (1866)[2][3]
  4. Empayar Uthmaniyyah - 20.0 juta km2 (1595)[2][3]
  5. Empayar Sepanyol - 20.0 juta km2 (ca. 1740-1790)[5]
  6. Empayar Qing, China - 14.7 juta km2 (1790)[2][3]
  7. Dinasti Yuan - 14.0 juta km2 (1310)[3]
  8. Kerajaan Ummayyah - 13.0 juta km2 (720 or 750)[6]
  9. Empayar Kolonial Perancis Kedua - 13 juta km2 (1938)[5]
  10. Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah - 11.1 juta km2 (750)[3]
  11. Empayar Portugal - 10.4 juta km2 (1815)[5]
  12. Khulafa al-Rasyidin - 9.0 juta km2 (654)[3][7]
  13. Empayar Brazil - 8.5 juta km2 (1880)[5]
  14. Empayar Achaemenid, Persia - 8.0 juta km2 (480 SM)[8]
  15. Empayar Jepun - 7.4 juta km2 (1942)[5]
  16. Empayar Rom - 6.5 juta km2 (117)[9]
  17. Empayar Han, China - 6.5 juta km2 (100)[10]
  18. Empayar Ming, China - 6.5 juta km2 (1450)[2][3]
  19. Göktürk Khaganate - 6.0 juta km2 (557)[2][10]
  20. Golden Horde Khanate - 6.0 juta km2 (1310)[2][3]
  21. Uyghur Khaganate - 5.5 juta km2 (800)[2][3]
  22. Empayar Tang, China - 5.4 juta km2 (715)[2][3]
  23. Empayar Macedon - 5.2 juta km2 (323 SM)[2][11]
  24. Khilafah Fatimiyyah - 5.1 juta km2 (969)[2][3]
  25. Empayar Maurya, India - 5.0 juta km2 (250 SM)[2]
  26. Northern Dinasti Yuan (Oirats), Mongolia - 5.0 juta km2 (1550)[3]
  27. Dinasti Xin, China - 4.7 juta km2 (10)[10]
  28. Empayar Tufan (Tibet) - 4.6 juta km2 (800)[2][3]
  29. Empayar Pala, India - 4.6 juta km2 (850)
  30. Wangsa Timuriyah - 4.6 juta km2 (1405)[2][3]
  31. Empayar Mughal, India - 4.6 juta km2 (1690)[2][3]
  32. First Mexican Empire - 4.4 juta km2 (1822)[petikan diperlukan]
  33. Xiongnu Empire - 4.03 juta km2 (176 SM)[12]
  34. Hunnic Empire - 4.0 juta km2 (441)[10]
  35. Hepthalite Khanate (White Huns), India - 4.0 juta km2 (490)[10]
  36. Eastern Turks Khanate - 4.0 juta km2 (624)[10]
  37. Afsharid Dynasty, Persia - 4.0 juta km2 (1747)[petikan diperlukan]
  38. Western Turks Khanate- 4.0 juta km2 (630)[10]
  39. Rouran Khaganate (Juan-juan) - 4.0 juta km2 (AD 405)[2][10]
  40. Seleucid Empire - 3.9 juta km2 (301 SM)[2][11]
  41. Great Seljuq Empire - 3.9 juta km2 (1080)[2][3]
  42. Italian Empire - 3.8 juta km2 (1940)[petikan diperlukan]
  43. Kushan Empire, India- 3.8 juta km2 (200)[10]
  44. Ilkhanate - 3.75 juta km2 (1310)[2][3]
  45. Empayar Belanda - 3.7 juta km2(1940)[petikan diperlukan]
  46. Chola Dynasty, India - 3.6 juta km2 (1050)[13] [14]
  47. Khwarazmian Empire - 3.6 juta km2 (1218)[3]
  48. Jerman Nazi - 3.6 juta km2 (1942)[petikan diperlukan]
  49. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 3.5 juta km2 (620)[2]
  50. Gupta Empire, India - 3.5 juta km2 (400)[2]
  51. Chagatai Khanate - 3.5 juta km2 (1310 or 1350)[2][3]
  52. Safavid Dynasty, Persia - 3.5 juta km2 (1512)[petikan diperlukan]
  53. Empayar Jerman - 3.5 juta km2 (1914)[petikan diperlukan]
  54. Western Jin Dynasty, China - 3.5 juta km2 (300)[10]
  55. Shaybanid (Uzbek) Dynasty - 3.5 juta km2 (1510)[3]
  56. Justinian Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine) - 3.5 juta km2 (555)[10]
  57. Song Dynasty (Northern Song), China - 3.5 juta km2 (1100)[2][3]
  58. Ghaznavid Empire, Persia - 3.4 juta km2 (1029)[2][3]
  59. First Empayar Kolonial Perancis - 3.4 juta km2 (1670)[3]
  60. Almoravid Caliphate - 3.3 juta km2 (1147)[3]
  61. Tughlaq Dynasty, India- 3.2 juta km2 (1320)[3]
  62. Ghurids Sultanate, Persia - 3.2 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  63. Sui Dynasty, China - 3.1 juta km2 (610)[3]
  64. Khazar Khanate - 3.0 juta km2 (850)[2]
  65. Kalmar Union - 3.0 juta km2 (1397)[petikan diperlukan]
  66. Kievan Rus' - 3.0 juta km2 (1050)[2][3]
  67. Kara-Khanid Khanate - 3.0 juta km2 (1025)[3]
  68. Qajar Dynasty, Persia- 3.0 juta km2 (1796)[petikan diperlukan]
  69. Danish colonial empire - 3.0 juta km2 (1800)[petikan diperlukan]
  70. Grand Duchy of Moscow - 3.0 juta km2 (1505)[petikan diperlukan]
  71. Samanid Dynasty, Persia - 2.85 juta km2 (928)[2][3]
  72. Median Empire - 2.8 juta km2 (585 SM)[2][11]
  73. Qin Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (206 SM)[10]
  74. Parthian Empire - 2.8 juta km2 (1)[2][11]
  75. Eastern Jin Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (347)[10]
  76. Liu Song Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (420)[10]
  77. Empayar Rom Timur (Empayar Byzantine) - 2.8 juta km2 (450)[10]
  78. Khilji Dynasty, India - 2.7 juta km2 (1312 or 1320)[2][3]
  79. Ayyubid Caliphate - 2.7 juta km2 (1190)[2]
  80. Majapahit Empire (Indonesia) - 2.7 juta km2 (1389)[10]
  81. Liao Dynasty, China - 2.6 juta km2 (947)[2][3]
  82. Indo-Greek (Yavana) Kingdom,India - 2.5 juta km2 (150 SM)[10]
  83. Bactrian Empire - 2.5 juta km2 (184 SM)[10]
  84. Later Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.5 juta km2 (329)[10]
  85. Maratha Empire, India - 2.5 juta km2 (1760)[2]
  86. Belgian Empire - 2.5 juta km2 (1914)[petikan diperlukan]
  87. Kara-Khitan Khanate (Western Liao) - 2.5 juta km2 (1210)[2]
  88. Jin Dynasty (Jurchen), China - 2.3 juta km2 (1126)[2][3]
  89. Southern Qi Dynasty, China - 2.3 juta km2 (502)[10]
  90. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 2.1 juta km2 (1127)[3]
  91. Bahriyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 juta km2 (1300)[3]
  92. Burjiyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 juta km2 (1400)[2]
  93. First Empayar Perancis - 2.1 juta km2 (1813)[3]
  94. Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (263)[10]
  95. Earlier Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (316)[10]
  96. Former Qin Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (376)[10]
  97. Empayar Rom Barat - 2.0 juta km2 (395)[10]
  98. Northern Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (450)[10]
  99. Saffarid Dynasty, Persia - 2.0 juta km2 (900)[petikan diperlukan]
  100. Almohad Caliphate - 2.0 juta km2 (1200)[2]
  101. Satavahana Dynasty (Salivahana), India - 2.0 juta km2 (90 AD)[10]
  102. Karkota Dynasty (Kashmir), India - 2.0 juta km2 (750)[2][3]
  103. Inca Empire - 2.0 juta km2 (1527)[2][3]
  104. Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty, India - 1.8 juta km2 (860)[3]
  105. Sibir Khanate - 1.8 juta km2 (1520)[3]
  106. Rashtrakuta Dynasty, India - 1.7 juta km2 (805)[petikan diperlukan]
  107. Buyid Sultanate, Persia - 1.6 juta km2 (980)[2][3]
  108. Mamluk Sultanate, India - 1.6 juta km2 (1228)[3]
  109. Indo-Parthians (Pahalvas) Kingdom, India - 1.5 juta km2 (AD 50)[10]
  110. Wu Dynasty, China- 1.5 juta km2 (221)[10]
  111. Northern Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.5 juta km2 (577)[10]
