Anugerah Akademi untuk Pengarah Terbaik

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Anugerah Akademi untuk Pengarah Terbaik
Guillermo del Toro in 2017.jpg
Pemenang terkini: Guillermo del Toro
Penghargaan "Pencapaian kecemerlangan dalam arahan sinematik"
Negara Amerika Syarikat
Disampaikan oleh AMPAS
Anugerah pertama 1929 (untuk arahan dalam filem dikeluarkan semasa musim filem 1927/1928)
Kini dipegang oleh Guillermo del Toro
The Shape of Water (2017)
Laman web rasmi oscars.org

Anugerah Akademi untuk Pengarah Terbaik (secara rasmi dikenali sebagai Anugerah Akademi untuk Arahan Terbaik) ialah sebuah anugerah dipersembahkan setiap tahun oleh Akademi Sains dan Seni Perfileman (AMPAS). Ia diberi sebagai penghormatan kepada pengarah filem yang telah menunjukkan arahan luar biasa semasa bekerja dalam industri perfileman. Anugerah Akademi Pertama diadakan pada tahun 1929 dimana anugerah itu dibahagikan kepada kategori Dramatik dan Komedi; Frank Borzage dan Lewis Milestone menang menerusi Seventh Heaven dan Two Arabian Knights.[1] Walau bagaimanapun, kategori-kategori ini digabungkan untuk kesemua majlis susulan.[2]

Untuk sebelas tahun pertama Anugerah Akademi, pengarah-pengarah dibenarkan untuk dicalonkan lebih daripada satu filem dalam tahun yang sama. Walau bagaimanapun, selepas Michael Curtiz dicalonkan untuk dua filem, Angels with Dirty Faces dan Four Daughters di Anugerah Akademi ke-11, peraturan telah disemak semula supaya individu hanya boleh dicalonkan untuk satu filem pada setiap majlis.[3] Peraturan ini sejak itu telah dipinda tetapi satu-satunya pengarah yang menerima lebih daripada satu pencalonan pada tahun yang sama adalah Steven Soderbergh untuk Erin Brockovich dan Traffic pada tahun 2000.

Sejak penubuhannnya, anugerah ini telah diberikan kepada 69 pengarah atau pasukan pengarah. John Ford memenangi anugerah terbanyak dalam kategori ini dengan empat anugerah. William Wyler telah dicalonkan sebanyak dua belas kali, lebih banyak dari mana-mana individu lain. Setakat majlis anugerah tahun 2018, Guillermo del Toro adalah pemenang terbaru dalam kategori ini untuk kerjayanya di dalam filem The Shape of Water.

Calon dan pemenang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Award winner Menunjukkan pemenang
Tahun Pengarah Filem Ref.
1927/28
(ke-1)
Frank Borzage (Dramatik)Award winner 7th Heaven [4]
Herbert Brenon Sorrell and Son
King Vidor The Crowd
Lewis Milestone (Komedi)Award winner Two Arabian Knights
Ted Wilde Speedy
1928/1929
(ke-2)
Frank LloydAward winner The Divine Lady [5]
Lionel Barrymore Madame X
Harry Beaumont The Broadway Melody
Irving Cummings In Old Arizona
Frank Lloyd Drag
Weary River
Ernst Lubitsch The Patriot
1929/1930
(ke-3)
Lewis MilestoneAward winner All Quiet on the Western Front [6]
Clarence Brown Anna Christie
Romance
Robert Z. Leonard The Divorcee
Ernst Lubitsch The Love Parade
King Vidor Hallelujah
1930/1931
(ke-4)
Norman TaurogAward winner Skippy [7]
Clarence Brown A Free Soul
Lewis Milestone The Front Page
Wesley Ruggles Cimmaron
Josef von Sternberg Morocco
1931/1932
(ke-5)
Frank BorzageAward winner Bad Girl [8]
King Vidor The Champ
Josef von Sternberg Shanghai Express
1932/1933
(ke-6)
Frank LloydAward winner Cavalcade [9]
Frank Capra Lady for a Day
George Cukor Little Women
1934
(ke-7)
Frank CapraAward winner It Happened One Night [10]
Victor Schertzinger One Night of Love
W. S. Van Dyke The Thin Man
1935
(ke-8)
John FordAward winner The Informer [11]
Henry Hathaway The Lives of a Bengal Lancer
Frank Lloyd Mutiny on the Bounty
1936
(ke-9)
Frank CapraAward winner Mr. Deeds Goes to Town [12]
Gregory La Cava My Man Godfrey
Robert Z. Leonard The Great Ziegfeld
W. S. Van Dyke San Francisco
William Wyler Dodsworth
1937
(ke-10)
Leo McCarey The Awful Truth [13]
William Dieterle The Life of Emile Zola
Sidney Franklin The Good Earth
