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Kehidupan di Belanda
Masakan Belanda dibentuk oleh amalan pemancingan dan pertanian, termasuk penanaman tanah untuk menumbuh hasil tanaman dan mengembala haiwan dibela jinak, dan sejarah Belanda.
Belanda terkenal dengan kepelbagaian keju dan ialah di mana pemerosesan coklat Belanda berasal. Masakan Belanda agak terhad dalam kepelbagain hidangan (seperti banyak masakan Eropah Utara) dan termasuk suatu makanan tinggi sayur-sayuran dibandingkan dengan makanan daging.[petikan diperlukan]
- 1 Sejarah
- 2 Pertanian dan industri perikanan
- 3 Bread and cheese
- 4 Coffee and tea
- 5 Dinner
- 6 Special occasions
- 7 Sweets
- 8 Chocolate
- 9 Alcoholic drinks
- 10 Fast food
- 11 Regional cuisines
- 12 Vegetarianism
- 13 Lihat juga
- 14 Footnotes
- 15 Pautan luar
Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]
Kelihatan yang sederhana dan kurang menarik dari apa yang kini dianggap masakan Belanda tradisional kelihatan akibat suatu perkembangan yang agak baru. Dari kurun ke-17 seterusnya, hidangan orang kaya terdiri dari suatu kepelbagaian kaya buah-buahan, keju, daging, wain, dan kacang. Masakan negara menjadi sangat menandus pada mulanya kurun ke-20, apabila suatu bilangan besar anak perempuan dikirimkan ke sejenis sekolah baru, Huishoudschool (sekolah housekeeping pengurusan rumah), di mana perempuan muda dilatih menjadi pembantu rumah dan di mana pelajaran pada memasak hidangan murah dan sederhana adalah suatu bahagian utama kurikulum.
Pertanian dan industri perikanan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Pertanian Belanda secara kasarnya terdair dari lima sektor: industri perikanan, penternakan haiwan, dan pertanian berasaskan pembajakan, berasaskan buah, dan berasaskan rumah hijau. Yang terakhir mempunyai sedikit atau tiada pengaruh pada tabiat permakanan orang Belanda.
- Tanaman berasaskan bajakan termasok kentang, kale, beetroot, green beans, lobak merah, celeriac, bawang, semua jenis kobis, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, endive, bayam, Belgian endive, asparagus dan lettuce. Kini terdapat usaha yang dimulakan bagi menghidupkan kembali sayuran yang "dilupakan" seperti common purslane, medlars, parsnips, and black salsify.
- Orang Belanda membela lembu bagi mendapatkan susu dan dagingnya, ayam bagi mendapatkan telor dan dagingnya, babi bagi daging dan biri-biri bagi bulu dan dagingnya. Secara tradisi daging kuda adalah hidangan stek dan sosej biasa tetapi kini kurang biasa masakini.
- Bidang perikanan darat termasuk kod, herring, plaice, sole, mackerel, eels, tuna, salmon, trout, tiram, kupang, udang, dan sardin. Orang Belanda terkenal bagi belut salai dan sosej hering, yang dimakan mentah-mentah.
Bread and cheese[sunting | sunting sumber]
Orang Belanda terkenal bagi hasil tenusu mereka (susu lembu) dan terutamanya bagi keju mereka. Sebahagian besar keju Belanda adalah keju separa-keras atau keras. Keju terkenal Belanda termasuk Gouda, Edam, dan Leyden. Cara biasa orang Belanda bagi manghasilkan keju adalah dengan mencampurkan herba atau rempah pada tahap pertama proses penghasilan. Contoh terkenal adalah keju dengan cengkih (biasanya Frisian nagelkaas), jintan putih dan jintan (paling terkenal keju Leyden), atau netel.
Roti Belanda dimakan untuk sarapan. Roti Belanda cenderung amat ringan, kerana ia dihasilkan menggunakan doh yis. Sejak 1970-an seterusnya roti Belanda kebanyakannya dihasilkan menggunakan bijian sempurna, dengan tambahan bijiran seperti biji bunga matahari biji labu sering kali ditambah pada doh bagi menambah rasa. Roti Rai adalah satu dari sedikit roti padat di Belanda. Roti putih dahulunya dianggap sebagai roti mewah, sering dihasilkan dengan menggunakan susu selain air. Frisia mewah versi roti putih adalah roti gula, roti putih dengan ketulan gula dicampur dalam doh. Kerststol merupakan roti Krismas Belanda yang dihasilkan dari doh roti dengan gula, buah kering, kismis dan anggur kering dan sari oren, dimakan potongan berkeping disapu mentega.