  112. Nanda Dynasty, India - 1.5 juta km2 (350 or 321 SM)[10][15]
  113. Indo-Scythians (Shaka) Kingdom, India - 1.5 juta km2 (BC 100)[11]
  114. Tulunids Emirate - 1.5 juta km2 (900)[10]
  115. Idrisid Dynasty, Morocco - 1.5 juta km2 (828)[2]
  116. Suri Dynasty, India - 1.5 juta km2 (1545 AD)[2][3]
  117. Neo-Assyrian Empire - 1.4 juta km2 (670 SM)[2][11]
  118. Songhai Empire - 1.4 juta km2 (1500)[16]
  119. Macedonian Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine) - 1.35 juta km2 (1025)[2][10]
  120. Harsha Empire (Pusyabhutis), India - 1.35 juta km2 (625 or 648)[2][3]
  121. Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (502 or 549)[2][10]
  122. Western Wei Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (557)[10]
  123. Later Liang Dynasty, China- 1.3 juta km2 (923)[3]
  124. Later Tang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (923)[3]
  125. Mali Empire - 1.29 juta km2 (1312)[17]
  126. Shang Dynasty, China - 1.25 juta km2 (1122 SM)[2][11]
  127. Western Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.25 juta km2 (1122 SM)[11]
  128. Aksumite Empire - 1.25 juta km2 (350)[2]
  129. Carolingian Dynasty, Francia - 1.2 juta km2 (814)[2][3]
  130. Polish-Lithuanian Empire - 1.2 juta km2 (1650)[2][3]
  131. Srivijaya Empire - 1.2 juta km2 (1200)[2]
  132. Sunga Empire, India - 1.2 juta km2 (BC 150)[2]
  133. Kingdom of Kush (Meroë) (25th Dynasty), Sudan - 1.2 juta km2 (BC 700)[2]
  134. Thai Empire (Siam Empire) - 1.12 juta km2 (1782)[petikan diperlukan]
  135. Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.1 juta km2 (636)[petikan diperlukan]
  136. Swedish Empire - 1.1 juta km2 (1658)[petikan diperlukan]
  137. Lodhi Dynasty, India - 1.1 juta km2 (1517)[petikan diperlukan]
  138. 18th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (1450 SM)[11]
  139. New Kingdom in Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (1300 SM)[2][11]
  140. Ptolemaic Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (301 SM)[11]
  141. Eastern Wei Dynasty, China - 1.0 juta km2 (550)[10]
  142. Northern Qi Dynasty, China - 1.0 juta km2 (550)[10]
  143. Tahirid Dynasty, Persia - 1.0 juta km2 (800)[3]
  144. Kalachuri Dynasty, India - 1.0 juta km2 (1050)[2][3]
  145. Empayar Suci Rom - 1.0 juta km2 (1050)[3]
  146. Western Xia Dynasty (Tangut), China- 1.0 juta km2 (1100)[2]
  147. Western Chalukya Empire, India - 1.0 juta km2 (1121)[petikan diperlukan]
  148. Khmer Empire - 1.0 juta km2 (1290)[2][3]
  149. Avars Empire - 1.0 juta km2 (600)[10]
  150. Kanem Empire, Chad - 1.0 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  151. Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty, India- 0.9 juta km2 (10 SM)[11]
  152. Konbaung Dynasty, Burma - 0.9 juta km2 (1800 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  153. Volga Bulgars Khanate - 0.9 juta km2 (1100)[2][3]
  154. Akkadian Empire - 0.8 juta km2 (2250 SM)[11]
  155. Later Jin Dynasty, China - 0.8 juta km2 (936)[3]
  156. Ghana Empire - 0.8 juta km2 (1067)[10]
  157. Pagan Kingdom (Bagan), Burma - 0.8 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  158. Western Satraps Dynasty, India - 0.8 juta km2 (100)[10]
  159. Himyarite Kingdom, Yemen - 0.8 juta km2 (400 AD)[11]
  160. Balhae Kingdom, Korea - 0.8 juta km2 (830)[2]
  161. Khanate of Kazan - 0.7 juta km2 (1540)[3]
  162. Merovingian Dynasty, Francia - 0.7 juta km2 (558)[3]
  163. Bulgarian Empire - 0.7 juta km2 (900)[petikan diperlukan]
  164. Shu Dynasty, China- 0.7 juta km2 (221)[10]
  165. Yadava (Gauli) Kingdom, India- 0.7 juta km2 (1250)[3]
  166. Paramara Dynasty , India - 0.7 juta km2 (1050)[10]
  167. Kingdom of Dali (Hou li),China - 0.7 juta km2 (1200)[petikan diperlukan]
  168. Vijayanagara (Tuluvas) Empire, India- 0.7 juta km2 (1529)[petikan diperlukan]
  169. Kingdom of Nanzhao, China - 0.7 juta km2 (830)[3]
  170. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 0.676615 juta km2[petikan diperlukan]
  171. 15th Dynasty (Hyksos), Egypt - 0.65 juta km2 (1650 SM)[11]
  172. 26th Dynasty, Egypt- 0.65 juta km2 (550 SM)[11]
  173. Vakataka Kingdom, India - 0.65 juta km2 (450 AD)[11]
  174. Visigoths Kingdom - 0.6 juta km2 (580)[10]
  175. Caliphate of Córdoba - 0.6 juta km2 (1000)[3]
  176. Rai Dynasty (Chachas) (Sindh) ,India - 0.6 juta km2 (675 AD)[10]
  177. Maukhari (Kannauj) Dynasty, India - 0.6 juta km2 (600 AD)[3]
  178. Bahmani Sultanate, India - 0.6 juta km2 (1470 AD)[3]
  179. Nizams Dynasty, India - 0.6 juta km2 (1740 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  180. Sikh Empire, India - 0.5609 juta km2 (1845)[petikan diperlukan]
  181. Middle Kingdom, Egypt - 0.5 juta km2 (1850 SM)[11]
  182. Lydian Empire - 0.5 juta km2 (585 SM)[11]
  183. Neo-Babylonian Empire - 0.5 juta km2 (562 SM)[11]
  184. Kosala Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (543 SM)[10]
  185. Shishunaga Dynasty,India- 0.5 juta km2 (510 SM)[10]
  186. Chu Dynasty, China - 0.5 juta km2 (350 SM)[10]
  187. Pandyan Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (1251)[petikan diperlukan]
  188. Later Han Dynasty, China - 0.5 juta km2 (947)[3]
  189. Kangju Empire (Transoxiana) - 0.5 juta km2 (100 SM)[10]
  190. Ostrogothic Kingdom- 0.5 juta km2 (510 AD)[3]
  191. Goguryeo Kingdom, Korea - 0.45 juta km2 (476)[11]
  192. Xia Dynasty, China (based on the hypothesis that prehistorical cities of Erlitou culture were once united) - 0.45 juta km2 (1800 SM)[11]
  193. New Kingdom, Hittite - 0.45 juta km2 (1250 or 1220 SM)[11]
  194. Crimean Khanate - 0.4 juta km2 (1500)[3]
  195. Armenian Empire - 0.4 juta km2 (83 SM)[10]
  196. Old Kingdom, Egypt - 0.4 juta km2 (2400 SM)[11]
  197. Middle Kingdom, Assyria (under Tiglath-Pileser I) - 0.4 juta km2 (1080 SM)[11]
  198. Latin Empire - 0.35 juta km2 (1204)[10]
  199. Harappan Empire, India- 0.3 juta km2 (1800 SM)[15]
  200. Mitanni Empire - 0.3 juta km2 (1450 SM)[11]
  201. Carthaginian Empire - 0.3 juta km2 (220 SM)[11]
  202. Palailogan Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine) - 0.3 juta km2 (1300)[11]
  203. 1st Dynasty, Babylon - 0.25 juta km2 (1690 SM)[11]
  204. Serbian Empire - 0.25 juta km2 (1350)[petikan diperlukan]
  205. Aztec Empire - 0.22 juta km2 (1520)[3]
  206. Middle Elamite - 0.2 juta km2 (1160 SM)[11]
  207. 2nd Dynasty, Isin - 0.2 juta km2 (1130 SM)[11]
  208. Urartu Empire - 0.2 juta km2 (800 SM)[11]
  209. Phrygian Dynasty - 0.2 juta km2 (750 SM)[11]
  210. Old Kingdom, Assyria - 0.15 juta km2 (1730 SM)[11]
  211. Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China - 0.15 juta km2 (770 SM)[11]