Gregory La Cava Stage Door
William A. Wellman A Star Is Born
1938
(ke-11)
Frank CapraAward winner You Can't Take It with You [14]
Michael Curtiz Angels with Dirty Faces
Four Daughters
Norman Taurog Boys Town
King Vidor The Citadel
1939
(ke-12)
Victor FlemingAward winner Gone with the Wind [15]
Frank Capra Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
John Ford Stagecoach
Sam Wood Goodbye, Mr. Chips
William Wyler Wuthering Heights
1940
(ke-13)
John FordAward winner The Grapes of Wrath [16]
George Cukor The Philadelphia Story
Alfred Hitchcock Rebecca
Sam Wood Kitty Foyle
William Wyler The Letter
1941
(ke-14)
John FordAward winner How Green Was My Valley [17]
Alexander Hall Here Comes Mr. Jordan
Howard Hawks Sergeant York
Orson Welles Citizen Kane
William Wyler The Little Foxes
1942
(ke-15)
William WylerAward winner Mrs. Miniver [18]
Michael Curtiz Yankee Doodle Dandy
John Farrow Wake Island
Mervyn LeRoy Random Harvest
Sam Wood Kings Row
1943
(ke-16)
Michael CurtizAward winner Casablanca [19]
Clarence Brown The Human Comedy
Henry King The Song of Bernadette
Ernst Lubitsch Heaven Can Wait
George Stevens The More the Merrier
1944
(ke-17)
Leo McCareyAward winner Going My Way [20]
Alfred Hitchcock Lifeboat
Henry King Wilson
Otto Preminger Laura
Billy Wilder Double Indemnity
1945
(ke-18)
Billy WilderAward winner The Lost Weekend [21]
Clarence Brown National Velvet
Alfred Hitchcock Spellbound
Leo McCarey The Bells of St. Mary's
Jean Renoir The Southerner
1946
(ke-19)
William WylerAward winner The Best Years of Our Lives [22]
Clarence Brown The Yearling
Frank Capra It's a Wonderful Life
David Lean Brief Encounter
Robert Siodmak The Killers
1947
(ke-20)
Elia KazanAward winner Gentleman's Agreement [23]
George Cukor A Double Life
Edward Dmytryk Crossfire
Henry Koster The Bishop's Wife
David Lean Great Expectations
1948
(ke-21)
John HustonAward winner The Treasure of the Sierra Madre [24]
Anatole Litvak The Snake Pit
Jean Negulesco Johnny Belinda
Laurence Olivier Hamlet
Fred Zinnemann The Search
1949
(ke-22)
Joseph L. MankiewiczAward winner A Letter to Three Wives [25]
Carol Reed The Fallen Idol
Robert Rossen All the King's Men
William A. Wellman Battleground
William Wyler The Heiress
1950
(ke-23)
Joseph L. MankiewiczAward winner All About Eve [26]
George Cukor Born Yesterday
John Huston The Asphalt Jungle
Carol Reed The Third Man
Billy Wilder Sunset Boulevard
1951
(ke-24)
George StevensAward winner A Place in the Sun [27]
John Huston The African Queen
Elia Kazan A Streetcar Named Desire
Vincente Minnelli An American in Paris
William Wyler Detective Story
1952
(ke-25)
John FordAward winner The Quiet Man [28]
Cecil B. DeMille The Greatest Show on Earth
John Huston Moulin Rouge
Joseph L. Mankiewicz 5 Fingers
Fred Zinnemann High Noon
1953
(ke-26)
Fred ZinnemannAward winner From Here to Eternity [29]
George Stevens Shane
Charles Walters Lili
Billy Wilder Stalag 17
William Wyler Roman Holiday
1954
(ke-27)
Elia KazanAward winner On the Waterfront [30]
Alfred Hitchcock Rear Window
George Seaton The Country Girl
William A. Wellman The High and the Mighty
Billy Wilder Sabrina
1955
(ke-28)
Delbert MannAward winner Marty [31]
Elia Kazan East of Eden
David Lean Summertime
Joshua Logan Picnic
John Sturges Bad Day at Black Rock
1956
(ke-29)
George StevensAward winner Giant [32]
Michael Anderson Around the World in 80 Days
Walter Lang The King and I
King Vidor War and Peace
William Wyler Friendly Persuasion
1957
(ke-30)
David LeanAward winner The Bridge on the River Kwai [33]
Joshua Logan Sayonara
Sidney Lumet 12 Angry Men
Mark Robson Peyton Place
Billy Wilder Witness for the Prosecution
1958
(ke-31)
Vincente MinnelliAward winner Gigi [34]
Richard Brooks Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
Stanley Kramer The Defiant Ones
Mark Robson The Inn of the Sixth Happiness
Robert Wise I Want to Live!
