Kempen Filipina (1941–42)

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Bagi kempen Sekutu menentang Jepun di Filipina 1944–1945, lihat Kempen Filipina (1944–45).
Pertempuran Filipina
Sebahagian daripada Kancah Pasifik Perang Perang II
Ww2 131.jpg
Tawanan perang Filipina mengangkut mayat sahabat mereka di Camp O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, 1942, berikutan Perbarisan Maut Bataan.
Tarikh 8 Disember 1941 – 8 Mei 1942
Lokasi Filipina
Hasil Kemenangan Jepun
Perubahan
wilayah
Pendudukan Jepun di Filipina
Pihak yang terlibat
 Jepun  Amerika Syarikat
Komandan
Empayar Jepun Masaharu Homma Amerika Syarikat Douglas MacArthur
Filipina Manuel L. Quezon
Amerika Syarikat Jonathan M. Wainwright IV
Filipina Sergio Osmeña

Filipina Basilio J. Valdez
Filipina Paulino T. Santos
Filipina Vicente Lim
Filipina Alfredo M. Santos
Filipina Mateo Capinpin

Kekuatan
129,435 askar[1]
90 kereta kebal
541 pesawat
151,000 askar[2]
108 kereta kebal[3]
277 aircraft[4]
Korban
Sumber Jepun:
11,225
4,130 terkorban
287 hilang
6,808 cedera[5]

Anggaran Bersekutu:
17,000–19,000[6]

146,000
25,000 terkorban
21,000 cedera
100,000 ditawan[7]

Templat:Campaignbox Philippines 1941–1942 Templat:Campaignbox Pacific 1941 Templat:Campaignbox South West Pacific

Kempen Filipina (Filipino: Kampanya sa Pilipinas atau Labanan sa Pilipinas) atau Pertempuran Filipina, berperang 8 Disember 1941 – 8 Mei 1942, adalah pencerobohan Imperial Jepun ke atas Filipina dan dipertahankan oleh tentera Amerika Syarikat dan Filipina semasa Perang Dunia II.

Pihak Jepun melancarkan pencerobohan ini melalui laut dari Formosa lebih 200 batu ke utara Filipina. Tentera pertahanan lebih banyak dari Jepun dengan nisbah 3 per 2, namun mereka adalah campuran pasukan askar tetap yang tiada pengalaman perang, pengawal kebangsaan, polis dan unit-unit Komanwel yang baru ditubuhkan. Jepun menggunakan askar barisan pertama pada awal kempen, dan menyatukan tentera mereka, menyebabkan penaklukan pantas seluruh Luzon semasa bulan pertama.

Markas besar Jepun, mempercayai bahawa mereka telah memenangi kempen ini, membuat satu keputusan strategik dengan mendahulukan masa sebulan dari jadual waktu asal operasi mereka di Borneo dan Indonesia, menarik keluar divisyen terbaik mereka dan sebahagian besar kuasa udara mereka pada awal Januari 1942.[8] Ini, ditambah pula dengan keputusan askar pertahanan untuk berundur kedalam posisi bertahan di Semenanjung Bataan, membolehkan pihak Amerika dan Filipina bertahan dengan jayanya selama empat bulan lagi.

Penaklukan Filipina oleh Jepun sering dianggap sebagai kekalahan paling buruk dalam sejarah ketenteraan Amerika Syarikat.[9] 23,000 anggota tentera Amerika terbunuh atau ditawan dan 100,000 askar Filipina terbunuh atau ditawan.[10]