Empayar yang memecah rekod[sunting | sunting sumber]

Berikut adalah empayar-empayar yang memecah rekod saiz pada zamannya, setiap satunya memiliki luas yang lebih besar (atau menyamai) dengan empayar pemegang rekod sebelumnya.[3]

Mengikut era[sunting | sunting sumber]

Empayar kuno[sunting | sunting sumber]

Empayar Macedon at its greatest extent.
Empayar Maurya at its greatest extent.
  1. Empayar Achaemenid - 8.0 juta km2 (480 SM)[8][20]
  2. Empayar Han, China - 6.5 juta km2 (AD 100)[10]
  3. Empayar Rom - 6.5 juta km2 (AD 117)[9][21]
  4. Empayar Macedon - 5.2 juta km2 (323 SM)[2][11]
  5. Empayar Maurya, India - 5.0 juta km2 (250 SM)[2][22]
  6. Dinasti Xin, China - 4.7 juta km2 (AD 10)[10]
  7. Xiongnu Empire - 4.03 juta km2 (176 SM)[12][23]
  8. Hunnic Empire - 4.0 juta km2 (AD 441)[10]
  9. Hapthalite Khanate (White Huns), India - 4.0 juta km2 (AD 490)[10]
  10. Rouran Khaganate (Juan-juan) - 4.0 juta km2 (AD 405)[2][10]
  11. Seleucid Empire - 3.9 juta km2 (301 SM)[2][11]
  12. Kushan Empire, India - 3.8 juta km2 (AD 200)[10][24]
  13. Sassanid Empire - 3.5 juta km2 (AD 450)[2][11]
  14. Gupta Empire, India - 3.5 juta km2 (AD 400)[2][25]
  15. Western Jin Dynasty, China - 3.5 juta km2 (AD 300)[10]
  16. Median Empire - 2.8 juta km2 (585 SM)[2][11]
  17. Qin Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (206 SM)[10]
  18. Parthian Empire - 2.8 juta km2 (AD 1)[2][11]
  19. Eastern Jin Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (AD 347)[10]
  20. Liu Song Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (AD 420)[10]
  21. Empayar Rom Timur (Empayar Byzantine) - 2.8 juta km2 (AD 450)[10]
  22. Indo-Greek (Yavana) Kingdom, India - 2.5 juta km2 (150 SM)[10]
  23. Bactrian Empire - 2.5 juta km2 (184 SM)[10]
  24. Later Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.5 juta km2 (329)[10]
  25. Northern Wei Dynasty, China - 2.2 juta km2 (AD 450)[10]
  26. Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (AD 263)[10]
  27. Former Qin Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (AD 376)[10]
  28. Empayar Rom Barat - 2.0 juta km2 (AD 395)[10]
  29. Earlier Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (316)[10]
  30. Satavahana Empire (Salivahana), India - 2.0 juta km2 (AD 90)[10]
  31. Indo-Parthians (Pahalvas) Kingdom , India - 1.5 juta km2 (AD 50)[10]
  32. Wu Dynasty, China - 1.5 juta km2 (AD 221)[10]
  33. Indo-Scythians (Shaka) Kingdom, India - 1.5 juta km2 (BC 100)[11]
  34. Nanda Dynasty, India - 1.5 juta km2 (350 or 321 SM)[10][15]
  35. Neo-Assyrian Empire - 1.4 juta km2 (670 SM)[11]
  36. Shang Dynasty, China - 1.25 juta km2 (1122 SM)[2][11]
  37. Western Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.25 juta km2 (1122 SM)[11]
  38. Aksumite Empire - 1.25 juta km2 (AD 350)[2]
  39. Sunga Empire, India - 1.2 juta km2 (BC 150)[2]
  40. Kingdom of Kush (Meroë) (25th Dynasty), Sudan - 1.2 juta km2 (BC 700)[2]
  41. 18th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (1450 SM)[11]
  42. New Kingdom in Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (1300 SM)[2][11]
  43. Ptolemaic Empire, Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (301 SM)[11]
  44. Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty, India - 0.9 juta km2 (10 SM)[11]
  45. Akkadian Empire - 0.8 juta km2 (2250 SM)[11]
  46. Western Satraps Dynasty, India - 0.8 juta km2 (AD 100)[10]
  47. Himyarite Kingdom, Yemen - 0.8 juta km2 (400 AD)[11]
  48. Shu Dynasty, China - 0.7 juta km2 (221)[10]
  49. 15th Dynasty (Hyksos), Egypt - 0.65 juta km2 (1650 SM)[11]
  50. Vakataka Kingdom, India - 0.65 juta km2 (450 AD)[11]
  51. 26th Dynasty, Egypt - 0.65 juta km2 (550 SM)[11]
  52. Middle Kingdom, Egypt - 0.5 juta km2 (1850 SM)[11]
  53. Lydian Empire - 0.5 juta km2 (585 SM)[11]
  54. Neo-Babylonian Empire - 0.5 juta km2 (562 SM)[11]
  55. Kosala Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (543 SM)[10]
  56. Shishunaga Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (510 SM)[10]
  57. Chu Dynasty, China - 0.5 juta km2 (350 SM)[10]
  58. Kangju Empire (Transoxiana) - 0.5 juta km2 (100 SM)[10]
  59. Goguryeo Kingdom, Korea - 0.45 juta km2 (476)[11]
  60. Xia Dynasty, China (based on the hypothesis that prehistorical cities of Erlitou culture were once united) - 0.45 juta km2 (1800 SM)[11]
  61. New Kingdom, Hittite - 0.45 juta km2 (1250 or 1220 SM)[11]
  62. Armenian Empire - 0.4 juta km2 (83 SM)[10]
  63. Old Kingdom, Egypt - 0.4 juta km2 (2400 SM)[11]
  64. Middle Kingdom, Assyria - 0.4 juta km2 (1080 SM)[11]
  65. Harappan Empire, India (based on the hypothesis that Indus Valley was once united) - 0.3 juta km2 (1800 SM)[15]
  66. Mitanni Dynasty - 0.3 juta km2 (1450 SM)[11]
  67. Carthaginian Empire - 0.3 juta km2 (220 SM)[11]
  68. 1st Dynasty, Babylon - 0.25 juta km2 (1690 SM)[11]
  69. Middle Elamite - 0.2 juta km2 (1160 SM)[11]
  70. 2nd Dynasty, Isin - 0.2 juta km2 (1130 SM)[11]
  71. Urartu Empire - 0.2 juta km2 (800 SM)[11]
  72. Phrygian Dynasty - 0.2 juta km2 (750 SM)[11]
  73. Old Kingdom, Assyria - 0.15 juta km2 (1730 SM)[11]
  74. Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China - 0.15 juta km2 (770 SM)[11]

Empayar Zaman Pertengahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Empayar Mongol at its greatest extent.
Kerajaan Bani Umayyah (750)
Ming Empire at its greatest extent.
Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E.
Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent.
  1. Empayar Mongol - 24.0 juta km2 (1270 or 1309)[26]
  2. Dinasti Yuan - 14.0 juta km2 (1310)[3]
  3. Kerajaan Ummayyah - 13.0 juta km2 (720 or 750)[6]
  4. Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah - 11.1 juta km2 (750)[3]
  5. Khulafa al-Rasyidin - 9.0 juta km2 (654)[3]
  6. Empayar Ming, China - 6.5 juta km2 (1450)[2][3]
  7. Göktürk Khaganate - 6.0 juta km2 (557)[2][10]
  8. Golden Horde Khanate - 6.0 juta km2 (1310)[2][3]
  9. Uyghur Khaganate - 5.5 juta km2 (800)[2][3]
  10. Empayar Tang, China - 5.4 juta km2 (715)[2][3]
  11. Khilafah Fatimiyyah - 5.1 juta km2 (969)[2][3]
  12. Empayar Tufan (Tibet) - 4.6 juta km2 (800)[2][3]
  13. Empayar Pala, India - 4.6 juta km2 (850)[petikan diperlukan]
  14. Wangsa Timuriyah - 4.6 juta km2 (1405)[2][3]
  15. Eastern Turks Khanate - 4.0 juta km2 (624)[10]
  16. Western Turks Khanate - 4.0 juta km2 (600)[10]
  17. Great Seljuq Empire - 3.9 juta km2 (1080)[2][3]
  18. Ilkhanate - 3.75 juta km2 (1310)[2][3]
  19. Chola Dynasty, India - 3.6 juta km2 (1050)[27] [28]
  20. Khwarazmian Empire - 3.6 juta km2 (1218)[3][29]
  21. Sassanid Empire - 3.5 juta km2 (620)[2]
  22. Chagatai Khanate - 3.5 juta km2 (1310 or 1350)[2][3]
  23. Justinian Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine) - 3.5 juta km2 (555)[10]
  24. Northern Yuan Empire (Oirats), Mongolia - 3.5 juta km2 (1400)[3]
  25. Song Dynasty (Northern Song), China- 3.5 juta km2 (1100)[2][3]
  26. Ghaznavid Empire, Persia - 3.4 juta km2 (1029)[2][3]
  27. Almoravid Caliphate - 3.3 juta km2 (1147)[3][30]
  28. Tughlaq Dynasty, India - 3.2 juta km2 (1320)[3]
  29. Ghurids Sultanate, Persia - 3.2 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  30. Sui Dynasty, China - 3.1 juta km2 (610)[3]
  31. Khazar Khanate - 3.0 juta km2 (850)[2][31]
  32. Kalmar Union - 3.0 juta km2 (1397)[petikan diperlukan]
  33. Kievan Rus' - 3.0 juta km2 (1050)[2][3]
  34. Kara-Khanid Khanate - 3.0 juta km2 (1025)[3]
  35. Samanid Dynasty, Persia - 2.85 juta km2 (928)[2][3]
  36. Ayyubid Caliphate - 2.7 juta km2 (1190)[2][32]
  37. Majapahit Empire (Indonesia) - 2.7 juta km2 (1389)[10]
  38. Khilji Dynasty, India - 2.7 juta km2 (1312 or 1320)[2][3]
  39. Liao Dynasty, China - 2.6 juta km2 (947)[2][3]
  40. Kara-Khitan Khanate(Western Liao) - 2.5 juta km2 (1210)[2][33]
  41. Jin Dynasty(Jurchen), China) - 2.3 juta km2 (1126)[2][3]
  42. Southern Qi Dynasty, China - 2.3 juta km2 (502)[10]
  43. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 2.1 juta km2 (1127)[3]
  44. Bahriyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 juta km2 (1300)[3]
  45. Burjiyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 juta km2 (1400)[2][34]
  46. Saffarid Dynasty, Persia - 2.0 juta km2 (900)[petikan diperlukan]
  47. Empayar Uthmaniyyah - 2.0 juta km2 (1480)[2][3]
  48. Almohad Caliphate - 2.0 juta km2 (1200)[2][35]
  49. Karkota Dynasty (Kashmir), India - 2.0 juta km2 (750)[2][3]
  50. Pratihara Dynasty, India - 1.8 juta km2 (860)[3]
  51. Rashtrakuta Dynasty, India - 1.7 juta km2 (805)[petikan diperlukan]
  52. Buyid Sultanate, Persia - 1.6 juta km2 (980)[2][3]
  53. Mamluk Sultanate, India - 1.6 juta km2 (1228)[3]
  54. Northern Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.5 juta km2 (577)[10]
  55. Tulunids Emirate - 1.5 juta km2 (900)[10]
  56. Idrisid Dynasty, Morocco - 1.5 juta km2 (828)[2]
  57. Songhai Empire - 1.4 juta km2 (1500)[16]
  58. Macedonian Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine) - 1.35 juta km2 (1025)[2][10]
  59. Harsha Empire (Pusyabhutis), India - 1.35 juta km2 (625 or 648)[2][3]
  60. Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (502 or 549)[2][10]
  61. Western Wei Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (557)[10]
  62. Later Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (923)[3]
  63. Later Tang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (923)[3]
  64. Mali Empire - 1.29 juta km2 (1312)[17]
  65. Carolingian Dynasty, Francia - 1.2 juta km2 (814)[2][3]
  66. Srivijaya Empire - 1.2 juta km2 (1200)[2]
  67. Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.1 juta km2 (636)[petikan diperlukan]
  68. Eastern Wei Dynasty, China - 1.0 juta km2 (550)[10]
  69. Northern Qi Dynasty, China - 1.0 juta km2 (550)[10]
  70. Tahirid Dynasty, Persia - 1.0 juta km2 (800)[3]
  71. Empayar Suci Rom - 1.0 juta km2 (1050)[3]
  72. Western Xia Dynasty (Tangut), China - 1.0 juta km2 (1100)[2]
  73. Western Chalukya Empire, India - 1.0 juta km2 (1121)[petikan diperlukan]
  74. Khmer Empire - 1.0 juta km2 (1290)[2][3]
  75. Kalachuri Dynasty, India - 1.0 juta km2 (1050)[2][3]
  76. Avars Empire - 1.0 juta km2 (600)[10]
  77. Kanem Empire, Chad - 1.0 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  78. Volga Bulgars Khanate - 0.9 juta km2 (1100)[2][3]
  79. Later Jin Dynasty, China - 0.8 juta km2 (936)[3]
  80. Ghana Empire - 0.8 juta km2 (1067)[10]
  81. Pagan Kingdom (Bagan), Burma - 0.8 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  82. Balhae Kingdom, Korea - 0.8 juta km2 (830)[2]
  83. Merovingian Dynasty, Francia - 0.7 juta km2 (558)[3]
  84. Yadava (Gauli) Kingdom, India - 0.7 juta km2 (1250)[3]
  85. Bulgarian Empire - 0.7 juta km2 (900)[petikan diperlukan]
  86. Paramara Dynasty, India - 0.7 juta km2 (1050)[10]
  87. Kingdom of Dali (Hou li), China - 0.7 juta km2 (1200)[petikan diperlukan]
  88. Kingdom of Nanzhao, China - 0.7 juta km2 (830)[10]
  89. Visigoths Kingdom - 0.6 juta km2 (580)[10]
  90. Caliphate of Córdoba - 0.6 juta km2 (1000)[3]
  91. Rai Dynasty (Chachas) (Sindh), India - 0.6 juta km2 (675 AD)[10]
  92. Maukhari (Kannauj) Dynasty, India - 0.6 juta km2 (600 AD)[3]
  93. Bahmani Sultanate, India - 0.6 juta km2 (1470 AD)[3]
  94. Later Han Dynasty, China - 0.5 juta km2 (947)[3]
  95. Pandyan Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (1251)[petikan diperlukan]
  96. Ostrogothic Kingdom - 0.5 juta km2 (510 AD)[3]
  97. Latin Empire - 0.35 juta km2 (1204)[10]
  98. Palailogan Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine)- 0.3 juta km2 (1300)[11]
  99. Serbian Empire - 0.25 juta km2 (1350)[petikan diperlukan]

