Pertempuran Prokhorovka

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Pertempuran Prokhorovka
Sebahagian daripada Pertempuran Kursk di Barisan Barat
Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-022-2950-15A, Russland, Panzer im Einsatz.jpg
Panzer Jerman semasa Operasi Citadel.
Maklumat am
Tarikh
12 Julai 1943[lower-alpha 1]
Lokasi Prokhorovka, RSPS Rusia, Kesatuan Soviet
Koordinat 51°2′11″N 36°44′11″E / 51.03639°N 36.73639°E / 51.03639; 36.73639Koordinat: 51°2′11″N 36°44′11″E / 51.03639°N 36.73639°E / 51.03639; 36.73639
Hasil Kemenangan taktikal setempat Jerman[1][2][3][4]
Kebuntuan operasi atau kemenangan operasi Soviet[5][6][7][8]
Pihak yang berperang
Bendera Jerman Nazi Jerman Nazi  Soviet Union
Komander dan pemimpin
Unit yang terlibat
Kor II SS-Panzer Tentera Darat Ke-5 Kereta Kebal Pengawal[lower-alpha 2]

Tentera Darat Ke-5 Pengawal[lower-alpha 6]

Tentera Darat Pertama Kereta Kebal

Tentera Darat Ke-6 Pengawal[lower-alpha 8]

69

Kekuatan
Jerman:
Kira-kira 290 kereta kebal dan meriam serangan
Soviet:
Kira-kira 610 kereta kebal dan meriam gerak sendiri
Kerugian dan kehilangan
Jerman:
Soviet:
sunting
Lihat pendokumenan templat ini
Kereta kebal T-34 Soviet yang ditinggalkan di Prokhorovka

Pertempuran Prokhorovka telah berlaku pada 12 Julai 1943 berhampiran Prokhorovka, 87 kilometer (54 bt) dari tenggara Kursk, Soviet Union, semasa Perang Dunia Kedua. Bertempat di Barisan Timur, peperangan itu adalah sebahagian daripada Pertempuran Kursk yang lebih luas, dan berlaku apabila Tentera Darat Ke-5 Kereta Kebal Pengawal dari Tentera Merah Soviet menyerang Kor II SS-Panzer dari Wehrmacht Jerman dalam salah satu pertempuran kereta kebal terbesar dalam sejarah ketenteraan.[lower-alpha 9]

Pada April 1943, Markas Besar Jerman mula mempersiapkan Operasi Citadel, dengan tujuan untuk melitup dan memusnahkan tentera Soviet dalam unjuran Kursk. Markas Tertinggi Soviet, Stavka, mengetahui niat Jerman dan menyediakan garisan pertahanan yang berturut-turut disepanjang laluan penyerangan Jerman yang dirancang. Pihak Soviet juga mengumpulkan beberapa ketumbukan darat jauh kedalam di belakang pertahanan mereka sebagai simpanan. Kumpulan ini, iaitu Barisan Steppe, adalah untuk digunakan bagi melancarkan penyerangan balas mereka apabila kekuatan Jerman telah berkurangan. Tentera Darat Ke-5 Kereta Kebal Pengawal adalah formasi penyerangan utama Barisan Steppe. Pada 5 Julai 1943 pihak Jerman melancarkan penyerangan mereka. Di sebelah selatan unjuran tersebut, Tentera Darat Ke-4 Panzer Jerman, bersama Detasmen Ketumbukan Kempf di sebelah rusuk timurnya, menyerang pertahanan Barisan Voronezh Soviet.