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Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Reports of General MacArthur Order of Battle plate. The total includes all elements of divisions assigned to the 14th Army at some point in the campaign, and replacements. The maximum strength of Japanese ground forces was approx. 100,000. The total does not include 12000+ Army air force personnel, whose totals were drastically reduced after 1 January 1942.
  2. ^ The Fall of the Philippines p. 18. The Philippine Army totalled 120,000 and the Army of the United States 31,000.
  3. ^ The Fall of the Philippines, p.33.
  4. ^ The Fall of the Philippines, p.42. Total includes 175 fighters and 74 bombers.
  5. ^ Senshi Sōsho (戦史叢書) (dalam bahasa Japanese). 2. Asagumo Shimbunsha. 1966. 
  6. ^ Philippine Islands. Center of Military History, U.S. Army. 3 October 2003. m/s. 19. Since 6 January the Japanese had suffered 7,000 battle casualties, with another 10,000 to 12,000 men dying of disease. 
  7. ^ Life Magazine gives a total of 36,583 US/Filipino troops captured 9 April 1942
  8. ^ Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area – Reports of General MacArthur Volume II, p. 104.
  9. ^ "War in the Pacific: The First Year", https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/npswapa/extContent/wapa/guides/first/sec2.htm, accessed 4 May 2016
  10. ^ "American Prisoners of War in the Philippines", Office of the Provost Marshal, November 19, 1945, http://www.mansell.com/pow_resources/camplists/philippines/pows_in_pi-OPMG_report.html, accessed 4 May 2016

Buku[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bartsch, William H. (2003). 8 December 1941: MacArthur's Pearl Harbor. College Station, Texas, USA: Texas A&M University Press. 
  • Belote, James H.; William M. Belote (1967). Corregidor: The Saga of a Fortress. Harper & Row. ASIN B0006BOBRQ. 
  • Berhow, Mark A.; Terrance C. McGovern (2003). American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898–1945 (Fortress). Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84176-427-2. 
  • Burton, John (2006). Fortnight of Infamy: The Collapse of Allied Airpower West of Pearl Harbor. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-096-X. 
  • Connaughton, Richard (2001). MacArthur and Defeat in the Philippines. New York: The Overlook Press. 
  • Drea, Edward J. (1998). In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0. 
  • Edmunds, Walter D. (1951). They Fought With What They Had: The Story of the Army Air Forces in the Southwest Pacific, 1941–1942. College Station, Texas, USA: Little, Brown and Company (1992 reprint: Center For Air Force History). 
  • Gordon, John (2011). Fighting for MacArthur: The Navy and Marine Corps' Desperate Defense of the Philippines. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-61251-057-4. 
  • Jackson, Charles; Bruce H. Norton (2003). I Am Alive!: A United States Marine's Story of Survival in a World war II Japanese POW Camp. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-345-44911-8. 
  • Mallonee, Richard C. (2003). Battle for Bataan: An Eyewitness Account. I Books. ISBN 0-7434-7450-3. 
  • Martin, Adrian R. (2008). Operation Plum: The Ill-Fated 27th Bombardment Group and the Fight for the Western Pacific. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-60344-019-4. 
  • Mellnik, Stephen Michael (1981). Philippine War Diary, 1939–1945. Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-21258-5. 
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (2001) [1958]. The Rising Sun in the Pacific 1931 – April 1942, vol. 3 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Castle Books. ISBN 0-7858-1304-7. 
  • Morris, Eric (2000). Corregidor: The American Alamo of World War II. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1085-9. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L. (2005). Japanese Army in World War II: Conquest of the Pacific 1941–42. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-789-5. 
  • Schultz, Duane (1981). Hero of Bataan: The story of General Johnathan M Wainwright. St Martin's Press. ASIN B000UXDJJG. 
  • Waldron, Ben; Emily Burneson (2006). Corregidor: From Paradise to Hell!. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4120-2109-X. 
  • Whitman, John W. (1990). Bataan: Our Last Ditch: The Bataan Campaign, 1942. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-87052-877-7. 
  • Young, Donald J. (1992). The Battle of Bataan: A History of the 90 Day Siege and Eventual Surrender of 75,000 Filipino and United States Troops to the Japanese in World War. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-89950-757-3. 
  • Zaloga, Steven J. Japanese Tanks 1939–45. Osprey, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84603-091-8.

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