Pertempuran Perancis

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Pertempuran Perancis
Sebahagian daripada Barisan Barat Perang Dunia Kedua
Kolaj Pertempuran Perancis
Arah ikut jam dari atas kiri:Kereta kebal Panzer IV Jerman melintasi sebuah bandar Perancis; Tentera Jerman berkawad di hadapan Arc de Triomphe selepas menawan Paris, 14 Jun 1940; Kolum kereta kebal Renault R35 Perancis di Sedan, Ardennes; Tawanan perang British dan Perancis di Veules-les-Roses; Tentera Perancis berbaris di dalam kubu Barisan Maginot.
Tarikh 10 May – 25 June 1940 (1 bulan, dan 15 hari)
Lokasi France, Negeri-Negeri Pamah
Hasil Kemenangan muktamad Kuasa Paksi
Kejatuhan Republik Ketiga Perancis
Yang berperang
Allies:
Flag of France.svg France
 United Kingdom
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Canada
Poland Poland
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
 Luxembourg
Axis:
 Germany
Itali Italy (from 10 June)
Komander dan pemimpin
Perancis Maurice Gamelin (until 17 May)
Perancis Alphonse Georges (until 17 May)
Perancis Maxime Weygand (from 17 May)
United Kingdom Lord Gort
Belgium Leopold III
Belanda Henri Winkelman
Poland Władysław Sikorski
Czechoslovakia Sergej Ingr
Jerman Nazi Gerd von Rundstedt
Jerman Nazi Heinz Guderian
Jerman Nazi Fedor von Bock
Jerman Nazi Wilhelm von Leeb
Itali H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia
Unit yang terlibat
Perancis 1st Army Group

Perancis 2nd Army Group

Perancis 3rd Army Group

Jerman Nazi Army Group B

Jerman Nazi Army Group A

Jerman Nazi Army Group C

Kekuatan
Allies: 144 divisions[1]
13,974 guns[1]
3,383 tanks[1]
2,935 aircraft[2]
3,300,000 troops[petikan diperlukan]
Alps on 20 June
~150,000 French
Germany: 141 divisions[1]
7,378 guns[1]
2,445 tanks[1]
5,638 aircraft[3][4]
3,350,000 troops
Alps on 20 June
300,000 Italians
Kerugian
360,000 dead or wounded,
1,900,000 captured
2,233 aircraft[5]

Total: 2,260,000 casualties
Germany: 157,621 casualties[nb 1]
1,236[6]-1,345[10] aircraft destroyed
323[6]-488 aircraft damaged[10]
795 tanks destroyed[11]
Italy: 6,029[nb 2]


Total: 163,650 casualties

Dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, Pertempuran Perancis, juga dikenali sebagai Kejatuhan Perancis, merupakan serangan Jerman terhadap Perancis dan Negeri-Negeri Pamah, bermula 10 Mei 1940. Dalam serangan ini, angkatan Jerman menewaskan lawan yang sebahagian besarnya angkatan tentera Perancis. Pertempuran terbahagi kepada dua bahagian. Dalam operasi pertama, Fall Gelb (Kes Kuning) unit-unit armor Jerman menembusi Ardennes bagi memotong dan mengepung ketumbukan Kuasa Bersekutu yang telah mara memasuki Belgium. Apabila pasukan British dan tentera Perancis yang bersebelahannya ditolak ke laut oleh angkatan Jerman yang bergerak pantas dan amat teratur, kerajaan British mengambil keputusan memindah saki-baki Pasukan Ekspedisi British (British Expeditionary Force, BEF) dan beberapa divisyen Perancis dari Dunkirk dalam sebuah operasi yang diberi nama kod Operasi Dynamo.

Selepas evakuasi tentera British, dan dengan Perancis terkontang-kanting dan bersendirian dalam pertahanannya, pihak Jerman melancarkan operasi kedua, Fall Rot (Kes Merah), yang berakhir pada 5 Jun. Pihak Perancis yang sudah susut kekuatannya, memberi tentangan hebat pada fasa awal operasi Jerman namun, kekuatan udara Jerman menangani kedudukan artileri Perancis sedikit demi sedikit. Angkatan Jerman bergerak melintasi rusuk Barisan Maginot dan menerobos wilayah Perancis sementara pertahanan Perancis mula roboh. Angkatan Jerman tiba di Paris yang tidak dipertahankan Perancis pada 14 Jun dan panglima mereka bertemu pegawai kerajaan Perancis yang ingin bekerja sama dengan Jerman. Pegawai Perancis terulung ialah Marsyal Philippe Petain yang, berlawanan dengan kehendak ramai orang Perancis, mengumumkan bahawa beliau akan mendapatkan gencatan senjata.

Pada 22 Jun, sebuah gencatan senjata dimeterai antara Perancis dan Jerman, yang berkesudahan dengan pembahagian Perancis dalam mana Jerman menjajah wilayah utara dan barat, Itali menjajah sebuah wilayah kecil di tenggara, dan sebuah zon yang tidak dijajah, dikenali sebagai zon libre atau Perancis Vichy, ditadbir kerajaan Perancis baharu pimpinan Marsyal Petain. Perancis kekal di bawah takluk Paksi sehinggalah negara itu dibebaskan selepas Pendaratan Normandy pada tahun 1944.

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Maier and Falla 1991, p. 279.
  2. Hooton 2007, p. 47-48: Hooton uses the National Archives in London for RAF records. Including "Air 24/679 Operational Record Book: The RAF in France 1939–1940", "Air 22/32 Air Ministry Daily Strength Returns", "Air 24/21 Advanced Air Striking Force Operations Record" and "Air 24/507 Fighter Command Operations Record". For the Armee de l'Air Hooton uses "Service Historique de Armee de l'Air (SHAA), Vincennes".
  3. Hooton 2007, pp. 47-48: Hooton uses the Bundesarchiv, Militärarchiv in Freiburg.
  4. Luftwaffe strength included gliders and transports used in the assaults on the Netherlands and Belgium.
  5. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Hooton_2007.2C_p._90 tidak disediakan
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Frieser (1995), p. 400
  7. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Autopsie_d_p._59 tidak disediakan
  8. Shepperd (1990), p. 88
  9. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Hooton_2010.2C_p._73 tidak disediakan
  10. 10.0 10.1 Murray 1983, p. 40.
  11. Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Healy_2007.2C_p._85 tidak disediakan

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