Empayar moden[sunting | sunting sumber]

Empayar British at its greatest extent.
Empayar Rusia at its greatest extent.
Empayar Sepanyol at its greatest extent.
All territories and spheres of influence ever held by the Empayar Perancis
Anachronous map of the Empayar Portugal.
Fail:Dinasti Qing 1820.png
Empayar Qing at its greatest extent.
Empayar Uthmaniyyah territories acquired between 1300 and 1683.
Empire of Japan at its greatest extent.
  1. Empayar British - 33.67 juta km2 (1922)[19][36]
  2. Empayar Rusia - 23.7 juta km2 (1866)[2][3]
  3. Empayar Sepanyol - 20.0 juta km2 (ca. 1740-1790)[5][37]
  4. Empayar Qing, China - 14.7 juta km2 (1790)[2][3]
  5. Empayar Kolonial Perancis Kedua - 13 juta km2 (1938)[5][38]
  6. Empayar Portugal - 10.4 juta km2 (1815)[5][39]
  7. Empayar Brazil - 8.5 juta km2 (1880)[5]
  8. Empayar Jepun - 7.4 juta km2 (1942)[5]
  9. Empayar Uthmaniyyah - 5.2 juta km2 (1683, 1829 or 1850)[2][3]
  10. Northern Yuan Empire (Oirats), Mongolia - 5.0 juta km2 (1550)[3]
  11. Empayar Ming, China - 5.0 juta km2 (1540)[2][3]
  12. Empayar Mughal, India - 4.6 juta km2 (1690)[2][3]
  13. First Mexican Empire - 4.4 juta km2 (1822)[40]
  14. Afsharid Dynasty, Persia - 4.0 juta km2 (1747)[petikan diperlukan]
  15. Italian Empire - 3.8 juta km2 (1940)[petikan diperlukan]
  16. Empayar Belanda - 3.7 juta km2(1940)[petikan diperlukan]
  17. Nazi Empayar Jerman - 3.6 juta km2 (1942)[petikan diperlukan]
  18. Empayar Jerman - 3.5 juta km2 (1914)[petikan diperlukan]
  19. Safavid Dynasty, Persia - 3.5 juta km2 (1512)[petikan diperlukan]
  20. Shaybanid (Uzbek) Dynasty - 3.5 juta km2 (1510)[3]
  21. First Empayar Kolonial Perancis - 3.4 juta km2 (1670)[3]
  22. Danish colonial empire - 3.0 juta km2 (1800)[petikan diperlukan]
  23. Qajar Dynasty, Persia - 3.0 juta km2 (1796)[petikan diperlukan]
  24. Grand Duchy of Moscow - 3.0 juta km2 (1505)[petikan diperlukan]
  25. Belgian Empire - 2.5 juta km2 (1914)[petikan diperlukan]
  26. Maratha Empire, India - 2.5 juta km2 (1760)[2]
  27. First Empayar Perancis - 2.1 juta km2 (1813)[3]
  28. Inca Empire - 2.0 juta km2 (1527)[2][3]
  29. Sibir Khanate - 1.8 juta km2 (1520)[3]
  30. Suri Dynasty ,India - 1.5 juta km2 (1545 AD)[2][3]
  31. Polish-Lithuanian Empire - 1.2 juta km2 (1650)[2][3]
  32. Thai Empire (Siam Empire) - 1.12 juta km2 (1782)[petikan diperlukan]
  33. Lodhi Dynasty, India - 1.1 juta km2 (1517 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  34. Swedish Empire - 1.1 juta km2 (1658)[petikan diperlukan]
  35. Konbaung Dynasty, Burma - 0.9 juta km2 (1800 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  36. Khanate of Kazan - 0.7 juta km2 (1540)[3]
  37. Vijayanagara (Tuluvas) Empire, India - 0.7 juta km2 (1529)[petikan diperlukan]
  38. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 0.676615 juta km2[petikan diperlukan]
  39. Nizams Dynasty, India - 0.6 juta km2 (1740 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  40. Sikh Empire, India - 0.5609 juta km2 (1845)[petikan diperlukan]
  41. Crimean Khanate - 0.4 juta km2 (1500)[3]
  42. Aztec Empire - 0.22 juta km2 (1520)[3]