Orang Belanda menggunakan keluaran daging dan pelbagai jenis keju, termasuk juga sapuan manis pada sandwich terbuka mereka, seperti sapuan cokelat, treacle (gula perang pekat, gelap yang dipanggil stroop), mentega kacang (dipanggil pindakaas), taburan (dipanggil hagelslag, harafiah. ketulan hujan batu), vlokken kepingan cokelat (dipanggil chocoladevlokken), muisjes dihancurkan dan confiture.
Coffee and tea[sunting | sunting sumber]
Dutch people invite friends over for "koffietijd" (coffee time), which consists of coffee and cake or a biscuit, served between 10 and 11 a.m. (before lunch) and/or between 7 and 8 pm (after dinner) The Dutch drink coffee and tea throughout the day, often served with a single biscuit. Dutch thrift led to the famous standard rule of only one cookie with each cup of coffee. It has been suggested that the reasons for this can be found in the Protestant mentality and upbringing in the northern Netherlands. The traditionally Catholic south does not share this tradition (in Limburg a vlaai (sweet pie or pastry with filling), cut in eight pieces, is traditionally served when visitors are expected).
A popular Dutch story (never confirmed) says that in the late 1940s the wife of the then Prime minister, Willem Drees, served coffee and one biscuit to a visiting American diplomat, who then became convinced that the money from the Marshall Plan (European Recovery Program, the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, after World War II) was being well-spent.
Café au lait is also very common. It is called koffie verkeerd (literally "wrong-way-round-coffee") and consists of equal parts black coffee and hot milk. The Dutch drink tea without milk and the tea is quite a lot weaker than the typical English types of tea which are taken with milk. Other hot drinks used to include warm lemonade, called kwast (hot water with lemon juice), and anijsmelk (hot milk with aniseed). In the autumn and winter the very popular hot chocolate or chocolate milk is drunk. Both anijsmelk and kwast are hardly drunk anymore and have lost their popularity.
Dinner[sunting | sunting sumber]
Dinner, traditionally served early by international standards, starts at about 6 o'clock in the evening. The old-fashioned Dutch dinner consists of one simple course: beans or potatoes, meat and vegetables. Traditionally potatoes with a large portion of vegetables and a small portion of meat with gravy, or a potato and vegetable stew. A typical traditional Dutch dinner would include stamppot (Dutch mashed potato mixed with other mashed vegetables) and pea soup. Vegetable stews served as side dishes are for example rode kool met appeltjes (red cabbage with apples), or rode bieten (red beets). Regular spices used in stews of this kind may be bayleaves, juniper berries, cloves, and vinegar. Stews are often served with mixed pickles, including zure zult (head cheese) or stewed pears (stoofperen). Due to the influx of other countries traditional meals have lost some popularity. Stamppot is traditionally eaten in winter.
The below listed meals have historic origins as meals for common laborers. In the 17th to 19th century workers worked 10 to 16 hours on farms or in factories in unheated rooms, hence these meals are very heavy on calories and fat and were meant to replenish a laborer's energy. Nowadays meals like Hutspot and Stamppot, while considered[nyatakan menurut siapa?] a bit oldfashioned, are still often enjoyed by the Dutch.
Well-known Dutch dishes are:
- Hutspot, made with potatoes, carrots, and onions served with meats like rookworst (smoked sausage), slow-cooked meat, or bacon. This is a legacy of the Spanish invaders, who, according to legend, left a pot of this stew behind in their abandoned trenches when the town of Leiden, which they had been besieging, was liberated in 1574 – so this hutspot was one of the first foods its starving inhabitants found. Before potatoes were introduced in Europe hutspot was made from parsnips, carrots, and onions.
- Stamppot rauwe andijvie, raw endive mashed with hot potatoes, served with diced fried speck (a kind of bacon).
- Hete bliksem (literally Hot Lightning), boiled potatoes and green apples, served with "stroop" (syrup) or tossed with diced speck
- Zuurkoolstamppot, sauerkraut mashed with potatoes. Served with fried bacon or a sausage. Sometimes curry powder, raisins or slices of pineapple are used to give a stamppot an exotic touch.