1959
(ke-32)
William WylerAward winner Ben-Hur [35]
Jack Clayton Room at the Top
George Stevens The Diary of Anne Frank
Billy Wilder Some Like It Hot
Fred Zinnemann The Nun's Story
1960
(ke-33)
Billy WilderAward winner The Apartment [36]
Jack Cardiff Sons and Lovers
Jules Dassin Never on Sunday
Alfred Hitchcock Psycho
Fred Zinnemann The Sundowners
1961
(ke-34)
Robert WiseAward winner
Jerome RobbinsAward winner
West Side Story [37]
Federico Fellini La Dolce Vita
Stanley Kramer Judgment at Nuremberg
Robert Rossen The Hustler
J. Lee Thompson The Guns of Navarone
1962
(ke-35)
David LeanAward winner Lawrence of Arabia [38]
Pietro Germi Divorce, Italian Style
Robert Mulligan To Kill a Mockingbird
Arthur Penn The Miracle Worker
Frank Perry David and Lisa
1963
(ke-36)
Tony RichardsonAward winner Tom Jones [39]
Federico Fellini
Elia Kazan America, America
Otto Preminger The Cardinal
Martin Ritt Hud
1964
(ke-37)
George CukorAward winner My Fair Lady [40]
Michael Cacoyannis Zorba the Greek
Peter Glenville Becket
Stanley Kubrick Dr. Strangelove
Robert Stevenson Mary Poppins
1965
(ke-38)
Robert WiseAward winner The Sound of Music [41]
David Lean Doctor Zhivago
John Schlesinger Darling
Hiroshi Teshigahara The Woman in the Dunes
William Wyler The Collector
1966
(ke-39)
Fred ZinnemannAward winner A Man for All Seasons [42]
Michelangelo Antonioni Blowup
Richard Brooks The Professionals
Claude Lelouch A Man and a Woman
Mike Nichols Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
1967
(ke-40)
Mike NicholsAward winner The Graduate [43]
Richard Brooks In Cold Blood
Norman Jewison In the Heat of the Night
Stanley Kramer Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
Arthur Penn Bonnie and Clyde
1968
(ke-41)
Carol ReedAward winner Oliver! [44]
Anthony Harvey The Lion in Winter
Stanley Kubrick 2001: A Space Odyssey
Gillo Pontecorvo The Battle of Algiers
Franco Zeffirelli Romeo and Juliet
1969
(ke-42)
John SchlesingerAward winner Midnight Cowboy [45]
Costa Gavras Z
George Roy Hill Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid
Arthur Penn Alice's Restaurant
Sydney Pollack They Shoot Horses, Don't They?
