Perang Soviet–Jepun

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Perang Soviet-Jepun
Sebahagian daripada Kancah Pasifik Perang Dunia II
US-Soviet sailors on VJ Day.jpg
Kelasi AS dan laskar Soviet meraikan bersama pada Hari VJ
Tarikh9 Ogos – 3 September 1945
(3 minggu dan 3 hari)
Lokasi
Keputusan Kemenangan Soviet dan Mongolia
Perubahan
wilayah
Pengilhakan Sakhalin Selatan dan Kepulauan Kuril oleh KRSS
Pihak yang terlibat
 Kesatuan Soviet
Flag of the Mongolian People's Republic (1945–1992).svg Mongolia

 Empayar Jepun

Komandan dan pemimpin
Unit terlibat

Kesatuan Soviet Barisan Transbaikal

Kesatuan Soviet Barisan Pertama Timur Jauh

Kesatuan Soviet Barisan Kedua Timur Jauh

Empayar Jepun Tentera Kwangtung

Empayar Jepun Tentera Darat Wilayah Ke-5

Manchukuo Tentera Darat Imperial Manchukuo
Templat:Country data Mengjiang Tentera Nasional Mengjiang
Kekuatan
Soviet Union:
  • 1,577,225 askar[3]
  • 26,137 artileri
  • 1,852 sup. artileri
  • 5,556 kereta kebal dan artileri gerak sendiri
  • 5,368 pesawat
Mongolia:
  • 16,000 askar
Jepun:
  • ~1,092,400 askar[4][a]
  • 2,012 pesawat (635 kombat)[5]
[b] Manchukuo:
  • 200,000 askar[6]
Mengjiang:
Kerugian dan korban
  • 9,780 terkorban
  • 911 hilang
  • 1,340 kematian bukan-combat (kemalangan/penyakit)
  • 24,425 kehilangan sanitari, termasuk
  • 19,562 cedera
  • 4,863 sakit
  • 36,456 kehilangan semua sekali
  • dari 30,253 kehilangan kombat[7][8]
Sumber Jepun:
  • 22,300-23,600 terbunuh
  • ~40,000 cedera[9]

Dakwaan Soviet:
  • 83,737 terbunuh
  • 20,000 cedera (Manchuria sahaja)
  • < 41,199 ditangkap (19 Ogos)[10][c][11]
  • 640,000 ditangkap dan dilucut senjata (total)

Perang Soviet–Jepun (Bahasa Rusia: Советско-японская война; Bahasa Jepun: ソ連対日参戦, translit. soren tai nichi sansen, lit. 'Soviet Union memasuki perang menentang Jepun'), dikenali di Mongolia sebagai Perang Pembebasan 1945 (Bahasa Mongolia: 1945 оны чөлөөлөх дайн) adalah konflik ketenteraan dalam Perang Dunia II bermula sejurus tengah malam pada 9 Ogos 1945, dengan pencerobohan Soviet terhadap negara boneka Manchukuo Jepun. Pihak Soviet dan Mongolia mengakhiri penguasaan Jepun ke atas Manchukuo, Mengjiang (Mongolia Dalam), utara Korea, Karafuto, dan Kepulauan Chishima (Kepulauan Kuril). Kekalahan Tentera Kwantung Jepun membawa kepada penyerahan kalah Jepun dan penamatan Perang Dunia II.[12][13] Penyertaan Soviet ke dalam perang merupakan faktor penting dalam kerajaan Jepun membuat keputusan untuk menyerah kalah tanpa syarat, kerana jelas menunjukkan bahawa Soviet Union tidak bersedia untuk bertindak sebagai pihak ketiga dalam merundingkan penghentian peperangan pada terma bersyarat.[1][2][14][15][16][17][18][19]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ According to statistics compiled in 1964 by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare's Relief Bureau, by 22 August 1945 there were 665,500 military personnel remaining in Manchuria, 335,900 in Korea, and 91,000 in Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and the Aleutian Islands. These numbers do not appear to factor in casualties incurred during the Soviet-Japanese War, because the total for Army personnel in Manchuria, 664,000, almost exactly corresponds to the total given in JM-155 for the Kwantung Army minus the 34th Army in Korea, 663,625.
  2. ^ There were an additional 8 Japanese aircraft involved in the Battle of Shumshu.
  3. ^ 41,199 is the listed total of Japanese soldiers in Soviet custody on 19 August, two days after the surrender of the Kwantung Army by order of Hirohito and four days after Hirohito announced the surrender of Japan. Post-war, 594,000 to 609,000 Japanese soldiers ended up in Soviet custody.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c LTC David M. Glantz, "August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria". Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, Fort Leavenworth Kansas.
  2. ^ a b "Battlefield Manchuria – The Forgotten Victory", Battlefield (U.S. TV series), 2001, 98 minutes.
  3. ^ a b Glantz, David M. & House, Jonathan (1995), When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0899-0, p. 378
  4. ^ Australia-Japan Research Project: Dispositions and Deaths, Retrieved 4/23/2021
  5. ^ Final Report, Demobilization and Disarmament of the Japanese Armed Forces, 30 December 1946 Part IV, Inclosure no. 51. Retrieved 4/23/2021
  6. ^ Jowett, m/s. 53.
  7. ^ Glantz, David M. & House, Jonathan (1995), When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, ISBN 0-7006-0899-0, p. 300
  8. ^ G. F. Krivosheev, ed., "Russia and the USSR in twentieth century wars: A statistical survey". Moscow: Olma-press, 2001, page 309.
  9. ^ JM-154 p. 69, JM-155 pp.266-267. According to page 69 of JM-154, First Area Army suffered approximately 40,000 total battle casualties, of whom 14,508 were killed in action (JM-155 pp.266-67). Applying this proportion (~36.25%) to the total of 21,389 KIAs suffered by the Kwantung Army in Manchuria and 700 to 2,000 deaths on Sakhalin, plus 190 dead and 400 wounded on Shumshu Island gives an approximate total of 40,000 WIAs for the entire campaign.
  10. ^ Cherevko, Kirill Evgen'evich (2003). Serp i Molot protiv Samurayskogo Mecha. Moscow: Veche. ISBN 5-94538-328-7. Page 41.
  11. ^ Coox, Alvin D. (1990) [1985]. Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. m/s. 1176. ISBN 9780804718356. Dicapai pada 9 February 2017.
  12. ^ The Associated Press (8 August 2005). "A Soviet Push Helped Force Japan to Surrender". The Moscow Times. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 12 December 2013.
  13. ^ Lekic, Slobodan (22 August 2010). "How the Soviets helped Allies defeat Japan". San Francisco Chronicle.
  14. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Hayashi tidak disediakan
  15. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Drea tidak disediakan
  16. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Butow tidak disediakan
  17. ^ Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire, Penguin, 2001 ISBN 978-0-14-100146-3. (Extracts on-line)
  18. ^ Robert James Maddox, Hiroshima in History: The Myths of Revisionism, University of Missouri Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8262-1732-5.
  19. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Hasegawa2006 tidak disediakan