- Boerenkoolstamppot, curly kale mixed with potatoes, served with gravy, mustard, and rookworst sausage. This dish, boerenkool met rookworst, (which could be translated literally as farmers cabbage with smoked sausage), is made of mashed potatoes mixed with cabbage and it is usually eaten with smoked sausage. 'Boerenkool met worst' is one of the oldest and most popular Dutch dishes. Boerenkool was mentioned in cookbooks from the year 1661. 1661 mashed potatoes were not used in this dish yet, although the sausage was already served with the cabbage in this dish. The dish became popular after a few bad corn-seasons when potatoes became popular as food.. Boerenkool contains a lot of carbohydrates, which makes it a popular meal for cold winter days.
Another dish served at the dinner table is a very thick pea soup, called snert and it can be served either as a main dish or as an appetizer. Snert is a popular nickname for what in Dutch is really called erwtensoep; traditionally eaten during the winter. Erwtensoep has a very thick consistency and often includes pieces of pork and rookworst - smoked sausage - and is almost a stew rather than a soup. The thick consistency of the Dutch pea soup is often described as that "..you should be able to stand a spoon upright in a good pea soup". It is customarily served with roggebrood (rye bread) spread with butter and topped with katenspek, a variety of bacon which is first cooked and then smoked. The meat from the soup may also be put on the rye bread and eaten with mustard.
Meat dishes include gehaktballen meatballs, slavink, minced meat wrapped in bacon, balkenbrij, a type of liverwurst and meatloaf. The butter based gravy (boterjus), in which the meat has been fried and/or cooked, is also served. A variant of this, eaten around the IJsselmeer (a shallow lake in the central Netherlands), is butter en eek, where vinegar is added to the gravy.
Another Dutch dinner dish is pannenkoeken (pancakes are named after pannenkoeken), which come in several varieties including poffertjes (miniature pancakes) and spekdik (a Northern variant with bacon). Wentelteefjes (French toast) are similar. Broeder, a type of cake, is also eaten for dinner, mainly in West Friesland.
Today, Dutch dinners and Dutch cuisine are often heavily influenced by foreign cuisines. Dishes such as Italian pastas, Indonesian meat and rice dishes, Chinese stir-fries, Mexican enchiladas, and Swiss cheese fondue are commonly encountered on the Dutch dinner table and on the menus of local restaurants. Thai, Indian and Japanese cuisines are gaining popularity.
Special occasions[sunting | sunting sumber]
On special occasions, usually different types of pastries are eaten. When a baby is born in a family, the young parents traditionally serve their guests beschuit met muisjes (Dutch rusk covered with sugared aniseed).
The Dutch festival of Sinterklaas (dedicated to Saint Nicholas, celebrating his name day) is held on the 5 December. Saint Nicholas, leaves gifts in the children’s shoes. On this occasion, the Dutch drink hot chocolate milk and eat spice cookies, like speculaas. These special pastries are said to be distributed by Saint Nicholas' aide Zwarte Piet; and they include pepernoten (gingernut-like biscuits but made with cinnamon, pepper, cloves and nutmeg mix of spices), boterletter (a baked pastry crust filled with an sugared almond paste filling and shaped into a letter), letters made from chocolate, marzipan, borstplaat (discs of fondant); and several other types of spiced cookies: taai-taai and kruidnoten and banketstaaf made from almond meal.
Christmas in the Netherlands is a typical family holiday. Traditionally there is family brunch with "Kerststol" (fruited raisinbread; often filled with almond paste). Christmas dinner is also a family occasion where roast pork, game or other luxury meat may be served. An alternative typical Dutch tradition for Christmas meals is 'gourmet', when people sit together around a gourmet-set (small table top cooking stove with miniature frying pans) and use their own small frying pans to cook different types of meats, fish prawns/shrimps and finely chopped vegetables accompanied by salads, fruits and sauces.