Selepas seminggu penyerangan Jerman, pihak Soviet menyerangbalas. Di sebelah selatan unjuran tersebut yang berhampiran Prokhorovka, Tentera Darat Ke-5 Kereta Kebal Pengawal bertembung Kor II SS-Panzer dari Tentera Darat Ke-4 Panzer, menyebabkan satu pertempuran besar armor. Tentera Darat Ke-5 Kereta Kebal Pengawal telah musnah dalam serangan itu, tetapi berjaya menghalang Jerman daripada menawan Prokhorovka dan memecah masuk lingkaran pertahanan ketiga untuk mencapai kebebasan operasi. Penyerangan Jerman kemudian dibatalkan dan tentera mereka berundur. Tentera Merah meneruskan penyerangan besar dan merampas inisiatif strategik di Barisan Timur, yang mana ia pegang sepanjang peperangan.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Healy 2008, Excerpt reads: "The clash was, when set against the much wider strategic backdrop of the offensive, no more than a local, tactical German victory.".
  2. Clark 2012, Excerpt reads: "Even though II SS-Panzer Corps could claim to have won a tactical victory in the monumental armoured clash at Prokhorovka ... Hausser's men did not do enough to change the course of the operation.".
  3. Showalter 2013, Excerpt reads: "The Waffen-SS won a tactical victory on July 12.".
  4. Nipe 2012, Excerpt reads: "The small expansion of the Psel bridgehead by Totenkopf and the advances of Das Reich around the southern edges of Prochorovka were tactical victories at best and not decisive by any definition.".
  5. Showalter 2013, Excerpt reads: "Operationally, however, the palm rests with the Red Army.".
  6. Zamulin 2011, Excerpt from p. 553 reads: "The main task of a defender is to repulse an enemy attack... A decisive breakthrough is what von Manstein had planned for 12 July via a regrouping of his forces. The enemy [II SS-Panzer Corps] did not achieve this goal. Thus in sum, the forces of the Voronezh Front won the engagement at Prokhorovka, and then successfully completed the defensive operation, having created the conditions for a decisive counteroffensive." Excerpt from p. 561 reads: "The counterattack [at Prokhorovka] did not achieve its basic goal. The enemy [II SS-Panzer Corps] was not routed, but the further advance of the II SS-Panzer Corps beyond Prokhorovka was finally halted.".
  7. Healy 2008, Excerpt reads: "... the clash was, when set against the much wider strategic backdrop of the offensive, no more than a local, tactical German victory. It was of no consequence or significance in helping to realise any of the wider offensive objectives of Operation Zitadelle, which was in any case by this date already a failure.".
  8. Zetterling & Frankson 2000, Excerpt reads: "If we take a look at how the front lines changed during these five days one could interpret it as some sort of success for the Germans ... However, if we compare the outcome with the German orders for the battle, which stated that Prokhorovka was the target, it is clear that the Germans fell short of their goals. The Red Army had hoped to push the II SS-Panzer Corps back and crush it. This failed completely, but at least the 5th Guards Tank Army prevented the Germans from taking Prokhorovka.".

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bellamy, Chris. Absolute War; Soviet Russia in the Second World War. Pan Books. (2007). ISBN 978-0-330-48808-2
  • Bergström, Christer (2007). Kursk – The Air Battle: July 1943. Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-903223-88-8.
  • Cross, Robin. Citadel: The Battle of Kursk, Barnes & Noble Edition. (1998). ISBN 978-1-566195-81-2
  • Dunn, Walter (1997). Kursk: Hitler's Gamble, 1943. Greenwood Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0-275957-33-9.
  • Glantz, David M. & House, Jonathon. When Titans Clashed; How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. University of Kansas Press. (1995). ISBN 978-0700608990-7
  • Glantz, David M. Soviet Military Operational Art; Pursuit of Deep Battle. Frank Cass. (1991). ISBN 0-7146-4077-8
  • Healy, Mark. (1992). Kursk 1943: Tide Turns in the East. Osprey Publishers, London. ISBN 978-1-85532-211-0
  • Overy, Richard. Russia's War.Pengiun Books. (1997). ISBN 0-14-027169-4
  • Zetterling, Niklas and Anders Frankson. Kursk 1943: A Statistical Analysis, London: Frank Cass, (2000). ISBN 0-7146-5052-8

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Kursk Reconsidered: Germany's Lost Victory from Historynet.com.
  • Review of Kursk 1943: A Statistical Analysis with a detailed comparison with the statistics provided by Walter Dunn's "Kursk: Hitler's Gamble, 1943", George Nipe's "Decision in the Ukraine", "The Battle of Kursk" by David Glantz and Jonathan House, and "The Battle for Kursk, 1943" from the Soviet General Staff.
  • La Batalla de Prokhorovka from Panzertruppen.org
  • Олейников Г.А. Прохоровское сражение (июль 1943). — СПб.: Нестор, 1998., [1] a comprehensive analysis in Russian
  • Валерий Замулин. Прохоровка — неизвестное сражение великой войны. М.: АСТ: АСТ МОСКВА: ХРАНИТЕЛЬ, 2006 ISBN 5-17-039548-5 – total description of movement of Russian and Germany troops based on Russian and German archive documents with full statistic of Russian troops. In Russian.


Ralat petik: Tag <ref> untuk kumpulan "lower-alpha" ada tetapi tag <references group="lower-alpha"/> yang sepadan tidak disertakan