Mengikut jenis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Empayar berdampingan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Empayar Mongol - 33.0 juta km2 (1270 or 1309)[2][3]
  2. Empayar Rusia - 23.7 juta km2 (1866)[2][3]
  3. Empayar Qing, China - 14.7 juta km2 (1790)[2][3]
  4. Yuan Khanate - 14.0 juta km2 (1310)[3]
  5. Kerajaan Ummayyah - 13.0 juta km2 (720 or 750)[6]
  6. Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah - 11.1 juta km2 (750)[3]
  7. Khulafa al-Rasyidin - 9.0 juta km2 (654)[3]
  8. Empayar Brazil - 8.5 juta km2 (1880)[5]
  9. Empayar Achaemenid, Persia - 8.0 juta km2 (480 SM)[8]
  10. Han Empire, China - 6.5 juta km2 (100)[10]
  11. Ming Empire, China - 6.5 juta km2 (1450)[2][3]
  12. Göktürk Khaganate - 6.0 juta km2 (557)[2][10]
  13. Golden Horde Khanate - 6.0 juta km2 (1310)[2][3]
  14. Uyghur Khaganate - 5.5 juta km2 (800)[2][3]
  15. Tang Empire, China - 5.4 juta km2 (715)[2][3]
  16. Macedonian Empire - 5.2 juta km2 (323 SM)[2][11]
  17. Khilafah Fatimiyyah - 5.1 juta km2 (969)[2][3]
  18. Empayar Maurya, India - 5.0 juta km2 (250 SM)[2]
  19. Northern Yuan Empire (Oirats), Mongolia - 5.0 juta km2 (1550)[3]
  20. Dinasti Xin, China - 4.7 juta km2 (10)[10]
  21. Empayar Tufan (Tibet) - 4.6 juta km2 (800)[2][3]
  22. Empayar Pala, India - 4.6 juta km2 (850)[petikan diperlukan]
  23. Wangsa Timuriyah - 4.6 juta km2 (1405)[2][3]
  24. Empayar Mughal, India - 4.6 juta km2 (1690)[2][3]
  25. First Mexican Empire - 4.4 juta km2 (1822)[petikan diperlukan]
  26. Xiongnu Empire - 4.03 juta km2 (176 SM)[12]
  27. Hunnic Empire - 4.0 juta km2 (441)[10]
  28. Hepthalite Khanate (White Huns), India - 4.0 juta km2 (490)[10]
  29. Eastern Turks Khanate - 4.0 juta km2 (624)[10]
  30. Afsharid Dynasty, Persia - 4.0 juta km2 (1747)[petikan diperlukan]
  31. Western Turks Khanate - 4.0 juta km2 (630)[10]
  32. Rouran Khaganate (Juan-juan) - 4.0 juta km2 (405)[2][10]
  33. Seleucid Empire - 3.9 juta km2 (301 SM)[2][11]
  34. Great Seljuq Empire - 3.9 juta km2 (1080)[2][3]
  35. Kushan Empire, India - 3.8 juta km2 (200)[10]
  36. Ilkhanate - 3.75 juta km2 (1310)[2][3]
  37. Khwarazmian Empire - 3.6 juta km2 (1218)[3]
  38. Nazi Empayar Jerman - 3.6 juta km2 (1942)[petikan diperlukan]
  39. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 3.5 juta km2 (620)[2]
  40. Gupta Empire, India - 3.5 juta km2 (400)[2]
  41. Chagatai Khanate - 3.5 juta km2 (1310 or 1350)[2][3]
  42. Safavid Dynasty , Persia - 3.5 juta km2 (1512)[petikan diperlukan]
  43. Western Jin Dynasty, China - 3.5 juta km2 (300)[10]
  44. Shaybanid (Uzbek) Dynasty - 3.5 juta km2 (1510)[3]
  45. Song Dynasty (Northern Song), China- 3.5 juta km2 (1100)[2][3]
  46. Ghaznavid Empire, Persia - 3.4 juta km2 (1029)[2][3]
  47. Almoravid Caliphate - 3.3 juta km2 (1147)[3]
  48. Tughlaq Dynasty, India - 3.2 juta km2 (1320)[3]
  49. Ghurids Sultanate, Persia - 3.2 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  50. Sui Dynasty, China - 3.1 juta km2 (610)[3]
  51. Khazar Khanate - 3.0 juta km2 (850)[2]
  52. Kievan Rus' - 3.0 juta km2 (1050)[2][3]
  53. Kara-Khanid Khanate - 3.0 juta km2 (1025)[3]
  54. Grand Duchy of Moscow - 3.0 juta km2 (1505)[petikan diperlukan]
  55. Qajar Dynasty, Persia - 3.0 juta km2 (1796)[petikan diperlukan]
  56. Samanid Dynasty, Persia - 2.85 juta km2 (928)[2][3]
  57. Median Empire - 2.8 juta km2 (585 SM)[2][11]
  58. Qin Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (206 SM)[10]
  59. Parthian Empire - 2.8 juta km2 (1)[2][11]
  60. Eastern Jin Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (347)[10]
  61. Liu Song Dynasty, China - 2.8 juta km2 (420)[10]
  62. Khilji Dynasty, India - 2.7 juta km2 (1312 or 1320)[2][3]
  63. Ayyubid Caliphate - 2.7 juta km2 (1190)[2]
  64. Liao Dynasty, China - 2.6 juta km2 (947)[2][3]
  65. Indo-Greek (Yavana) Kingdom, India - 2.5 juta km2 (150 SM)[10]
  66. Bactrian Empire - 2.5 juta km2 (184 SM)[10]
  67. Later Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.5 juta km2 (329)[10]
  68. Maratha Empire, India - 2.5 juta km2 (1760)[2]
  69. Kara-Khitan Khanate (Western Liao) - 2.5 juta km2 (1210)[2]
  70. Jin Dynasty (Jurchen) China - 2.3 juta km2 (1126)[2][3]
  71. Southern Qi Dynasty, China - 2.3 juta km2 (502)[10]
  72. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 2.1 juta km2 (1127)[3]
  73. Bahriyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 juta km2 (1300)[3]
  74. Burjiyya Mamluks, Egypt - 2.1 juta km2 (1400)[2]
  75. Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (263)[10]
  76. Earlier Zhao Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (316)[10]
  77. Former Qin Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (376)[10]
  78. Empayar Rom Barat - 2.0 juta km2 (395)[10]
  79. Northern Wei Dynasty, China - 2.0 juta km2 (450)[10]
  80. Saffarid Dynasty, Persia - 2.0 juta km2 (900)[petikan diperlukan]
  81. Almohad Caliphate - 2.0 juta km2 (1200)[2]
  82. Inca Empire - 2.0 juta km2 (1527)[2][3]
  83. Karkota Dynasty (Kashmir), India - 2.0 juta km2 (750)[2][3]
  84. Satavahana Empire (Salivahana), India - 2.0 juta km2 (90 AD)[10]
  85. Pratihara Dynasty, India - 1.8 juta km2 (860)[3]
  86. Sibir Khanate - 1.8 juta km2 (1520)[3]
  87. Rashtrakuta Dynasty, India - 1.7 juta km2 (805)[petikan diperlukan]
  88. Buyid Sultanate, Persia - 1.6 juta km2 (980)[2][3]
  89. Mamluk Sultanate, India - 1.6 juta km2 (1228)[3]
  90. Indo- Parthians (Pahalvas) Kingdom , India - 1.5 juta km2 (AD 50)[10]
  91. Wu Dynasty, China - 1.5 juta km2 (221)[10]
  92. Northern Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.5 juta km2 (577)[10]
  93. Nanda Dynasty, India - 1.5 juta km2 (350 or 321 SM)[10][15]
  94. Indo-Scythians (Shaka) Kingdom, India- 1.5 juta km2 (BC 100)[11]
  95. Tulunids Emirate - 1.5 juta km2 (900)[10]
  96. Idrisid Dynasty, Morocco - 1.5 juta km2 (828)[2]
  97. Suri Dynasty, India - 1.5 juta km2 (1545 AD)[2][3]
  98. Neo-Assyria - 1.4 juta km2 (670 SM)[2][11]
  99. Songhai Empire - 1.4 juta km2 (1500)[16]
  100. Macedonian Dynasty, Empayar Byzantine - 1.35 juta km2 (1025)[2][10]
  101. Harsha Empire (Pusyabhutis), India - 1.35 juta km2 (625 or 648)[2][3]
  102. Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (502 or 549)[2][10]
  103. Western Wei Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (557)[10]
  104. Later Liang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (923)[3]
  105. Later Tang Dynasty, China - 1.3 juta km2 (923)[3]
  106. Shang Dynasty, China - 1.25 juta km2 (1122 SM)[2][11]
  107. Western Zhou Dynasty, China - 1.25 juta km2 (1122 SM)[11]
  108. Axumite Empire - 1.25 juta km2 (350)[2]
  109. Polish-Lithuanian Empire - 1.2 juta km2 (1650)[2][3]
  110. Carolingian Dynasty, Francia - 1.2 juta km2 (814)[2][3]
  111. Sunga Empire, India - 1.2 juta km2 (BC 150)[2]
  112. Kingdom of Kush (Meroë) (25th Dynasty), Sudan - 1.2 juta km2 (BC 700)[2]
  113. Mali Empire - 1.2 juta km2 (1312)[17]
  114. Thai Empire (Siam Empire) - 1.12 juta km2 (1782)[petikan diperlukan]
  115. Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.1 juta km2 (636)[petikan diperlukan]
  116. Lodhi Dynasty, India - 1.1 juta km2 (1517 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  117. 18th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (1450 SM)[11]
  118. 19th Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (1300 SM)[2][11]
  119. Eastern Wei Dynasty, China - 1.0 juta km2 (550)[10]
  120. Northern Qi Dynasty, China - 1.0 juta km2 (550)[10]
  121. Tahirid Dynasty, Persia - 1.0 juta km2 (800)[3]
  122. Empayar Suci Rom - 1.0 juta km2 (1050)[3]
  123. Kalachuri Dynasty, India - 1.0 juta km2 (1050)[2][3]
  124. Western Xia Dynasty (Tangut), China - 1.0 juta km2 (1100)[2]
  125. Western Chalukya Dynasty, India - 1.0 juta km2 (1121)[petikan diperlukan]
  126. Khmer Empire - 1.0 juta km2 (1290)[2][3]
  127. Avars Empire- 1.0 juta km2 (600)[10]
  128. Kanem Empire, Chad - 1.0 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  129. Volga Bulgars Khanate - 0.9 juta km2 (1100)[2][3]
  130. Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty, India- 0.9 juta km2 (10 SM)[11]
  131. Konbaung Dynasty, Burma - 0.9 juta km2 (1800 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  132. Akkadian Empire - 0.8 juta km2 (2250 SM)[11]
  133. Later Jin Dynasty, China - 0.8 juta km2 (936)[3]
  134. Ghana Empire - 0.8 juta km2 (1067)[10]
  135. Pagan Kingdom (Bagan), Burma - 0.8 juta km2 (1200)[3]
  136. Western Satraps Dynasty, India - 0.8 juta km2 (100)[10]
  137. Himyarite Kingdom, Yemen - 0.8 juta km2 (400 AD)[11]
  138. Balhae Kingdom, Korea - 0.8 juta km2 (830)[2]
  139. Khanate of Kazan - 0.7 juta km2 (1540)[3]
  140. Merovingian Dynasty, Francia - 0.7 juta km2 (558)[3]
  141. Bulgarian Empire - 0.7 juta km2 (900)[petikan diperlukan]
  142. Shu Dynasty, China- 0.7 juta km2 (221)[10]
  143. Yadava (Gauli) Kingdom, India - 0.7 juta km2 (1250)[3]
  144. Paramara Dynasty ,India - 0.7 juta km2 (1050)[10]
  145. Kingdom of Dali (Hou li), China - 0.7 juta km2 (1200)[petikan diperlukan]
  146. Vijayanagara (Tuluvas) Empire, India - 0.7 juta km2 (1529)[petikan diperlukan]
  147. Kingdom of Nanzhao, China - 0.7 juta km2 (830)[3]
  148. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 0.676615 juta km2 (1910)[petikan diperlukan]
  149. 15th Dynasty (Hyksos), Egypt - 0.65 juta km2 (1650 SM)[11]
  150. 26th Dynasty, Egypt - 0.65 juta km2 (550 SM)[11]
  151. Vakataka Kingdom, India - 0.65 juta km2 (450 AD)[11]
  152. Visigoths Kingdom - 0.6 juta km2 (580)[10]
  153. Caliphate of Córdoba - 0.6 juta km2 (1000)[3]
  154. Rai Dynasty (Chachas) (Sindh), India - 0.6 juta km2 (675 AD)[10]
  155. Maukhari (Kannauj) Dynasty ,India - 0.6 juta km2 (600 AD)[3]
  156. Bahmani Sultanate, India - 0.6 juta km2 (1470 AD)[3]
  157. Nizams Dynasty, India - 0.6 juta km2 (1740 AD)[petikan diperlukan]
  158. Sikh Empire, India - 0.5609 juta km2 (1845)[petikan diperlukan]
  159. Middle Kingdom, Egypt - 0.5 juta km2 (1850 SM)[11]
  160. Lydian Empire - 0.5 juta km2 (585 SM)[11]
  161. Neo-Babylonian Empire - 0.5 juta km2 (562 SM)[11]
  162. Kosala Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (543 SM)[10]
  163. Shishunaga Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (510 SM)[10]
  164. Chu Dynasty, China - 0.5 juta km2 (350 SM)[10]
  165. Pandyan Dynasty, India - 0.5 juta km2 (1251)[petikan diperlukan]
  166. Later Han Dynasty, China - 0.5 juta km2 (947)[3]
  167. Kangju Empire (Transoxiana) - 0.5 juta km2 (100 SM)[10]
  168. Ostrogothic Kingdom - 0.5 juta km2 (510 AD)[3]
  169. Goguryeo Kingdom, Korea - 0.45 juta km2 (476)[11]
  170. Xia Dynasty, China (based on the hypothesis that prehistorical cities of Erlitou culture were once united) - 0.45 juta km2 (1800 SM)[11]
  171. New Kingdom, Hittite - 0.45 juta km2 (1250 or 1220 SM)[11]
  172. Crimean Khanate - 0.4 juta km2 (1500)[3]
  173. Old Kingdom, Egypt - 0.4 juta km2 (2400 SM)[11]
  174. Middle Kingdom, Assyria (under Tiglath-Pileser I) - 0.4 juta km2 (1080 SM)[11]
  175. Armenian Empire - 0.4 juta km2 (83 SM)[10]
  176. Latin Empire - 0.35 juta km2 (1204)[10]
  177. Harappan Empire, India - 0.3 juta km2 (1800 SM)[15]
  178. Mitanni Empire - 0.3 juta km2 (1450 SM)[11]
  179. Palailogan Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine) - 0.3 juta km2 (1300)[10]
  180. 1st Dynasty, Babylon - 0.25 juta km2 (1690 SM)[11]
  181. Serbian Empire - 0.25 juta km2 (1350)[petikan diperlukan]
  182. Aztec Empire - 0.22 juta km2 (1520)[3]
  183. Middle Elamite - 0.2 juta km2 (1160 SM)[11]
  184. 2nd Dynasty, Isin - 0.2 juta km2 (1130 SM)[11]
  185. Urartu Empire - 0.2 juta km2 (800 SM)[11]
  186. Phrygian Dynasty - 0.2 juta km2 (750 SM)[11]
  187. Old Kingdom, Assyria - 0.15 juta km2 (1730 SM)[11]
  188. Eastern Zhou Dynasty, China - 0.15 juta km2 (770 SM)[11]