1970
(ke-43)
Franklin J. SchaffnerAward winner Patton [46]
Robert Altman M*A*S*H
Federico Fellini Fellini Satyricon
Arthur Hiller Love Story
Ken Russell Women in Love
1971
(ke-44)
William FriedkinAward winner The French Connection [47]
Peter Bogdanovich The Last Picture Show
Norman Jewison Fiddler on the Roof
Stanley Kubrick A Clockwork Orange
John Schlesinger Sunday Bloody Sunday
1972
(ke-45)
Bob FosseAward winner Cabaret [48]
John Boorman Deliverance
Francis Ford Coppola The Godfather
Joseph L. Mankiewicz Sleuth
Jan Troell The Emigrants
1973
(ke-46)
George Roy HillAward winner The Sting [49]
Ingmar Bergman Cries and Whispers
Bernardo Bertolucci Last Tango in Paris
William Friedkin The Exorcist
George Lucas American Graffiti
1974
(ke-47)
Francis Ford CoppolaAward winner The Godfather Part II [50]
John Cassavetes A Woman Under the Influence
Bob Fosse Lenny
Roman Polanski Chinatown
François Truffaut Day for Night
1975
(ke-48)
Miloš FormanAward winner One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest [51]
Robert Altman Nashville
Federico Fellini Amarcord
Stanley Kubrick Barry Lyndon
Sidney Lumet Dog Day Afternoon
1976
(ke-49)
John G. AvildsenAward winner Rocky [52]
Ingmar Bergman Face to Face
Sidney Lumet Network
Alan J. Pakula All the President's Men
Lina Wertmüller Seven Beauties
1977
(ke-50)
Woody AllenAward winner Annie Hall [53]
George Lucas Star Wars
Herbert Ross The Turning Point
Steven Spielberg Close Encounters of the Third Kind
Fred Zinnemann Julia
1978
(ke-51)
Michael CiminoAward winner The Deer Hunter [54]
Woody Allen Interiors
Hal Ashby Coming Home
Warren Beatty
Buck Henry
Heaven Can Wait
Alan Parker Midnight Express
1979
(ke-52)
Robert BentonAward winner Kramer vs. Kramer [55]
Francis Ford Coppola Apocalypse Now
Bob Fosse All That Jazz
Édouard Molinaro La Cage aux Folles
Peter Yates Breaking Away
1980
(ke-53)
Robert RedfordAward winner Ordinary People [56]
David Lynch The Elephant Man
Roman Polanski Tess
Richard Rush The Stunt Man
Martin Scorsese Raging Bull
1981
(ke-54)
Warren BeattyAward winner Reds [57]
Hugh Hudson Chariots of Fire
Louis Malle Atlantic City
Mark Rydell On Golden Pond
Steven Spielberg Raiders of the Lost Ark
1982
(ke-55)
Richard AttenboroughAward winner Gandhi [58]
Sidney Lumet The Verdict
Wolfgang Petersen Das Boot
Sydney Pollack Tootsie
Steven Spielberg E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
1983
(ke-56)
James L. BrooksAward winner Terms of Endearment [59]
Bruce Beresford Tender Mercies
Ingmar Bergman Fanny and Alexander
Mike Nichols Silkwood
Peter Yates The Dresser
1984
(ke-57)
Miloš FormanAward winner Amadeus [60]
Woody Allen Broadway Danny Rose
Robert Benton Places in the Heart
Roland Joffé The Killing Fields
David Lean A Passage to India
1985
(ke-58)
Sydney PollackAward winner Out of Africa [61]
Héctor Babenco Kiss of the Spider Woman
John Huston Prizzi's Honor
Akira Kurosawa Ran
Peter Weir Witness
1986
(ke-59)
Oliver StoneAward winner Platoon [62]
Woody Allen Hannah and Her Sisters
James Ivory A Room with a View
Roland Joffé The Mission
David Lynch Blue Velvet
1987
(ke-60)
Bernardo BertolucciAward winner The Last Emperor [63]
John Boorman Hope and Glory
Lasse Hallström My Life as a Dog
Norman Jewison Moonstruck
Adrian Lyne Fatal Attraction
1988
(ke-61)
Barry LevinsonAward winner Rain Man [64]
Charles Crichton A Fish Called Wanda
Mike Nichols Working Girl
Alan Parker Mississippi Burning
Martin Scorsese The Last Temptation of Christ
1989
(ke-62)
Oliver StoneAward winner Born on the Fourth of July [65]
Woody Allen Crimes and Misdemeanors
Kenneth Branagh Henry V
Jim Sheridan My Left Foot
Peter Weir Dead Poets Society
1990
(ke-63)
Kevin CostnerAward winner Dances with Wolves [66]
Francis Ford Coppola The Godfather Part III
Stephen Frears The Grifters
Barbet Schroeder Reversal of Fortune
Martin Scorsese Goodfellas
1991
(ke-64)
Jonathan DemmeAward winner The Silence of the Lambs [67]
Barry Levinson Bugsy
Ridley Scott Thelma & Louise
John Singleton Boyz n the Hood
Oliver Stone JFK
1992
(ke-65)
Clint EastwoodAward winner Unforgiven [68]
Robert Altman The Player
Martin Brest Scent of a Woman
