Pertempuran Crete

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Pertempuran Crete
Sebahagian daripada Kancah Mediterranean Perang Dunia II
Bundesarchiv Bild 141-0864, Kreta, Landung von Fallschirmjägern.jpg
Askar paracut Jerman (Fallschirmjäger) mendarat di Crete
Maklumat am
Tarikh 20 Mei – 1 Jun 1941 (11 hari)
Lokasi Crete, Greece
Hasil Kemenangan yang merugikan Kuasa Paksi[1][2][3]
Pihak yang berperang
 United Kingdom
 Greece
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Jerman Nazi
 Itali
Komander dan pemimpin
New Zealand Bernard Freyberg Jerman Nazi Kurt Student
Kekuatan
United Kingdom:
15,000
Greece:
11,451[4]
Australia:
7,100
New Zealand:
6,700
Jumlah:
40,000–61,800[5] (10,000 tanpa keupayaan tempur)[6]
Jerman:
14,000[petikan diperlukan] askar payung terjun
15,000[petikan diperlukan] askar gunung
280 pengebom
150 pengebom junam
180 pesawat pejuang
500 pesawat pengangkut
80 buah peluncur
Itali:
2,700
Kerugian dan kehilangan
4,123 terkorban
cedera tidak diketahui
17,479 ditawan.

4 kruiser dan 6 pembinasa tenggelam.
1 pengangkut pesawat, 2 kapal tempur, 4 kruiser, 2 pembinasa, 1 kapal selam rosak.

Jumlah: 6,698
284 pesawat Luftwaffe musnah atau ranap dan beratus lagi rosak.[7]
1 pembinasa Itali rosak
1 bot torpedo Itali rosak
sunting
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Pertempuran Crete Bahasa Jerman: Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, Bahasa Yunani: Μάχη της Κρήτης, juga dikenali Unternehmen Merkur (Operasi Mercury), telah berlaku di pulau Crete, Greece semasa Perang Dunia II. Ia bermula pada pagi 20 Mei 1941, apabila Jerman Nazi melancarkan serangan hantaran udara ke atas Crete. Tentera Greece dan tentera Bersekutu yang lain, berserta dengan penduduk awam Crete, mempertahankan pulau tersebut.[8] Selepas sehari pertempuran, pihak Jerman telah mengalami mangsa korban yang sangat banyak dan tentera Bersekutu yakin bahawa mereka mampu mengalahkan pencerobohan itu. Keesokkan harinya, kerana kegagalan komunikasi, taktikal Bersekutu yang teragak-agak dan operasi penyerangan Jerman, lapangan terbang Maleme di barat Crete jatuh, membolehkan pihak Jerman mendaratkan pasukan bantuan dan mengatasi posisi defensif di utara pulau tersebut. Tentera Bersekutu berundur ke pantai selatan. Lebih separuh telah dipindahkan oleh Tentera Laut Diraja; yang selebihnya menyerah diri atau menyertai Penentang Crete.

Pertempuran Crete adalah pertempuran pertama yang menggunakan Fallschirmjäger (Askar payung terjun Jerman) secara besar-besaran, pencerobohan besar hantaran udara pertama dalam sejarah ketenteraan, pertama kali pihak Bersekutu menjadikan signifikan penggunaan risikan dari penyahsulitan perutusan-perutusan Jerman dari Mesin Enigma dan kali pertama tentera Jerman mendapat tentangan besar-besaran daripada orang awam.[9] Oleh kerana kasualti tinggi yang dialami oleh pasukan payung terjun, Adolf Hitler melarang operasi besar hantaran udara yang seterusnya. Sebaliknya, pihak Bersekutu kagum dengan potensi pasukan payung terjun dan mula membentuk serangan airborne dan rejimen pertahanan lapangan terbang.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penentang[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Participants on the battle included David CokeRoald DahlRoy FarranBernard FreybergClive HulmeRobert LaycockPatrick Leigh FermorJohn PendleburyGeorge PsychoundakisMax SchmelingTheodore StephanidesEvelyn Waugh (battle portrayed in the novel Officers and Gentlemen, part of the Sword of Honour trilogy) • Lawrence DurrellCharles UphamGeoffrey CoxDan Davin (New Zealand Official Historian of the battle)

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Stephen, Martin (1988), Sea Battles in Close Up World War 2, Volume 2, Naval Institute Press, p. 53, ISBN 1-55750-758-9, One way of dealing with Malta would have been an airborne invasion but Hitler would not countenance such a thing, especially after the pyrrhic casualties of the Crete victory. 
  2. ^ Buell, Thomas; Greiss, Thomas (2002), The Second World War: Europe and the Mediterranean, Square One Publishers, p. 101, ISBN 0-7570-0160-2, The rank and file on both sides fought tenaciously on Crete, and in the end the Germans could claim only a pyrrhic victory. 
  3. ^ Wright, Robert; Greenwood, John (2007), Airborne forces at war, Naval Institute Press, p. 9, ISBN 1-59114-028-5, The seizure of Crete was a strategic but Pyrrhic victory for Germany that was brought at the price of future German airborne operations. 
  4. ^ (Greek) page 10, retrieved on 27.5.2010: 474 officers and 10,977 soldiers
  5. ^ Battle of Crete: Greece sacrificed much for the greater good
  6. ^ Long 1953, halaman 210.
  7. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, halaman 403
  8. ^ New Zealand History online
  9. ^ Maloney, Shane (July 2006). "Bogin, Hopit". The Monthly. 

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]


Templat:History of Crete Templat:Greece during World War II

Koordinat: 35°13′N 24°55′E / 35.217°N 24.917°E / 35.217; 24.917