Akihito

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Akihito
Emperor Akihito cropped 2 Barack Obama Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko 20140424 1.jpg
Maharaja Jepun
Pemerintahan 7 Januari 1989 – kini
Kemahkotaan 12 November 1990
Diikuti oleh Putera Mahkota Naruhito
Pasangan Maharani Michiko
Anakanda Putera Mahkota Naruhito
Puteri Akishino
Puteri Nori
Nama penuh
Akihito (明仁)
Kerabat Kerabat diraja Jepun
Ayahanda Shōwa
Bonda Kōjun
Agama Shinto
Tandatangan Tandatangan Akihito


Maharaja Akihito (bahasa Jepun: 明仁), (diputerakan 23 Disember 1933) merupakan Maharaja Jepun pada masa ini dan juga merupakan Maharaja Jepun yang ke-125 mengikuti tradisi urutan pewarisan Jepun. Maharaja Akihito mewarisi paduka ayahandanya Maharaja Showa (Hirohito) dan naik ke Takhta Bunga Kekwa pada 7 Januari 1989. Sudah ada berlakunya liputan mengenai kemungkinan untuk baginda turun takhta disebabkan masalah umur dan kesihatan; 31 Disember 2018 dan 1 Januari 2019 telah disebut sebagai antara tarikh baginda turun takhta.[1]

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Maharaja Akihito diputerakan di Istana Maharaja Tokyo, Tokyo, Jepun dan merupakan paduka putera sulung dan juga paduka anakanda yang kelima kepada Maharaja Showa (Hirohito) dan Maharani Kojun (Nagako). Bergelar Tsugo no miya ( (継宮); Putera Tsugo) semasa kanak-kanak, baginda dibesarkan dan diajar oleh guru persendirian dan kemudian menghadiri Sekolah Rendah Lelaki "Boy's Elementary" dan Jabatan Menengah "Secondary Departments" ketika itu, Peers' School (Gakushuin selepas 1947), 1940-52. Baginda dipisahkan dari ahli kaum kerabat baginda pada usia tiga tahun.

Ketika pengeboman ke atas bandar Tokyo oleh pihak Amerika pada bulan Mac 1945, baginda serta saudara mudanya, Putera Masahito (sekarang Putera Hitachi), dipindahkan dari Tokyo. Ketika pendudukan Amerika selepas Perang Dunia II, Putera Mahkota Akihito diajar dalam Bahasa Inggeris oleh Elizabeth Gray Vining. Putera Mahkota Akihito menuntut sebentar di Jabatan Sains Politik di Universiti Gakushuin di Tokyo tetapi tidak menerima ijazah. Walaupun baginda merupakan putera mahkota kepada Takhta Bunga Kekwa dari 23 Disember 1933, perlantikan rasmi sebagai Putera Mahkota (Rittaishi no Rei) hanya berlansung pada 10 November 1951 di Istana Diraja.

Pada bulan Jun 1953, Putera Mahkota Akihito mewakili Jepun di upacara pertabalan Ratu Elizabeth II dari United Kingdom. Pada 10 April 1959, baginda berkahwin dengan Michiko (lahir 24 Oktober 1934), anak perempuan sulung Shoda Hidesaburo, presiden dan pengerusi kehormat Kilang Pengisar Tepung Nisshin. Perkahwinan tersebut memecahkan tradisi diraja kerana Shoda Michiko merupakan orang awam pertama yang berkahwin dengan kerabat diraja. Putera Mahkota Akihito menaiki takhta selepas kemangkatan paduka ayahandanya pada 7 Januari 1989 dan secara rasmi menjadi maharaja Jepun yang ke-125 pada 12 November 1990.

