Penyerbuan Bersekutu ke atas Sicily

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Kempen Sicily
Sebahagian daripada Kempen Itali dalam Perang Dunia II
Map operation husky landing.jpg
Peta pendaratan tentera amfibia Bersekutu di Sicily, 10 Julai 1943, sebagai sebahagian daripada Operasi Husky.
Tarikh 9 Julai – 17 Ogos 1943
Lokasi Sicily, Itali
Hasil Kemenangan Bersekutu
Pihak yang terlibat
Pihak Bersekutu:
 United Kingdom
 Amerika Syarikat
 Kanada
Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Perancis Bebas[1]
Kuasa Paksi:
 Itali
 Jerman Nazi
Komandan
Amerika Syarikat Dwight D. Eisenhower
United Kingdom Harold Alexander
United Kingdom Bernard Montgomery
Amerika Syarikat George S. Patton
United Kingdom Arthur Tedder
United Kingdom Andrew Cunningham
Flag of Italy (1946–2003).svg Alfredo Guzzoni
Flag of Italy (1946–2003).svgRodolfo Graziani
Jerman Nazi Albert Kesselring
Jerman Nazi Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin
Jerman Nazi Hans-Valentin Hube
Kekuatan
Awal kekuatan:
160,000 anggota
14,000 kenderaan
600 kereta kebal
1,800 meriam[2]
Puncak kekuatan:
467,000 anggota[3]
252,000 anggota Itali[4][5]
40,000–60,000 anggota Jerman [3][6]
260 kereta kebal
1,400 pesawat[7]
Korban
United KingdomKanada United Kingdom dan Kanada:[8]
2,721 terkorban
7,939 cedera
2,183 hilang

Amerika Syarikat Amerika Syarikat:[8]
2,811 terbunuh
6,471 cedera
686 hilang

Flag of Italy (1946–2003).svg Itali:[9]
4,678 terbunuh
32,500 cedera
152,933 hilang/POW

Jerman Nazi Jerman:[9]
4,325 terbunuh
13,500 cedera
10,106 hilang/POW

Penyerbuan Bersekutu ke atas Sicily, nama kod Operasi Husky, adalah sebuah kempen besar Perang Dunia II, yang mana pihak Bersekutu menawan pulau Sicily daripada kuasa Paksi (Itali dan Nazi Jerman). Ia bermula dengan operasi amfibia dan airborne yang besar, diikuti oleh kempen darat selama enam minggu, dan memulakan Kempen Itali.

Husky bermula pada malam 9/10 Julai 1943, dan berakhir pada 17 Ogos. Secara strategiknya, Husky mencapai sasaran yang ditetapkan oleh para perancang Bersekutu; pihak Sekutu menghalau angkatan udara, darat dan laut Paksi daripada pulau itu dan jalan laut Mediterranean telah dibuka untuk kapal-kapal dagang Sekutu buat pertama kalinya sejak tahun 1941. Pemimpin Itali, Benito Mussolini, telah digulingkan dari tampuk kuasa di Itali dan laluan dibuka untuk penyerbuan Bersekutu ke atas Itali. Pemimpin Jerman, Adolf Hitler, "membatalkan satu ofensif besar di Kursk hanya selepas seminggu, sebahagiannya untuk mengalihkan bala tentera ke Itali," mengakibatkan kekuatan Jerman berkurangan di Barisan Timur.[10]

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  1. ^ Gaujac, p. 68
  2. ^ Mitcham & von Stauffenberg (2007), p. 63
  3. ^ a b Mitcham & von Stauffenberg (2007), p. 307
  4. ^ Le Operazioni in Sicilia e in Calabria (Luglio-Settembre 1943), Alberto Santoni, p.400, Stato maggiore dell'Esercito, Ufficio storico, 1989
  5. ^ Including Navy and Air Force personnel.
  6. ^ Shaw, p.119
  7. ^ Dickson(2001) p. 201
  8. ^ a b Hart, Basil H. Liddel (1970). A History of the Second World War. London, Weidenfeld Nicolson. m/s. 627. 
  9. ^ a b Ufficio storico dello Stato Maggiore dell'Esercito (USSME) (1993). Le operazioni in Sicilia e in Calabria. Rome. m/s. 400–401. 
  10. ^ Atkinson 2007, halaman 172

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Atkinson, Rick (2007), The Day of Battle, The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943–1944, The Liberation Trilogy, II, New York: Henry Holt, ISBN 978-0-8050-6289-2 
  • Bimberg, Edward L. (1999), The Moroccan Goums, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, ISBN 0-313-30913-2 
  • Birtle, Andrew J. (1993), Sicily 1943, The U.S. Army WWII Campaigns, Washington: United States Army Center of Military History, ISBN 0-16-042081-4, CMH Pub 72-16 
  • Brown, Shaun R. G. (1984). The Loyal Edmonton Regiment at war, 1943–1945 (M.A.). Waterloo, Ont: Wilfrid Laurier University. OCLC 827992837. 
  • Carver, Field Marshal Lord (2001), The Imperial War Museum Book of the War in Italy 1943–1945, London: Sidgwick & Jackson, ISBN 0-330-48230-0 
  • Copp, Terry; McGreer, Eric; Symes, Matt (2008), The Canadian Battlefields in Italy: Sicily and Southern Italy, Waterloo: Laurier Centre for Military, Strategic and Disarmament Studies 
  • Costanzo, Ezio (2003), Sicilia 1943: breve storia dello sbarco alleato (dalam bahasa Italian), Catania, Italy: Le Nove Muse, ISBN 88-87820-21-X 
  • D'Este, Carlo (2008), Bitter Victory: The Battle for Sicily 1943, London: Arum Press, ISBN 978-1-84513-329-0 
  • Dickson, Keith (2001), World War II for Dummies, New York City, ISBN 9780764553523 
  • Ferguson, Gregor; Lyles, Kevin (1984), The Paras 1940–1984: British airborne forces 1940–1984, Oxford: Osprey, ISBN 0-85045-573-1 
  • Follain, John (2005), Mussolini's Island: The Invasion of Sicily Through The Eyes Of Those Who Witnessed The Campaign, London: Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0-34083-362-9 
  • Grigg, John (1982), 1943: The Victory that Never Was, London: Kensington, ISBN 0-8217-1596-8 
  • Hinsley, F. H. (1994) [1993], British Intelligence in the Second World War. Its influence on Strategy and Operations (abridged edition), History of the Second World War (edisi 2nd rev.), London: HMSO, ISBN 0-11-630961-X 
  • Holland, James (2004), Fortress Malta: An Island Under Siege, 1940–1943, London: Phoenix, ISBN 978-0-30436-654-5 
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  • Zuehlke, Mark (2010), Operation Husky: the Canadian invasion of Sicily, July 10 – August 7, 1943, Douglas & McIntyre, ISBN 1-55365-539-7 

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