On New Year's Eve, Dutch houses smell of the piping hot oil used to prepare oliebollen, appelflappen and appelbeignets (battered apple rings) in deep-fat fryers. These yeast dough balls, either plain or filled with glacé fruits, pieces of apple and raisins and sultanas, are served with powdered sugar and are a special treat for New Year's Eve. The Dutch also took their oliebollen to America, where they are now known in a slightly different form as doughnuts. In Limburg nonnevotte are sometimes served during New Year's Eve, although it is mostly eaten during Carnaval
On birthdays all kinds of cakes and cookies are eaten, including appeltaart (apple pie), Bokkepootjes, Bossche bol, dikke koek, cream cake, Fryske dumkes, gevulde koek (cookies filled with almond meal), Groninger koek, Janhagel, Ketelkoek, Kindermanstik, Knieperties, Krakeling, Krentenwegge, Kruidkoek, Limburgse vlaai, Ouwewijvenkoek, peperkoek (gingerbread), Rijstekoek, Spekkoek (from Indonesia), Sprits, Tompouce, Trommelkoek, Bitterkoekjes, Kletskop and Stroopwafel. Poffertjes are tiny puffed pancakes served on special occasions, served warm with melting butter and powdered sugar on top. They are mostly combined with a drink: milk, chocolate milk or yoghurt drink. Cafeterias all around Holland sell poffertjes. Dutch people call such a restaurant a poffertjeskraam. Poffertjes can be eaten as a dessert after dinner or as a sweet lunch.
Sweets[sunting | sunting sumber]
A famous Dutch sweet is zoute drop, salty liquorice and liquorice sweets. These sweets are small, black and look much like gums. The four types of drop are soft sweet, soft salt, hard sweet and hard salt drop. Drop can be bought in shops and pharmacies and has a medical function as it helps to cure throat and stomach aches. Dutch drop is sold in a large variety of shapes and forms. Drop can be either sweet or salty (or very salty). It is sometimes flavoured with coconut fondant (Engelse drop or English drop ), honey (honingdrop ), mint (muntdrop ), salmiak (salmiakdrop), or laurel (laurierdrop). Typical shapes are diamonds, ovals, oblongs and coins. Honeycomb shape for honeydrop are also familiar. Some manufacturers have introduced speciality ranges where the drop is made in thematic shapes, such as cars (autodrop), farm animals and farm machines, rys (boerderijdrop), etc.
Another popular Dutch sweet is the Stroopwafel ("stroop" meaning syrup). A thin wafer made typically in a pizelle pan is sliced horizontally and sandwiched with a light caramel syrup, the stroop. Occasionally crushed hazelnuts will be mixed with the stroop, and the wafers may be spiced with cinnamon.
Chocolate[sunting | sunting sumber]
In 1828, Coenraad Johannes van Houten developed the first cocoa powder producing machine in the Netherlands. When he returned to England, he brought the recipe with him, introducing milk chocolate to Europe. The powder, much like the instant cocoa powder used today, was easier to dissolve in milk and water, and led to another very important discovery: solid chocolate, and making powdered cocoa and cocoa butter. Van Houten also developed the so-called Dutch process of treating chocolate with alkali to remove the bitter taste. By using cocoa powder and low amounts of cocoa butter, bar chocolate was then possible to manufacture. Droste is today one of the main Dutch chocolate brands.
Alcoholic drinks[sunting | sunting sumber]
Wine plays only a modest role in Dutch cuisine, but there are many brands of beer (mainly lager) and strong alcoholic liquor. The most famous Dutch beer producers are Heineken in the west and Grolsch in the east. Traditionally Noord-Brabant and Limburg had a strong beer tradition, with many different types of beer (not unlike Belgium). However in the 20th century big brewers took over many of the small time breweries or offered them a license to sell their beer brand, while stopping their own production. Also a variety of bitters where Beerenburg is the most famous. Strong liquors include Jenever (gin) and Brandewijn (brandy), but also kandeel (made from white wine), Kraamanijs (a liquor made from aniseed), Oranjebitter (a type of orange brandy, which is served on festivities surrounding the royal family), advocaat, Boerenjongens, raisins in brandewijn, Boerenmeisjes, apricots in brandewijn.
Fast food[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Dutch have their own types of fast food. A Dutch fast-food meal often consists of a portion of french fries (called friet or patat) with a sauce and a meat product. The most common sauce to accompany French fries is mayonnaise, while others can be ketchup or spiced ketchup, peanut sauce or a pickle relish of chopped vegetables and spices, like piccalilli. Sometimes the French fries are served with a combinations of different sauces, most famously speciaal (special): mayonnaise with spiced ketchup and chopped onions; and oorlog (literally "war"): mayonnaise and peanut sauce with chopped onions.