Semenjak menaiki takhta, baginda berusaha untuk mendekati keluarga Maharaja dengan penduduk Jepun. Baginda dan Maharani telah berkenan membuat lawatan rasmi mencemar duli ke 18 negara, termasuk juga 47 wilayah (prefectures) di Jepun. Maharaja Akihito dan Maharani Michiko mempunyai tiga paduka anakanda: Putera Mahkota Naruhito (diputerakan 23 Februari 1960), Puteri Akishino (Fumihito, diputerakan 11 November 1965) dan Puteri Sayako (gelaran, Nori no miya, atau Puteri Nori, diputerakan 18 April 1969). Era pemerintahan Akihito digelar era "Heisei".

Terasul, gelaran, kurniaan dan lambang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gelaran hormat bagi
Maharaja Akihito
Jata Empayar
Gaya panggilan Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia[2]
Gaya pertuturan Kebawah Duli Tuanku
Gaya pilihan Seri Paduka Baginda[3]

Terasul dan gelaran[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • 23 Disember 1933 – 10 November 1952: Yang Teramat Mulia Putera Tsugu
  • 10 November 1952 – 7 Januari 1989: Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Putera Mahkota
  • 7 January 1989 – kini: Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia (Seri Paduka Baginda) Maharaja

Jikalau penurunan takhta berlangsung seperti yang dijangkakan, gelaran Maharaja Akihito akan jadi "Daijō Tennō", atau "Jōkō" secara ringkas.

Kurniaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kurniaan kebangsaan
Kurniaan asing
Negara Anugerah
 Afghanistan Order of the Sun (Afghanistan) - ribbon bar.gif Order of the Supreme Sun
 Austria AUT Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria - 1st Class BAR.png Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria, Grand Star [4]
 Bahrain Wisam al-Khalifa 1st class.gif Order of al-Khalifa, Collar
 Belgium Grand Crest Ordre de Leopold.png Order of Leopold, Grand Cordon
 Botswana PresidentialOrder.Botswana-ribbon.gif Presidential Order
 Brazil BRA Order of the Southern Cross - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the Southern Cross, Grand Collar
 Kemboja KHM Ordre Royal du Cambodge - Chevalier BAR.png Royal Order of Cambodia, Grand Cross
 Cameroon Order of Valour.svg Order of Valour, Grand Cordon
 Chile CHL Order of Merit of Chile - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the Merit of Chile, Grand Collar
 Colombia Order of Boyacá - Extraordinary Grand Cross (Colombia) - ribbon bar.png Order of Boyaca, Grand Collar
 Côte d'Ivoire Cote d'Ivoire Ordre national GC ribbon.svg National Order of the Ivory Coast, Grand Cordon
 Republik Czech CZE Rad Bileho Lva 3 tridy BAR.svg Order of the White Lion, 1st Class (Civil Division) with Collar Chain
 Denmark Orderelefant ribbon.png Order of the Elephant (8 Ogos 1953)[5]
 Mesir EGY Order of the Nile - Grand Cordon BAR.png Order of the Nile, Grand Collar
 Estonia EST Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana - 1st Class BAR.png Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, The Collar of the Cross[6]
 Habsyah ETH Order of Solomon BAR.png Order of Solomon, Grand Collar
 Finland FIN Order of the White Rose Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the White Rose, Grand Cross with Collar
 Perancis Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg Légion d'honneur, Grand Cross
 Gambia Ord.Gambia-ribbon.gif Order of the Republic of the Gambia, Grand Commander
 Jerman GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 9 Sond des Grosskreuzes.svg Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Grand Cross, Special Class
 Greece GRE Order Redeemer 1Class.png Order of the Redeemer, Grand Cross
 Hungary HUN Order of Merit of the Hungarian Rep 1class Collar BAR.svg Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary, Grand Cross with Chain
 Iceland ISL Icelandic Order of the Falcon - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the Falcon, Grand Cross with Collar
 Indonesia Bintang Republik Indonesia Adipurna Ribbon Bar.gif Bintang Republik Indonesia Adipurna, Darjah Pertama
 Ireland Decoration without ribbon - en.svg Freedom of the City of Dublin, awarded by Lord Mayor of Dublin
 Itali Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR.svg Order of Merit of the Republic, Grand Cross with Cordon
 Jordan JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR.svg Order of al-Hussein bin Ali, Collar
 Kazakhstan Ord.GoldenEagle-ribbon.gif Order of the Golden Eagle
 Kenya Order of the Golden Heart of Kenya.svg Order of the Golden Heart
 Kuwait Order of Mubarak the Great (Kuwait) - ribbon bar.gif Order of Mubarak the Great, Collar
 Latvia LVA Order of the Three Stars - Commander BAR.png Order of the Three Stars, Commander Grand Cross with Chain[7]
 Liberia Order of the Star of Africa (Liberia) - ribbon bar.png Order of the Star of Africa, Knight Grand Band
Order of the Pioneers of Liberia - ribbon bar.png Order of the Pioneers of Liberia, Grand Cordon
 Lithuania LTU Order of Vytautas the Great with the Golden Chain BAR.png Order of Vytautas the Great, the Great Grand Cross with Collar[8]
 Luxembourg Huisorde van de Gouden Leeuw van Nassau Ribbon.gif Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau, Knight
 Malawi Ord.LionMalawi.gif Order of the Lion, Grand Commander
 Malaysia MY Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (Crown of the Realm) - DMN.svg Penerima kehormat Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara
 Mali MLI National Order - Grand Cross BAR.png National Order of Mali, Grand Cordon
 Mexico MEX Order of the Aztec Eagle 1Class BAR.png Order of the Aztec Eagle, Grand Collar
 Maghribi Decoration without ribbon - en.svg Order of Muhammad, Grand Collar
   Nepal Ord.Rajanya.Nepal-Ribbon.gif Order of Ojaswi Rajanya, Member (19 April 1960)[9]
King Birendra Investiture Medal 1975.png King Birendra Coronation Medal (24 February 1975)[10]
 Belanda NLD Order of the Dutch Lion - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the Netherlands Lion, Knight Grand Cross[11]
 Nigeria Order of the Federal Republic (civil) - Nigeria - ribbon bar.gif Order of the Federal Republic, Grand Commander
 Norway Order Sint Olaf 1 kl.png Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, Grand Cross with Collar[12]
 Oman The Order of Oman.gif Order of Oman, Superior Class
 Pakistan Ord.Nishan-i-Pakistan.ribbon.gif Nishan-e-Pakistan, 1st Class
 Panama PAN Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero, Gold Collar
 Peru PER Order of the Sun of Peru - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the Sun, Grand Cross in Brilliants
 Filipina PHL Legion of Honor - Chief Commander BAR.png Philippine Legion of Honor, Chief Commander[13]
PHL Order of Sikatuna - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of Sikatuna, Rank of Raja[14]
PHL Order of Lakandula.png Order of Lakandula, Grand Collar
 Poland POL Order Orła Białego BAR.svg Order of the White Eagle
 Portugal PRT Order of Saint James of the Sword - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of Saint James of the Sword, Grand Collar (2 December 1993)
PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of Prince Henry, Grand Collar (12 May 1998)[15]
 Qatar Order of Independence (Qatar) - ribbon bar.gif Collar of Independence
 Arab Saudi Decoration without ribbon - en.svg Badr Chain
 Senegal SEN Order of the Lion - Grand Cross BAR.png Order of the Lion, Collar
 Afrika Selatan Ord.GoodHope-ribbon.gif Order of Good Hope, Grand Cross in Gold (4 July 1995)[16]
 Sepanyol Order of the Golden Fleece Rib.gif Order of the Golden Fleece, Knight[17]
ESP Charles III Order GC.svg Order of Charles III, Grand Cross
Order of Charles III - Sash of Collar.svg Order of Charles III, Collar
 Sweden Seraphimerorden ribbon.svg Royal Order of the Seraphim, Knight with Collar[18]
 Thailand Order of the Rajamitrabhorn (Thailand) ribbon.png The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
Order of the Royal House of Chakri (Thailand) ribbon.png The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri
King Rama IX 60th Accession to the Throne (Thailand) ribbon.PNG Commemorative Medal on the Occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Accession to the Throne of H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej
 Ukraine Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise 1st 2nd and 3rd Class of Ukraine.png Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise, First Class
 Emiriah Arab Bersatu Order of the Union. Sash ribbon or First Class.gif Collar of the Federation
 United Kingdom Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png Stranger Knight of Order of the Garter (985th member; 1998)
Royal Victorian Order Honorary Ribbon.png Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (1953)
UK Queen EII Coronation Medal ribbon.svg Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal (2 June 1953)
 FR Yugoslavia* Order of the Yugoslavian Great Star Rib.png Order of the Yugoslav Star
 Zaire* National Order of the Leopard (Zaire) - ribbon bar.png National Order of the Leopard, Grand Cordon
  • FR Yugoslavia berpisah menjadi Serbia dan Montenegro.
  • Zaire kini dikenali sebagai Republik Demokratik Congo
Anugerah lain

