Operasi Barbarossa

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Operasi Barbarossa (Bahasa Jerman: Unternehmen Barbarossa) merupakan nama kod bagi Nazi Jerman dan penjajahan Kuasa Paksi ke atas Kesatuan Soviet semasa Perang Dunia II yang bermula pada 22 Jun 1941.[1] [2] Ia merupakan operasi tentera terbesar dalam sejarah dunia. Lebih 5.5 juta tentera dari kuasa Paksi menjajah Soviet di sepanjang perbatasan 1,800 batu. [3] Operasi ini dinamakan sempena Maharaja Frederick Barbarossa dari Empayar Suci Rom, ketua Salibi pada abad ke-12. Barbarossa merupakan sebahagian utama perang di Perbatasan Timur Perang Dunia II. Perancangan bagi operasi Barbarossa memakan masa beberapa tahun sebelum Jun 1941; persedian rahsia dan operasi tentera itu sendiri memakan masa hampir setahun, dari musim bunga 1941, sehingga musim sejuk 1942. Kegagalan operasi Barbarossa menyebabkan Hitler menuntut operasi tambahan di Rusia, hampir kesemuanya akhirnya gagal, seperti meneruskan Pengepungan Leningrad.[4][5], Operasi Nordlicht, dan Pertempuran Stalingrad, antara pertempuran lain di kawasan jajahan Russia. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Matlamat operasi bagi Operasi Barbarossa merupakan penaklukan pantas bahagian Eropah dari Soviet, arah barat bagi garisan yang menyambungkan bandar Arkhangelsk dan Astrakhan, sering kali dirujuk sebagai garis A-A oleh sumber Jerman. Pada pengakhirannya pada Disember 1941, Tentera Merah telah mematahkan serangan terhebat Wehrmacht. Hitler gagal mencapai kemenangan yang diinginkannya, tetapi keadaan bagi Soviet kekal kritikal. Secara taktikal, pihak Jerman mencapai kemenangan besar dan menduduki sebahagian besar kawasan ekonomi paling penting negara itu, terutamanya di Ukraine.[13] Disebalik kejayaan ini, tentera Jerman diundurkan dari Moscow dan tidak lagi mampu membuat serangan serentak di sepanjang perbatasan strategik Soviet-Jerman.[14]

Kegagalan Operasi Barbarossa akhirnya menyebabkan kekalahan kepada Nazi Jerman dan dianggap titik perubahan bagi Reich Ketiga. Operasi Barbarossa membuka Perbatasan Timur, yang akhirnya menjadi medan perang terbesar dalam sejarah manusia. Operasi Barbarossa dan kawasan yang dirangkuminya menjati tapak pertempuran paling besar dan dashyat, keganasan peling berdarah, kehilangan jiwa yang besar dan keadaan teruk bagi kedua-dua Soviet dan Jerman - kesemuanya mempengaruhi arah kedua-dua Perang Dunia II dan sejarah abad ke 20.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Higgins, Trumbull (1966). Hitler and Russia. The Macmillan Company. m/s. pp. 11 - 59, 98 -151. 
  2. Bryan I. Fugate. Operation Barbarossa. Strategy and tactics on the Eastern Front, 1941. Novato: Presidio Press, 1984.
  3. World War II Chronicle, 2007. Legacy/ Publications International, Ltd. Page 146.
  4. Simonov, Konstantin (1979). "Records of talks with Georgi Zhukov, 1965–1966". Hrono. http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/197_dok/1979zhukov2.html. 
  5. Life and Death in Besieged Leningrad, 1941–44 (Studies in Russian and Eastern European History), edited by John Barber and Andrei Dzeniskevich. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4039-0142-2).
  6. The siege of Leningrad. By Alan Wykes. Ballantines Illustrated History of WWII, 3rd edition, 1972. Pages 9-61.
  7. Scorched Earth. (pages 205 - 240) By Paul Carell. Schiffer Military History, 1994. ISBN 0-88740-598-3
  8. Finland in the Second World War. Between Germany and Russia. Palgrave. 2002. (pp. 90 - 141)
  9. Military-Topographic Directorate, maps No. 194, 196, Officer's Atlas. General Staff USSR. 1947. Атлас Офицера. Генеральный штаб вооруженных сил ССР. М., Военно-топографическоее управление,- 1947. Листы 194, 196
  10. Russia's War: A History of the Soviet Effort: 1941-1945 ISBN 0-14-027169-4 by Richard Overy Page 91
  11. The World War II. Desk Reference. Eisenhower Center Director Douglas Brinkley. Editor Mickael E. Haskey. Grand Central Press, Stonesong Press, HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-052651-3. Page 210.
  12. Siege of Leningrad. Encyclopedia Britannica. [1]
  13. A.J.P Taylor & Colonel D.M Proektor, p106
  14. A.J.P Taylor & Colonel D.M Proektor,p107

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

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