Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.

Koordinat: 53°20′N 08°00′W / 53.333°N 8.000°W / 53.333; -8.000

the Emerald Isle,
the Island of Saints and Scholars
Satellite image of Ireland
Gambar imej angkasa, October 2010
LokasiNorthern Europe or Western Europe[1]
Kedudukan luas20th

Ireland (disebut [i.rĕ.land] atau [ˈaɪrlənd , air.lĕnd]; Ireland: Éire ˈeːɾʲə ; Bahasa Ulster-Scots: Airlann atau Airlan) ialah sebuah pulau di barat laut benua Eropah.

Secara politik, ia terbahagi kepada Republik Ireland dan Ireland Utara (sebahagian United Kingdom).

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Irish Travellers are an officially recognised ethnic group in Northern Ireland under the Race Relations (Northern Ireland) Order, 1997. In the Republic of Ireland they are classed as a "social group". Census forms in both jurisdictions contain tick-boxes for respondents to describes themselves as being an Irish Traveller. For more information see:
    • "Pack 2 – Traveller Culture". Traveller Legal Resource. Irish Traveller Movement. 2006. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2008-05-28. Dicapai pada 3 March 2010. no-break space character in |accessdate= at position 2 (bantuan); Check date values in: |accessdate= (bantuan)
    • "A Racial Equality Strategy for Northern Ireland 2005–2010" (PDF). Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister. 2005. Dicapai pada 3 March 2010.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency (USA). 27 November 2009. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2019-05-06. Dicapai pada 2010-01-01. no-break space character in |date= at position 3 (bantuan); Check date values in: |date= (bantuan)
  2. ^ "Historial Population Trends - 1841 - 2011, NISRA" (PDF). Diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 2013-10-10. Dicapai pada 2012-11-28.
  3. ^ Nolan, William. "Geography of Ireland". Government of Ireland. Dicapai pada 11 November 2009. no-break space character in |accessdate= at position 3 (bantuan); Check date values in: |accessdate= (bantuan)

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Arnold, Bruce (1977). Irish Art: A Concise History. London: Thames & Hudson. m/s. 180. ISBN 0-500-20148-X.
  • Becker, Annette (1997). 20th-century Architecture: Ireland. Munich: Prestel. m/s. 198. ISBN 3-7913-1719-9. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Collins, Neil (2001). Irish Politics Today. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. m/s. 163. ISBN 0-7190-6174-1. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Cullinane, J.P. (1973). Phycology of the south coast of Ireland. University College Cork.
  • Dennison, Gabriel (1994). Traditional Architecture in Ireland. Dublin: Environmental Institute, University College Dublin. m/s. 94. ISBN 1-898473-09-9. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Dooney, Sean (1992). Irish Government Today. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. m/s. 247. ISBN 0-7171-1703-0. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Ellis, Steven G. (1921). The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. Ireland: The Irish Publishing Co. m/s. 768. ISBN 0-517-06408-1.
  • Fairley, J.S. (1975). An Irish Beast Book. A Natural History of Ireland's Furred Wildlife. Blackstaff Press, Belfast. ISBN 0-85640-090-4.
  • Foster, Robert Fitzroy (1988). Modern Ireland, 1600–1972. Penguin Books. m/s. 688. ISBN 0-7139-9010-4.
  • Hackney, P. Ed. (1992). Stewart and Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland. Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University. ISBN 0-85389-446-9.
  • Haigh, A. (2007). "Wild mammals of an Irish urban forest". The Irish Naturalists' Journal. Belfast: I.N.J. Committee. 28 (10): 395–403. ISSN 0021-1311. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Hardy, F.G.; Guiry, M.D. (2006). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland (ed. revised). London: British Phycological Society, available from Koeltz Books, Germany. m/s. x + 435. ISBN 3-906166-35-X.
  • Herm, Gerhard (2002). The Celts. Ireland: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-31343-8.
  • Knowles, M.C. (1929). "The Lichens of Ireland". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 38: 179–434.
  • Morton, O. (1994). Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Ulster Museum. ISBN 0-900761-28-8.
  • Morton, O. (2003). "The marine algae macroalgae of County Donegal, Ireland". Bulletin Irish biogeog. Society. 27: 3–164.
  • Nunn, J.D. (2002). Marine Biodiversity in Ireland and Adjacent Waters. Proceedings of a Conference 26–27 April 2001 (ed. Publication no. 8). Belfast: Ulster Museum.
  • O'Croinin, Daibhi (2005). Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. m/s. 1219. ISBN 0-19-821737-4.
  • Ó Gráda, Cormac (1997). A Rocky Road: The Irish Economy Since the 1920s. Manchester University Press. m/s. 246. ISBN 0-7190-4584-3.
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story. New York: Carroll & Graf. m/s. 534. ISBN 0-7867-1890-0.
  • O'Rahilly, T. F. (1947). Early Irish History and Mythology. US: Medieval Academy of America.
  • Scannell, Mary J.P. (1972). Census catalogue of the flora of Ireland. Dublin: Department of Agriculture & Fisheries. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Seaward, M.R.D. (1984). "Census Catalogue of Irish Lichens". Glasra. 8: 1–32.
  • Woodcock, N.H. (2000). Geological History of Britain and Ireland. Hoboken, New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing. m/s. 423. ISBN 0-632-03656-7. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan); External link in |publisher= (bantuan)
  • Wallis, Geoff (2001). The Rough Guide to Irish Music. Rough Guides. m/s. 599. ISBN 1-85828-642-5. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)

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