Lambang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Panji diraja maharaja

Keturunan[sunting | sunting sumber]

[20]

Keturunan nasab ayahanda[sunting | sunting sumber]


Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ (Inggeris)"Emperor Akihito: Japan considers moves to allow 2018 abdication - reports". BBC News. 11 Januari 2017. Dicapai 15 Jun 2017. 
  2. ^ Rujuk: "Maharaja dan Maharani Jepun tandatangani Buku Ucapan Tahniah". Pelita Brunei. 4 Oktober 2017. Dicapai 4 Mac 2018. 
  3. ^ Rujuk: "Catatan oleh H.E. Dr Makio Miyagawa, Duta Luar Biasa Berkuasa Penuh Jepun, Pada Resepsi Hari Lahir Seri Paduka Baginda Maharaja". Kedutaan Jepun di Malaysia. 4 Disember 2014. Dicapai 4 Mac 2018. 
  4. ^ "Bundeskanzler Anfragebeantwortung" [Reply to a parliamentary question about the Decoration of Honour] (PDF) (dalam bahasa German). m/s. 1298. Dicapai 27 January 2017. 
  5. ^ Persondetaljer - Hans Kejserlige Højhed Akihito Diarkibkan 29 May 2012 di Wayback Machine.. borger.dk.
  6. ^ "Akihito". Bearers of decorations. president. Dicapai 18 January 2011. 
  7. ^ Presidency, table of recipients of the Order of the Three Stars since 2004.
  8. ^ Decree 1K-974
  9. ^ Omsa.org
  10. ^ Embassy of Japan in Nepal
  11. ^ Volkskrant, State visit of Netherlands in Japan, 1991, Group Photo
  12. ^ The Royal Forums, State visit of Japan in Norway, May 2005, Photo
  13. ^ OPS.gov.ph Diarkibkan 17 August 2008 di Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Gov.ph Diarkibkan 13 October 2016 di Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ "Cidadãos Estrangeiros Agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas" (dalam bahasa Portugis). presidencia.pt. Dicapai 6 January 2011. 
  16. ^ Sahistory
  17. ^ "Noblesse et Royautés" Diarkibkan 28 January 2016 di Wayback Machine. (French), State visit of Spain in Japan, November 2008
  18. ^ Getty Images, State visit of Sweden in Japan, 03/2007, Group photo
  19. ^ reinanzaka-sc.o.oo7.jp/kiroku/documents/20140523-3-kiji-list.pdf
  20. ^ "Ancestry in Genealogics.org". [pautan putus]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Akihito
Tarikh keputeraan: 23 Disember 1933
Gelaran pemerintah
Didahului oleh
Shōwa
(Hirohito)
Maharaja Jepun
1989–kini
Pemegang jawatan kini
Waris:
Naruhito
Susunan keutamaan di Jepun
Gelaran Baru Gentlemen
sebagai raja
Diikuti oleh:
Putera Mahkota

Templat:Monarchs of Japan Templat:Current sovereigns Templat:Japanese princes Templat:Members of the Order of the Garter Templat:List of Current Heads of State of G20