A smaller version of the kroket, the bitterbal, is often served with mustard as a snack in bars and at official receptions. Regional snacks include eierbal (a combination of egg and ragout) in the North and East, and Brabants worstenbrood, a sausage baked in bread (similar to the English pigs in a blanket.
Other snacks are the Indonesian-inspired bamihap (deep-fried mee goreng in breadcrumbs), nasibal (deep-fried nasi goreng in breadcrumbs) and kaassouflé (cheese soufflé, or fried puff pastry dough with a small amount of cheese in the center). In Limburg French fries are sometimes ordered with the traditional Limburgian dish Zuurvlees, a type of sour meat (traditionally horse meat, now often cow meat), this is called frietje zuurvlees.
Another kind of fast food is fish. This includes raw herring, which is sold in markets and eaten (often with chopped onions and gherkin), by lifting the herring high in the air by its tail, and eating it upwards, or (less messily) on a bun. Other regular fish snack are Kibbeling (deep-fried nugget-sized chunks of cod), Lekkerbek (deep-fried cod, similar to the British Fish and chips), smoked eel, and rollmops.
Regional cuisines[sunting | sunting sumber]
Although the Dutch cuisine is quite unified at present, typical regional specialities still exist:
Groningen[sunting | sunting sumber]
Groningen is the northernmost province of the Netherlands and borders the Wadden Sea. In the coastal region, especially around the Lauwersmeer area, they use a lot of fish and shrimps. The village of Zoutkamp is the largest shrimp "producer" in Europe. Since, too, Groningen has a small colonial history, cloves are very common in the Groningan cuisine. Groningen meatballs, beef dishes and the typical metworst are all seasoned with cloves.
The greater part of Groningen is rural, which makes potatoes and meat the main food of the province. Even though potatoes are seen as the main food in the Netherlands, in Groningen meat is more prominent. Dishes without potatoes are more common than dishes without meat. Typical Groningan dishes use Groninger mosterd (Groningan Mustard) as stip (gravy). Groningan mustard can also be found in a regional mustard soup. Most common vegetables are beans, black beans, kale (Gronings: mous) and peas which are also included in the most famous Dutch soup with a Groningan variation, snert (pea soup).
Bakery is one of Groningen's specialities. The typical Groninger koek (Groningan cake) is known in the entire country. One of the most famous of the cakes is the oalwievenkouk (old lady's cake). Other famous dishes are poffert (the Groningan variation of Gugelhupf), spekdikken (rye pancakes with speck and metworst) and nijjoarsrollechies (rolls of the new year) which are sweet rolled cookies which are called kniepertjes and which also can be found in Drenthe and Overijssel. Groningen is also known for its rye bread (brood in Gronings; while regular (wheat) bread is called (waaite) stoede). Until the 19th century rye bread was the main food in the province.
The city of Groningen knows a speciality called mollebonen which are salted fried beans. In the late Middle Ages this was one of the Hanze specialities of the city and in the surrounding areas the citizens of Groningen had mollebonen as their nickname because they used the beans as voting materials in the council.
Groningen is also called land of jenever, which is the "national" beverage of the province.
Friesland[sunting | sunting sumber]
Just like Groningen, Friesland (or Fryslân) is a coastal province with a lot of rural areas. Potato dishes are most common, as well as fish being a coastal areas. The landscape of Friesland consists primarily of grass lands with grazing cows. The production of dairy products is one of the largest industries of Friesland. The dairy brand Friesche Vlag (English: Frisian Flag) is one of the most prominent dairy brands in the Netherlands. Beside milk, flan and yoghurt, cheese also has Frisian varieties, like nagelkaas, cheese seasoned with clove, sometimes including carraway.
Friesland and Groningen have once been one single region, which causes many resemblances between both provinces. One of these culinary resemblances are cakes. Goningen has its Groninger koek, Friesland has Friese kruidkoek (Frisian ginger cake) and the Friese fruitkoek (Frisian fruits cake) are the typical cakes of Friesland. Also oranjekoeke (orange cake), Fryske dúmkes (Frisian thumbs) and sûkerbôle (sugar bread) are quite famous in the entire country. Just like in Groningen, rye bread was the main food until the 19th century. Nowadays Frisian rye bread is seen as the regular rye bread. A popular snack in the north of the Netherlands is small pieces of rye bread with a piece of herring.