Empayar maritim[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Empayar British - 33.67 juta km2 (1922)[19]
  2. Empayar Sepanyol - 20.0 juta km2 (ca. 1740-1790)[5]
  3. Empayar Kolonial Perancis Kedua - 12.3 juta km2 (1938)[5]
  4. Empayar Portugal - 10.4 juta km2 (1815)[5]
  5. Amerika Syarikat - 9.67 juta km2 (1899)[3]
  6. Empayar Jepun - 7.4 juta km2 (1942)[5]
  7. Empayar Rom - 6.5 juta km2 (117)[9]
  8. Empayar Uthmaniyyah - 5.2 juta km2 (1683, 1829 or 1850)[2][3]
  9. Italian Empire - 3.8 juta km2 (1940)[petikan diperlukan]
  10. Empayar Belanda - 3.7 juta km2(1940)[petikan diperlukan]
  11. Chola Dynasty, India - 3.6 juta km2 (1050)[41] [42]
  12. Empayar Jerman - 3.5 juta km2 (1914)[petikan diperlukan]
  13. Justinian Dynasty (Empayar Byzantine) - 3.5 juta km2 (555)[10]
  14. First Empayar Kolonial Perancis - 3.4 juta km2 (1670)[3]
  15. Kalmar Union - 3.0 juta km2 (1397)[petikan diperlukan]
  16. Danish Colonial empire - 3.0 juta km2 (1800)[petikan diperlukan]
  17. Empayar Rom Timur (Empayar Byzantine) - 2.8 juta km2 (450)[10]
  18. Majapahit Empire (Malaya) - 2.7 juta km2 (1389)[10]
  19. Belgian Empire - 2.5 juta km2 (1914)[petikan diperlukan]
  20. First Empayar Perancis - 2.1 juta km2 (1813)[3]
  21. Srivijaya Empire - 1.2 juta km2 (1200)[2]
  22. Swedish Empire - 1.1 juta km2 (1658)[petikan diperlukan]
  23. Ptolemaic Dynasty, Egypt - 1.0 juta km2 (301 SM)[11]
  24. Carthaginian Empire - 0.3 juta km2 (220 SM)[11]

Empayar terbesar menikut populasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Population estimates are unknown for many other ancient empires not listed here.

Saiz populasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Empayar British - 531.3 juta (in 1938)[43]
  2. Empayar Qing, China - 432.2 juta in 1851.[44]
  3. Empayar Rusia - 176.4 juta in 1913
  4. Empayar Mughal, India - 175.0 juta in 1700
  5. Empayar Jepun - 134.8 juta in 1938
  6. Northern Song Dynasty, China - 123.0 juta in 1103[45][46]
  7. Empayar Perancis - 112.9 juta in 1938
  8. Ming Empire, China - 110.0 juta in 1600.[47][48]
  9. Empayar Mongol - 110.0 juta (in the 13th century)[49]
  10. Yuan Khanate - 86.0 juta in 1290.[45][50]
  11. Empayar Rom - 80.0 juta (in 2nd century AD)[51][52]
  12. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 78.0 juta (in the 7th century AD)
  13. Nazi Empayar Jerman - 75.4 juta (in 1938)[43]
  14. Han Empire, China - 74.0 juta in 2[45][53]
  15. Southern Song Dynasty, China - 73.0 juta in 1193.[45][54]
  16. Empayar Sepanyol - 68.2 juta[55]
  17. Empayar Jerman - 64.9 juta in 1914
  18. Eastern Han Empire, China - 64 juta in 156[45][56]
  19. Kerajaan Ummayyah - 62.0 juta (in the 7th century)[57]
  20. Empayar Belanda - 60.0 juta in 1940.
  21. Sui Dynasty, China - 53.0 juta in 606[45][58]
  22. Tang Empire, China - 53.0 juta in 755[45][59]
  23. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 52.8 juta in 1914
  24. Italian Empire - 51.9 juta in 1938
  25. Empayar Maurya, India - 50.0 juta in the 2nd century SM
  26. Empayar Achaemenid - 49.4 juta (in the 5th century SM)[60]
  27. Jin Dynasty, China - 48.0 juta in 1195.[45][61]

