James I dari England

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
James VI and I
James VI dari Scotland pada tahun 1587–1613, oleh Paulus van Somer (1576–1621)
Raja Scotland
Tempoh pemerintahan 24 Julai, 1567 – 27 Mac, 1625 (&&&&&&&&&&&&&057.&&&&&057 tahun, &&&&&&&&&&&&0246.&&&&&0246 hari)
Kemahkotaan 29 Julai, 1567
Didahului oleh Mary I
Diikuti oleh Charles I
Pemangku raja James Stewart, Earl Moray
Matthew Stewart, Earl Lennox
John Erskine, Earl Mar
James Douglas, Earl Morton
Raja England dan Ireland
Tempoh pemerintahan 24 Mac, 1603 – 27 Mac, 1625 (&&&&&&&&&&&&&022.&&&&&022 tahun, &&&&&&&&&&&&&&03.&&&&&03 hari)
Kemahkotaan 25 Julai, 1603
Didahului oleh Elizabeth I
Diikuti oleh Charles I
Permaisuri Anne dari Denmark
Putera-puteri
Henry Frederick, Putera Wales
Elizabeth, Ratu Bohemia
Charles I dari England
Robert Stuart, Duke Kintyre
Keluarga diraja Kerabat Stuart
Ayahanda Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Bonda Mary I dari Scotland
Kelahiran 19 Jun 1566(1566-06-19)
Istana kota Edinburgh, Scotland
Kemangkatan 27 Mac 1625 (umur 58)
Rumah Theobalds, England

James VI & I (19 Jun, 1566 – 27 Mac, 1625) adalah Raja Scotland sebagai James VI bermula pada tahun 1567 hingga 1625, dan Raja England dan Ireland sebagai James I bermula pada 1603 hingga 1625.

Beliau menjadi Raja Scotland sebagai James VI pada 24 Julai, 1567, semasa beliau berumur 13 bulan, mengantikan ibu beliau Mary, Ratu Scotland. Pemangku raja memerintah semasa beliau kecil, yang mana tamat secara rasminya pada tahun 1578, meskipun beliau tidak mendapat kuasa sepenuhnya ke atas kerajaan beliau sehingga tahun 1581.[1] Pada 24 Mac, 1603, sebagai James I, beliau mengantikan raja England dan Ireland terakhir dari Dinasti Tudor, Elizabeth I, yang mangkat tanpa waris.[2] Beliau kemudian memerintah Kerajaan England, Scotland, dan Ireland selama 22 tahun, sering menggunakan gelaran Raja Great Britain, sehingga kematian beliau pada umur 58 tahun.[3]

Di bawah pemerintahan James, "Zaman Keemasan" sastera dan drama dari era Elizabeth diteruskan, dengan para penulis seperti William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, dan Sir Francis Bacon memberi sumbangan budaya kesasteraan yang maju.[4] James juga merupakan seorang sarjanawan yang berbakat, dan merupakan penulis bagi kerja-kerja seperti Daemonologie (1597),[5] True Law of Free Monarchies (1598),[6] and Basilikon Doron (1599).[7] Sir Anthony Weldon mendakwa bahawa James disebut sebagai "si si bodoh dalam Dunia Kristian", satu gelaran berkaitan dengan perwatakan beliau sejak itu.[8]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Stewart, p 47; Croft, p 16; Willson, pp 29–31.
  2. By the normal rules of succession James did have the best claim to the English throne, as the great-great-grandson of Henry VII. However, Henry VIII's will had passed over the Scottish line of his sister Margaret in favour of that of their younger sister Mary Tudor. In the event, Henry's will was disregarded. Stewart, pp 159–161; Willson, pp 138–141.
  3. After the Union of the Crowns James was the first to style himself "King of Great Britain", but the title was rejected by both the English Parliament and the Parliament of Scotland, and its legal basis was open to question. Croft, p 67; Willson, pp 249–52. See also: the early history of the Union Flag.
  4. Milling, p 155.
  5. James I, king of England (1597). "Daemonologie, in forme of a dialogue". at Folger Shakespeare Library web site.. http://www.folger.edu/eduPrimSrcDtl.cfm?psid=83. Capaian 2007-05-12. 
  6. text
  7. "James VI and I was the most writerly of British monarchs. He produced original poetry, as well as translation and a treatise on poetics; works on witchcraft and tobacco; meditations and commentaries on the Scriptures; a manual on kingship; works of political theory; and, of course, speeches to parliament...He was the patron of Shakespeare, Jonson, Donne, and the translators of the "Authorized version" of the Bible, surely the greatest concentration of literary talent ever to enjoy royal sponsorship in England." Rhodes et al., p 1.
  8. "A very wise man was wont to say that he believed him the wisest fool in Christendom, meaning him wise in small things, but a fool in weighty affairs." Sir Anthony Weldon (1651), The Court and Character of King James I, quoted by Stroud, p 27; "The label 'the wisest fool in Christendom', often attributed to Henry IV of France but possibly coined by Anthony Weldon, catches James’s paradoxical qualities very neatly." Smith, p 238.