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Despres, J, Dzirkals, L, et al. (1976). Timely Lessons of History : The Manchurian Model for Soviet Strategy. Santa Monica, RAND: 103. (available on-line)
  • Duara, P. (2006). The New Imperialism and the Post-Colonial Developmental State: Manchukuo in comparative perspective. Japan Focus.
  • Garthoff, R L. (1966). Soviet Military Policy : A Historical Analysis. London, Faber and Faber.
  • Garthoff, R L. (1969). The Soviet Manchurian Campaign, August 1945. Military Affairs XXXIII(Oct 1969): 312–336.
  • Glantz, David M. (1983a). August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria, Leavenworth Paper No.7, Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, February 1983.
  • Glantz, David M. (1983b). August Storm: Soviet Tactical and Operational Combat in Manchuria, 1945, Leavenworth Paper No.8, Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, June 1983.
  • Glantz, David M. (1995) The Soviet Invasion of Japan. Quarterly Journal of Military History, vol. 7, no. 3, Spring 1995.
  • Glantz, David M. (2003). The Soviet Strategic Offensive in Manchuria, 1945 (Cass Series on Soviet (Russian) Military Experience, 7). Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5279-2.
  • Gordin, Michael D. (2005). Five Days in August: How World War II Became a Nuclear War. (Extracts on-line)
  • Hallman, A L. (1995). Battlefield Operational Functions and the Soviet Campaign against Japan in 1945. Quantico, Virginia, United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College. (available on-line)
  • Hasegawa, T. (Ed.) (2007). The End of the Pacific War. (Extracts on-line)
  • Ishiwatari, H, Mizumachi, K, et al. (1946) No.77 – Japanese Preparations for Operations in Manchuria (prior to 1943). Tokyo, Military History Section, Headquarters, Army Forces Far East, US Army.
  • Jowett, Phillip (2005). Rays of the Rising Sun: Japan's Asian Allies 1931–45 Volume 1: China and Manchukuo. Helion and Company Ltd. ISBN 1-874622-21-3.
  • Phillips, S. (2004). The Sino-Japanese War, 1937–1945 : The Military Struggle – Research Guide and Bibliography. Towson University. available on-line
  • USMCU CSC (1986). The Soviet Army Offensive : Manchuria, 1945. (US Marine Corps University, Command and Staff College – available on-line)
  • Walg, A. J. (March–April 1997). "Wings over the Steppe: Aerial Warfare in Mongolia 1930–1945, Part Three". Air Enthusiast. No. 68. m/s. 70–73. ISSN 0143-5450.

Monograf Jepun[sunting | sunting sumber]

The "Japanese Monographs" and the "Japanese Studies on Manchuria" – The 187 Japan Monographs are a series of operational histories written by former officers of the Japanese army and navy under the direction of General Headquarters of the U.S. Far East Command.

  • Monographs of particular relevance to Manchuria are:
  • List of the 13 Studies on Manchuria
    • Vol. I Japanese Operational Planning against the USSR (1932–1945)
    • Vol. II Imperial Japanese Army in Manchuria (1894–1945) Historical Summary
    • Vol. III STRATEGIC STUDY ON MANCHURIA MILITARY TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOGRAPHY Terrain Study
    • Vol. IV AIR OPERATIONS (1931–1945) Plans and Preparations
    • Vol. V INFANTRY OPERATIONS
    • Vol. VI ARMOR OPERATIONS
    • Vol. VII SUPPORTING ARMS AND SERVICES
    • Vol. VIII LOGISTICS IN MANCHURIA
    • Vol. IX CLIMATIC FACTORS
    • Vol. X Japanese Intelligence Planning against the USSR (1934–1941)
    • Vol. XI Small Wars and Border Problems
    • Vol. XII Anti-Bandit Operation (1931–1941)
    • Vol. XIII Study of Strategic and Tactical peculiarities of Far Eastern Russia and Soviet Eastern Forces (1931–1945)

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]