Peratusan daripada populasi dunia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Empayar Achaemenid in the 5th century SM.
  1. Empayar Achaemenid, Persia - 44.0% (49.4 juta out of 112.4 juta[62] in the 5th century SM/480 SM)[60]
  2. Sassanid Empire, Persia - 37.1% (78.0 juta out of 210 juta[63] in the 7th century AD)
  3. Empayar Qing, China - 36.6% (381.0 juta out of 1.041 bilion in 1820)[64]
  4. Empayar Rom - 35.9% (80.0 juta out of 223 juta[65] in the 2nd century AD)
  5. Empayar Maurya, India - 33.3% (50.0 juta out of 150 juta in the 2nd century SM[66])
  6. Kerajaan Ummayyah - 29.5% (62.0 juta out of 210 juta[63] in the 7th century AD)
  7. Empayar Mughal, India - 29.2% (175.0 juta out of 600 juta[67] in 1700)
  8. Empayar Ming, China - 28.8% (160.0 juta out of 556.2 juta in 1600)[64]
  9. Empayar Tang, China - 28.0% (70.0 juta out of 250 juta in 850 AD)[64]
  10. Gupta Empire, India - 26.36% (58.0 juta out of 220 juta in 400 AD) [43]
  11. Empayar Han, China - 26.0% (59.6 juta out of 230 juta[64] in 2 AD)
  12. Empayar Mongol - 25.6% (110.0 juta out of 429 juta[68] in the 13th century)
  13. Empayar Pala, India - 24.0% (60.0 juta out of 250 juta in 850)[64]
  14. Empayar British - 23.1% (531.3 juta out of 2.295 bilion in 1938)[43]
  15. Song Dynasty, China - 22.0% (59.0 juta out of 268 juta in 1000)[64]
  16. Kerajaan Bani Abbasiyyah - 20.0% (50.0 juta out of 250 juta in 850)[64]
  17. Khulafa al-Rasyidin - 19.1% (40.3 juta out of 210 juta in 7th century)
  18. Kushan Empire, India - 19.0% (42.37 juta out of 223 juta in 140)[64]
  19. Tughlaq Dynasty, India - 18.91% (70.0 juta out of 370 juta in 1330)[64]
  20. Empayar Sepanyol - 12.3% (68.2 juta out of 556 juta[64] in the 17th century)
  21. Mali Empire - 10.0% (45.0 juta out of 450 juta[69] in the mid 15th century)
  22. Empayar Rusia - 9.8% (176.4 juta out of 1.791 bilion[64] in 1913)
  23. Empayar Uthmaniyyah - 7.1% (39.0 juta out of 556 juta[64] in the 17th century)
  24. Empayar Jepun - 5.9% (134.8 juta out of 2.295 bilion[64] in 1938)
  25. Vijayanagara Empire, India - 5.0% (25.0 juta out of 500 juta[64] in the 16th century)
  26. Empayar Perancis - 4.9% (112.9 juta out of 2.295 bilion in 1938)
  27. Empayar Jerman - 3.7% (64.9 juta out of 1.753 bilion in 1910)
  28. Empayar Belanda - 3.5% (60.0 juta out of 1.700 bilion in 1907)
  29. Nazi Empayar Jerman - 3.3% (75.4 juta out of 2.295 bilion in 1938)
  30. Austro-Hungarian Empire - 2.9% (51.3 juta out of 1.753 bilion in 1910)
  31. Italian Empire - 2.3% (51.9 juta out of 2.295 bilion in 1938)

Empayar terbesar mengikut saiz ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

KDNK dianggarkan di dalam senarai berikut diberi kepada empayar pada zaman moden, bermula pada kurun ke-18 sehingga ke-20. Jumlah nilai dolar Amerika berdasarkan nilai pada tahun 1990.

Saiz KDNK[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Empayar British - $683.3 bilion (pada 1938)[43]
  2. Empayar Jerman Nazi - $375.6 bilion (pada 1938)[43]
  3. Empayar Jepun - $260.7 bilion (pada 1938)[43]
  4. Empayar Rusia - $257.7 bilion (pada 1913)[64]
  5. Empayar Qing, China - $241.3 bilion (KDNK jatuh pada 1912, serta merta sebelum kejatuhannya)[64]
  6. Empayar Perancis - $234.1 bilion (pada 1938)[43]
  7. Empayar Itali - $143.4 bilion (in 1938)[43]
  8. India British - $134.9 bilion (pada 1870)[64]
  9. Empayar Afsharid, Parsi - $119.85 bilion (pada 1740)[64]
  10. Empayar Austria-Hungary - $100.5 bilion (pada 1913)[70]
  11. Empayar Mughal, India - $90.8 bilion (KDNK jatuh pada 1700)[64]
  12. Empayar Belanda - $60 bilion (pada 1900)
  13. Empayar Uthmaniyyah - $26.4 bilion (pada 1913)[71]
  14. Empayar Portugal - $12.6 bilion (pada 1913)[70]