The most famous alcoholic drink of Friesland is Beerenburg. In Friesland there are 11 historical cities. Every city has its own alcoholic speciality. During the Elfstedentocht (journey of eleven cities), some people who skate from city to city want to obtain all of those alcoholic specialities when they are in the specific city.
Drenthe, Overijssel and Gelderland[sunting | sunting sumber]
The provinces Drenthe, Overijssel and Gelderland are part of the Saxon cultural area. Gelderland south of the Rhine, the Betuwe, does not belong to this area. The area is known for its agricultural character and ridges of hills like the Veluwe crossing the land. In these regions lamb is very popular. In the other areas beef and pork are the most used types of meat.
A typical type of dish from this part of the Netherlands is stamppot. This a mix of potatoes, a type of vegetable, for example kale (moos or moes) and a type of sausage, which is mostly eaten during winter time. Typical sausages from this area are rookworst (smoked sausage) and Drentse kosterworst. Stamppot became well known in the entire Netherlands, that some people see it as the national dish of the entire country.
The center of this area, called Salland, is known for the production of cold cut, such as ham and boterhamworst. In the east, a region called Twente, neagelhoolt is a speciality. This is specially seasoned and saltened (originally done to conserve it) beef which people hang next to a fire place to dry.
A speciality from the whole area is Zwieback, beschuit in Dutch and twiebak in Low Saxon. This is twice baked bread with a round or butterbrot shape. Also krentenbrood, breads or rolls with currants, are popular in this area, as well as Oberländer and Twentish rye bread.
North Holland, South Holland, Utrecht and Betuwe[sunting | sunting sumber]
The provinces of North Holland, South Holland, Utrecht and the Gelderlandic region of Betuwe are the parts of the Netherlands which regional identity has spread to become a stereotype of the whole Dutch cuisine. A reason for this could be that it is the central part of the country. This results in the fact that most foreigner see the regional products from this part of the country as typically Dutch, while the Dutch themselves see them as Hollandic. The central role of this area causes national acceptance of the products from this area.
The most famous product from Holland is the Hollandse nieuwe ("Hollandic new one" or "soused herring"), which is caught in the north of region. It is eaten with the hands while holding at the tail, above your mouth and eat it from the bottom to the tail. Usually small pieces of onions are served with it. The west and the south of the region also border the sea, which are famous of their mussels. The center and the east is known for its flat grass lands. Just like in Friesland, a lot of dairy products are made there, but the most famous products are the semi-hard cow milk cheeses. Among the most prominent cheeses are Gouda (from the region near the city of Gouda, and not to be confused with foreign copies), Leidse oplegger (spiced cheese with caramin, cumin or cloves), Edam (parafin coated small spheres) as well as more recent high quality cheeses such as Leerdammer and Beemster.
The Zaanstreek in North Holland is known for its mayonaise and mustard, while West Friesland, the region north of the Zaanstreek, is known for its Jodenkoek (Jewcookie). The Betuwe, the region around the large rivers in Gelderland, is known for its fruits and marmelades.
Zeeland[sunting | sunting sumber]
The name Zeeland (Dutch: Zeeland) means land of the sea, which explains the regional speciality: sea food. In the Netherlands, Zeeland is known for its mussels, eels, oysters and shrimps. Most restaurants in Zeeland serve freshly caught fish. Typical Zeelandic dishes in restaurants are filled lobster and mussel soup.
Popular vegetables in Zeeland are leeks and beans. Another popular vegetable was zeekraal until picking it was prohibited in the late 20th century as the wild plant and its habitat, the tidal marshes, came under legal protection. Zeekraal is now also grown commercially. Another wild plant which was very popular in Zeeland as a vegetable, is the lamsoor (literally "lam's ears" due to the shape of the leaves). It too became scarce as it also grows wild on the tidal marshlands.
The producer Zeeuws Meisje ("Zeelandic girl") is the most famous producer of butter products in the Netherlands. This is one of the specialities of the province. Other Zeelandic specialities are Zeelandic butter cookies (Zeêuwse rondjes), and the Zeêuwse bolus, a sweet bread covered with caramelised sugar and spices such as cinnamon. It actually originated from Jewish bakers of Portuguese descent who had settled on the islands of Zeeland.