Rujukan bukan petikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Atherton, Ian; and David Como (2005). The Burning of Edward Wightman: Puritanism, Prelacy and the Politics of Heresy in Early Modern England. English Historical Review, Volume 120, December 2005, Number 489, 1215–1250. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Barroll, J. Leeds (2001). Anna of Denmark, Queen of England: A Cultural Biography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-8122-3574-6.
  • Barroll, J. Leeds and Susan P. Cerasano (1996). Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England: An Annual Gathering of Research, Criticism and Reviews. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 0-8386-3641-1.
  • Bucholz, Robert and Newton Key (2004). Early Modern England, 1485–1714: A Narrative History. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21393-7.
  • Croft, Pauline (2003). King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-61395-3.
  • Davies, Godfrey ([1937] 1959). The Early Stuarts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821704-8.
  • Guy, John (2004). My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. London and New York: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-752-X.
  • Krugler, John D. (2004). English and Catholic: the Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-7963-9.
  • Lindley, David (1993). The Trials of Frances Howard: Fact and Fiction at the Court of King James. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-05206-8.
  • Milling, Jane (2004). "The Development of a Professional Theatre", in The Cambridge History of British Theatre. Jane Milling, Peter Thomson, Joseph W. Donohue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65040-2.
  • Noble, Mark (1795). An Historical Genealogy of the Royal House of Stuarts, from the Reign of King Robert II to that of King James VI. London: R. Faulder. Read complete digitized copy at Google Books. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  • Perry, Curtis (2006). Literature and Favoritism in Early Modern England. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85405-9.
  • Rhodes, Neil; Jennifer Richards; and Joseph Marshall (2003). King James VI and I: Selected Writings. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-7546-0482-9.
  • Sharpe, Kevin M. (2000). Remapping Early Modern England: The Culture of Seventeenth-century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66409-8.
  • Smith, David L (2003). "Politics in Early Stuart Britain," in A Companion to Stuart Britain. Ed. Barry Coward. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21874-2.
  • Solt, Leo Frank (1990). Church and State in Early Modern England: 1509–1640. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505979-4.
  • Stewart, Alan (2003). The Cradle King: A Life of James VI & I. London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 0-7011-6984-2.
  • Stroud, Angus (1999). Stuart England. Routledge ISBN 0-415-20652-9.
  • Watts, Michael R (1985). The Dissenters: From the Reformation to the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822956-9.
  • Williams, Ethel Carleton (1970). Anne of Denmark. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-12783-1.
  • Willson, David Harris ([1956] 1963 ed). King James VI & I. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd. ISBN 0-224-60572-0.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wikisource

Buku berkenaan James I yang boleh didapati di talian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

James VI dari Scotland & I dari England
Tarikh lahir: 19 Jun 1566 Tarikh kemangkatan: 27 Mac 1625
Gelaran pemerintah
Didahului oleh
Mary I
Raja Scotland
29 Julai 1567 – 27 Mac 1625
Diikuti oleh:
Charles I
Didahului oleh
Elizabeth I
Raja England
Raja Ireland

24 Mac 1603 – 27 Mac 1625
Kerabat diraja Scotland
Didahului oleh
James Hamilton, Earl Arran ke-2
Pewaris takhta Scotland
sebagai pewaris
19 Jun 1566 – 29 Julai 1567
Diikuti oleh:
James Hamilton, Earl Arran ke-2
Kerabat diraja England
Didahului oleh
Tiada pewaris dilantik di bawah
Elizabeth I dari England.
Pewaris berpotensi adalah Mary I dari Scotland
Pewaris berpotensi kepada takhta England dan Ireland
oleh cognatic anak sulung
24 Februari, 1587 – 24 Mac, 1603
Diikuti oleh:
Henry Frederick, Putera Wales
Bangsawan Scotland
Kosong
  Gelaran dipegang dahulu oleh  
James Stewart
Duke Rothesay
19 Jun, 1566 – 29 Julai, 1567
Kosong
  Gelaran dipegang kemudian oleh  
Henry Frederick, Putera Wales
Didahului oleh
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
Duke Albany
10 Februari, 1567 – 29 Julai, 1567
Mahkota digabungkan