Nota dan rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. CIA - The World Factbook(The total is 148.94).
  2. 2.000 2.001 2.002 2.003 2.004 2.005 2.006 2.007 2.008 2.009 2.010 2.011 2.012 2.013 2.014 2.015 2.016 2.017 2.018 2.019 2.020 2.021 2.022 2.023 2.024 2.025 2.026 2.027 2.028 2.029 2.030 2.031 2.032 2.033 2.034 2.035 2.036 2.037 2.038 2.039 2.040 2.041 2.042 2.043 2.044 2.045 2.046 2.047 2.048 2.049 2.050 2.051 2.052 2.053 2.054 2.055 2.056 2.057 2.058 2.059 2.060 2.061 2.062 2.063 2.064 2.065 2.066 2.067 2.068 2.069 2.070 2.071 2.072 2.073 2.074 2.075 2.076 2.077 2.078 2.079 2.080 2.081 2.082 2.083 2.084 2.085 2.086 2.087 2.088 2.089 2.090 2.091 2.092 2.093 2.094 2.095 2.096 2.097 2.098 2.099 2.100 2.101 2.102 2.103 2.104 2.105 2.106 2.107 2.108 2.109 2.110 2.111 2.112 2.113 2.114 2.115 2.116 2.117 2.118 2.119 2.120 2.121 2.122 2.123 2.124 2.125 2.126 2.127 2.128 2.129 2.130 2.131 2.132 2.133 2.134 2.135 2.136 2.137 2.138 2.139 2.140 2.141 2.142 2.143 2.144 2.145 2.146 2.147 2.148 2.149 2.150 2.151 2.152 2.153 2.154 2.155 2.156 2.157 2.158 2.159 2.160 2.161 2.162 2.163 2.164 2.165 2.166 2.167 2.168 2.169 2.170 2.171 2.172 2.173 2.174 2.175 2.176 2.177 2.178 2.179 2.180 Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall and Jonathan M. Adams, "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires", Journal of World-Systems Research Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219-229 (2006).
  3. 3.000 3.001 3.002 3.003 3.004 3.005 3.006 3.007 3.008 3.009 3.010 3.011 3.012 3.013 3.014 3.015 3.016 3.017 3.018 3.019 3.020 3.021 3.022 3.023 3.024 3.025 3.026 3.027 3.028 3.029 3.030 3.031 3.032 3.033 3.034 3.035 3.036 3.037 3.038 3.039 3.040 3.041 3.042 3.043 3.044 3.045 3.046 3.047 3.048 3.049 3.050 3.051 3.052 3.053 3.054 3.055 3.056 3.057 3.058 3.059 3.060 3.061 3.062 3.063 3.064 3.065 3.066 3.067 3.068 3.069 3.070 3.071 3.072 3.073 3.074 3.075 3.076 3.077 3.078 3.079 3.080 3.081 3.082 3.083 3.084 3.085 3.086 3.087 3.088 3.089 3.090 3.091 3.092 3.093 3.094 3.095 3.096 3.097 3.098 3.099 3.100 3.101 3.102 3.103 3.104 3.105 3.106 3.107 3.108 3.109 3.110 3.111 3.112 3.113 3.114 3.115 3.116 3.117 3.118 3.119 3.120 3.121 3.122 3.123 3.124 3.125 3.126 3.127 3.128 3.129 3.130 3.131 3.132 3.133 3.134 3.135 3.136 3.137 3.138 3.139 3.140 3.141 3.142 3.143 3.144 3.145 3.146 3.147 3.148 3.149 3.150 3.151 3.152 3.153 3.154 3.155 3.156 3.157 3.158 3.159 3.160 3.161 3.162 3.163 3.164 3.165 3.166 3.167 3.168 3.169 3.170 3.171 3.172 3.173 3.174 3.175 3.176 3.177 3.178 3.179 3.180 3.181 3.182 3.183 3.184 3.185 3.186 3.187 3.188 3.189 3.190 3.191 3.192 3.193 3.194 3.195 3.196 3.197 3.198 3.199 3.200 3.201 3.202 3.203 3.204 3.205 3.206 3.207 3.208 Rein Taagepera "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", International Studies Quarterly Vol. 41, 475-504 (1997).
  4. http://www.eeb.uconn.edu/people/turchin/PDF/Latitude.pdf
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 Gordon (2005)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Blankinship, Khalid Yahya (1994). The End of the Jihad State, the Reign of Hisham Ibn 'Abd-al Malik and the collapse of the Umayyads. State University of New York Press. ms. 37. ISBN 0791418278. 
  7. Khulafa al-Rasyidin
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Vasseghi, Sheda, "The other Iran story: Re-engineering the nation's cultural DNA", Breaking... WorldTribune.com World Tribune News, (12 October 2009).
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Steele, Christy, "Rome", p. 36 (2001).
  10. 10.000 10.001 10.002 10.003 10.004 10.005 10.006 10.007 10.008 10.009 10.010 10.011 10.012 10.013 10.014 10.015 10.016 10.017 10.018 10.019 10.020 10.021 10.022 10.023 10.024 10.025 10.026 10.027 10.028 10.029 10.030 10.031 10.032 10.033 10.034 10.035 10.036 10.037 10.038 10.039 10.040 10.041 10.042 10.043 10.044 10.045 10.046 10.047 10.048 10.049 10.050 10.051 10.052 10.053 10.054 10.055 10.056 10.057 10.058 10.059 10.060 10.061 10.062 10.063 10.064 10.065 10.066 10.067 10.068 10.069 10.070 10.071 10.072 10.073 10.074 10.075 10.076 10.077 10.078 10.079 10.080 10.081 10.082 10.083 10.084 10.085 10.086 10.087 10.088 10.089 10.090 10.091 10.092 10.093 10.094 10.095 10.096 10.097 10.098 10.099 10.100 10.101 10.102 10.103 10.104 10.105 10.106 10.107 10.108 10.109 10.110 10.111 10.112 10.113 10.114 10.115 10.116 10.117 10.118 10.119 10.120 10.121 10.122 10.123 10.124 10.125 10.126 10.127 10.128 10.129 10.130 10.131 10.132 10.133 10.134 10.135 10.136 10.137 10.138 10.139 10.140 10.141 10.142 10.143 10.144 10.145 10.146 10.147 10.148 Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.", Social Science History Vol. 3, 115-138 (1979).
  11. 11.000 11.001 11.002 11.003 11.004 11.005 11.006 11.007 11.008 11.009 11.010 11.011 11.012 11.013 11.014 11.015 11.016 11.017 11.018 11.019 11.020 11.021 11.022 11.023 11.024 11.025 11.026 11.027 11.028 11.029 11.030 11.031 11.032 11.033 11.034 11.035 11.036 11.037 11.038 11.039 11.040 11.041 11.042 11.043 11.044 11.045 11.046 11.047 11.048 11.049 11.050 11.051 11.052 11.053 11.054 11.055 11.056 11.057 11.058 11.059 11.060 11.061 11.062 11.063 11.064 11.065 11.066 11.067 11.068 11.069 11.070 11.071 11.072 11.073 11.074 11.075 11.076 11.077 11.078 11.079 11.080 11.081 11.082 11.083 11.084 11.085 11.086 11.087 11.088 11.089 11.090 11.091 11.092 11.093 11.094 11.095 11.096 11.097 11.098 11.099 11.100 11.101 11.102 11.103 11.104 11.105 11.106 11.107 11.108 11.109 11.110 Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires Growth-Decline Curves, 3000 to 600 B.C.", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 180-196 (1978).
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, J. Daniel Rogers, Steven P. Wilcox, & Jai Alterman, "Computing the Steppes: Data Analysis for Agent-Based Modeling of Polities in Inner Asia", Proceedings of the 104th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Pol. Sci. Assoc., Boston, MA, p. 8 August 28–31, (2008).
  13. [1]
  14. "The Cholas"" University of Madras"K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Rein Taagepera "Size and Duration of Empires: Systematics of Size", Social Science Research Vol. 7, 108-127 (1978).
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 John O. Hunwick: Timbuktu and the Songahy Empire: Al-Sa’di’s Ta’rikh Al-sudan Down to 1613 and other Contemporary Documents (Brill, 2003),p. xlix.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Hempstone, page 312
  18. Khulafa al-Rasyidin
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Ferguson 2004, p. 15.
  20. Stewart, Basil, "Restoration of Palestine", (In reference to the Empayar Achaemenid), p. 3 (2003).
  21. Parker, Philip, "The Empire Stops Here", p. 2 (2009).
  22. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1979) is 3.4 juta km2 pada 261 SM.
  23. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1979) and Turchin et al (2006) is 9.0 juta km2 pada 176 SM. As it should be noted, historians are divided on whether the Xiongnu was an empire, and modern consensus in the majority of reputable sources is that the Xiongnu did not exceed 5 juta km2 at their greatest extent.
  24. Peak area estimated by Turchin et al (2006) is 2.0 juta km2 pada AD 140.
  25. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1979) is 1.7 juta km2 pada AD 440.
  26. http://www.eeb.uconn.edu/people/turchin/PDF/Latitude.pdf
  27. [2]
  28. "The Cholas"" University of Madras"K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
  29. Peak area estimated by Turchin et al (2006) is 2.3 juta km2 in 1210.
  30. Peak area estimated by Turchin et al (2006) is 1.0 juta km2 in 1120.
  31. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.0 juta km2 in 900.
  32. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.7 juta km2 in 1200.
  33. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.0 juta km2 in 1130.
  34. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.6 juta km2 in 1400.
  35. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 1.5 juta km2 in 1163.
  36. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 35.5 juta km2 in 1920.
  37. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 13.7 juta km2 in 1780 or 1810.
  38. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 12.3 juta km2 in 1920.
  39. Peak area estimated by Taagepera (1997) is 5.5 juta km2 in 1820.
  40. "Mexican Empire". All Empires. Diperoleh pada 2009-08-02. 
  41. [3]
  42. "The Cholas"" University of Madras"K. A. Nilakanta Sastri
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 43.7 43.8 Harrison (1998, pp. 3,7).
  44. Recorded number of persons in 1851 is 432,164,047 according to Draft History of Qing.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 45.5 45.6 45.7 (a) John D. Durand, 1960, "The Population Statistics of China, A.D. 2–1953," Population Studies Vol. 13 (No. 3), 209–256. (b) John D. Durand, 1974, "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation," University of Pennsylvania, Population Center, Analytical and Technical Reports, Number 10.
  46. Recorded number of persons and households in 1103 are 45,981,845 and 20,524,065, respectively (Song Huiyao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 46,734,784 and 20,882,438 in 1109, respectively (Song Huiyao).
  47. Jean-Noël Biraben, "The History of the Human Population From the First Beginnings to the Present" in Demography: Analysis and Synthesis: A Treatise in Population (Eds: Graziella Caselli, Jacques Vallin, Guillaume J. Wunsch), Vol. III, Chapter 66, pp 5-18, Academic Press:San Diego (2005).
  48. Recorded number of persons and households in 1393 are 60,545,812 and 10,652,870, respectively (Ming Hui Dian), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 66,598,337 and 11,415,829 in 1403, respectively (Book of Ming).
  49. The combined population of China and Korea in the 13th century was 83 juta in Biraben (2003Templat:Page number). The combined population of Eropah Timur, Rusia, Asia Tengah, Iran, Iraq dan Turki was about 27 juta in Maddison (2006Templat:Page number).
  50. Recorded number of persons and households in 1290 are 58,834,711 and 13,196,206, respectively (History of Yuan), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 59,848,964 and 13,430,322 in 1291, respectively (History of Yuan).
  51. Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p. 4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009
  52. There are several different estimates for the Empayar Rom. Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60 juta. Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55 juta. Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54 juta. Maddison (2006, p. 51, 120) estimates 48 juta. Roman Empire Population estimates 65 juta (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 juta and 120 juta).
  53. Recorded number of persons and households in AD 2 are 59,594,978 and 12,233,062, respectively (Book of Han).
  54. Recorded number of persons and households in 1193 are 27,845,085 and 12,302,873, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao), while recorded peak number of persons and households are 28,320,085 and 12,670.801 in 1223, respectively (Wenxian Tongkao).
  55. The combined population of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, United States and the Philippines was 29.2 juta in Maddison (2006Templat:Page number). The population of Latin America was 39 juta in Biraben (2003Templat:Page number), minus Brazil and its 4 juta people with was a part of the Empayar Portugal.
  56. Recorded number of persons and households in 156 are 56,486,856 and 10,677,960 respectively (Book of the Later Han).
  57. The combined population of Southwest Asia and North Africa was about 57 juta in Biraben (2003Templat:Page number). The combined population of Spain and Portugal was about 5 juta in Maddison (2006Templat:Page number).
  58. Recorded number of persons and households are 46,019,956 and 8,907,546, respectively, in 606 (Tongdian) or 609 (Book of Sui).
  59. Recorded number of persons and households in 755 are 52,919,309 and 8,914,709, respectively (Book of Tang).
  60. 60.0 60.1 While estimates for the Empayar Achaemenid range from 10–80+ juta, most prefer 50 juta. Prevas (2009, p. 14) estimates 10 juta 1. Langer (2001, p. 40) estimates around 16 juta 2. McEvedy and Jones (2001, p. 50) estimates 17 juta 3. Strauss (2004, p. 37) estimates about 20 juta 4. Ward (2009, p. 16) estimates at 20 juta 5. Aperghis (2007, p. 311) estimates 32 juta 6. Scheidel (2009, p. 99) estimates 35 juta 7. Zeinert (1996, p. 32) estimates 40 juta 8. Rawlinson and Schauffler (1898, p. 270) estimates possibly 50 juta 9. Astor (1899, p. 56) estimates almost 50 juta 10. Lissner (1961, p. 111) estimates probably 50 juta 11. Milns (1968, p. 51) estimates some 50 juta 12. Hershlag (1980, p. 140) estimates nearly 50 juta 13. Yarshater (1996, p. 47) estimates by 50 juta 14. Daniel (2001, p. 41) estimates at 50 juta 15. Meyer and Andreades (2004, p. 58) estimates to 50 juta 16. Pollack (2004, p. 7) estimates about 50 juta 17. Jones (2004, p. 8) estimates over 50 juta 18. Safire (2007, p. 627) estimates in 50 juta 19. Dougherty (2009, p. 6) estimates about 70 juta 20. Richard (2008, p. 34) estimates nearly 70 juta 21. Mitchell (2004, p. 16) estimates over 70 juta 22. Hanson (2001, p. 32) estimates almost 75 juta 23. West (1913, p. 85) estimates about 75 juta 24. Zenos (1889, p. 2) estimates exactly 75 juta 25. Cowley (1999 and 2001, p. 17) estimates possibly 80 juta 26. Cook (1904, p. 277) estimates exactly 80 juta 27.
  61. Recorded number of persons and households in 1195 are 48,490,400 and 7,223,400, respectively (History of Jin).
  62. Historical Estimates of World Population U.S. Census Bureau.
  63. 63.0 63.1 McEvedy and Jones (1978).
  64. 64.00 64.01 64.02 64.03 64.04 64.05 64.06 64.07 64.08 64.09 64.10 64.11 64.12 64.13 64.14 64.15 64.16 64.17 64.18 Maddison, op cit. For alternate estimates, see the Economic History Services' USA/UK KDNK search tool.
  65. Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p.4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009
  66. Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978), "Atlas of World Population History", Facts on File (p. 342-351). New York.
  67. Thomlinson (1975, Table 1).
  68. Jean-Noel Biraben; Biraben, Jean-Noel (1979-01). "Essai sur l'evolution du nombre des hommes". Population (French Edition) (Institut National d'&#201) 34 (1): 13–25. doi:10.2307/1531855. 
  69. Walker, Sheila S., African roots/American cultures: Africa in the creation of the Americas, Published by Rowman & Littlefield, p. 127. (2001)
  70. 70.0 70.1 Broadberry and Harrison (2005).
  71. Pamuk (2005Templat:Page number).

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