North Brabant[sunting | sunting sumber]
North Brabant is the Dutch part of the medieval duchy of Brabant. The other part is Belgian. Both Dutch part and Belgian part still share their culture and cuisine. A typical Brabantian dish is Hachee, a stew of onions, beef and a thick gravy, usually served with potatoes or rice and red cabbage. Although hachee is a famous beef dish, pork is most used in Brabant. Brabant is famous for its breeding of pigs and the fields of corn. Leek is another popular vegetable in Brabant.
The most famous Brabantian bakery is the Bossche bol, a cakelike ball filled with cream and a coating of chocolate. It is a very popular pastery in cafes in the cities ('s-Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven, Breda, Tilburg).
The people from Brabant consider the Brabantian worstenbroodje (hotdog), a roll with a sausage of ground beef, as the typical Brabantian speciality. In the provincial capital of 's-Hertogenbosch every year there is a battle of who can make the best Brabants worstenbroodje.
Limburg[sunting | sunting sumber]
Limburg is a little different compared to the rest of the Dutch provinces. The landscape is hilly (while the rest of the Dutch landscape is cultivated and flat) and the Limburg language could be said to be a separate language rather than a dialect of Dutch. This different landscape provides the Limburgish cuisine with a lot of game meat, especially in the hunting season. The north of the province is quite flat and is the largest asparagus producing area of the Netherlands. In Limburg the asparagus is so popular in the spring season that it is also called queen of vegetables. Asparagus are traditionally eaten with ham, hard boiled eggs, boiled potatoes and sauce of molten butter.
The most famous dish from Limburg is vlaai, a large round pie, filled with marmalade. It is so characteristic for the province that the common name for vlaai is Limburgse vlaai.
Limburg also has many brands of beer. Some breweries in Limburg are Lindeboom, Brand, Gulpener, Christoffel, Leeuw, Hertog Jan and Alfa. Many of these breweries use water from the Meuse River, which flows through the entire length of the province.
Vegetarianism[sunting | sunting sumber]
Vegetarianism is fairly common in The Netherlands, with about 5 percent of the Dutch population not eating any meat or fish. Around 22 percent of the Dutch call themselves 'part-time vegetarians' and abstain from eating fish or meat a few days a week. As a result meat substitutes are popular, with an annual growth of around 25%. Veganism is uncommon in the Netherlands.
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Bir di Belanda
- Pasar keju Belanda
- Sos babi panggang - suatu hidangan gabungan Belanda/Indonesia/Cina
- Spekkoek - sebuah kuih Belanda/Indonesia
- Coleslaw - dari kata-kata Belanda "kool" (kubis) dan "sla" (sayur salad)
Footnotes[sunting | sunting sumber]
- WereldExpat: De rijke Hollandse dis
- Gastronomie: De Nederlandse keuken
- Friesian Sugar Bread
- Hester, Carla. “The Holland Ring-Dutch food and eating habits.” Thehollandring.com. 28 October 2008. <http://www.thehollandring.com/food.shtml>
- recipeland.com. 14 November 2008. http://recipes.recipeland.com/recipes/recipe/show/Farmers_Cabbage_with_Smoked_Sausage__Boerenkool_Met_Worst_689
- Carla Hester. "Dutch Food And Eating Habits". The Holland Ring. http://www.thehollandring.com/food.shtml. Capaian September 1, 2008.
- "Dutch Holiday Recipies on Dutchfood.About.Com". http://dutchfood.about.com/od/dutchholidayrecipes/a/Kerstfeest.htm. Capaian 1 February 2009.
- Habets, Joep. “Calvinistisch snoepen.” NRC Handelsblad. 3 March 2001. http://www.nrc.nl/W2/Lab/Magazine/artikelmaart2001.html
- "The Sloane Herbarium". The Natural History Museum. 2008. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/projects/sloane-herbarium/hanssloane.htm. Capaian 2008-06-27.
- "Wat is veganisme?". veganisme.org. Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme. http://www.veganisme.org/?over_veganisme. Capaian 2007-10-03. "Er zijn nu ongeveer 2,4 miljoen parttime vegetariërs en vleesverlaters, 300.000 vegetariërs en 16.000 veganisten in Nederland."
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- Eating the Dutch way
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- Food of the Dutch Photo-documentary by photographer Wim Klerkx, 2005-2007
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