James Ivory Howards End
Neil Jordan The Crying Game
1993
(ke-66)
Steven SpielbergAward winner Schindler's List [69]
Robert Altman Short Cuts
Jane Campion The Piano
James Ivory The Remains of the Day
Jim Sheridan In the Name of the Father
1994
(ke-67)
Robert ZemeckisAward winner Forrest Gump [70]
Woody Allen Bullets over Broadway
Krzysztof Kieślowski Three Colors: Red
Robert Redford Quiz Show
Quentin Tarantino Pulp Fiction
1995
(ke-68)
Mel GibsonAward winner Braveheart [71]
Mike Figgis Leaving Las Vegas
Chris Noonan Babe
Michael Radford Il Postino: The Postman
Tim Robbins Dean Man Walking
1996
(ke-69)
Anthony MinghellaAward winner The English Patient [72]
Joel Coen Fargo
Miloš Forman The People vs. Larry Flynt
Scott Hicks Shine
Mike Leigh Secrets & Lies
1997
(ke-70)
James CameronAward winner Titanic [73]
Peter Cattaneo The Full Monty
Atom Egoyan The Sweet Hereafter
Curtis Hanson L.A. Confidential
Gus Van Sant Good Will Hunting
1998
(ke-71)
Steven SpielbergAward winner Saving Private Ryan [74]
Roberto Benigni Life Is Beautiful
John Madden Shakespeare in Love
Terence Malick The Thin Red Line
Peter Weir The Truman Show
1999
(ke-72)
Sam MendesAward winner American Beauty [75]
Lasse Hallström The Cider House Rules
Spike Jonze Being John Malkovich
Michael Mann The Insider
M. Night Shyamalan The Sixth Sense
2000
(ke-73)
Steven SoderberghAward winner Traffic [76]
Stephen Daldry Billy Elliot
Ang Lee Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Ridley Scott Gladiator
Steven Soderbergh Erin Brockovich
2001
(ke-74)
Ron HowardAward winner A Beautiful Mind [77]
Robert Altman Gosford Park
Peter Jackson The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring
David Lynch Mulholland Drive
Ridley Scott Black Hawk Down
2002
(ke-75)
Roman PolanskiAward winner The Pianist [78]
Pedro Almodóvar Talk to Her
Stephen Daldry The Hours
Rob Marshall Chicago
Martin Scorsese Gangs of New York
2003
(ke-76)
Peter JacksonAward winner The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King [79]
Sofia Coppola Lost in Translation
Clint Eastwood Mystic River
Fernando Meirelles City of God
Peter Weir Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World
2004
(ke-77)
Clint EastwoodAward winner Million Dollar Baby [80]
Taylor Hackford Ray
Mike Leigh Vera Drake
Alexander Payne Sideways
Martin Scorsese The Aviator
2005
(ke-78)
Ang LeeAward winner Brokeback Mountain [81]
George Clooney Good Night, and Good Luck
Paul Haggis Crash
Bennett Miller Capote
Steven Spielberg Munich
2006
(ke-79)
Martin ScorseseAward winner The Departed [82]
Clint Eastwood Letters from Iwo Jima
Stephen Frears The Queen
Paul Greengrass United 93
Alejandro G. Iñárritu Babel
2007
(ke-80)
Joel CoenAward winner
Ethan CoenAward winner
No Country for Old Men [83]
Paul Thomas Anderson There Will Be Blood
Tony Gilroy Michael Clayton
Jason Reitman Juno
Julian Schnabel The Diving Bell and the Butterfly
2008
(ke-81)
Danny BoyleAward winner Slumdog Millionaire [84]
Stephen Daldry The Reader
David Fincher The Curious Case of Benjamin Button
Ron Howard Frost/Nixon
Gus Van Sant Milk
2009
(ke-82)
Kathryn BigelowAward winner The Hurt Locker [85]
James Cameron Avatar
Lee Daniels Precious
Jason Reitman Up in the Air
Quentin Tarantino Inglourious Basterds
2010
(ke-83)
Tom HooperAward winner The King's Speech [86]
Darren Aronofsky Black Swan
Joel Coen
Ethan Coen
True Grit
David Fincher The Social Network
David O. Russell The Fighter
2011
(ke-84)
Michel HazanaviciusAward winner The Artist [87]
Woody Allen Midnight in Paris
Terrence Malick The Tree of Life
Alexander Payne The Descendants
Martin Scorsese Hugo
2012
(ke-85)
Ang LeeAward winner Life of Pi [88]
Michael Haneke Amour
David O. Russell Silver Linings Playbook
Steven Spielberg Lincoln
Benh Zeitlin Beasts of the Southern Wild
2013
(ke-86)
Alfonso CuarónAward winner Gravity [89]
Steve McQueen 12 Years a Slave
Alexander Payne Nebraska
David O. Russell American Hustle
Martin Scorsese The Wolf of Wall Street
2014
(ke-87)
Alejandro G. IñárrituAward winner Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) [90]
Wes Anderson The Grand Budapest Hotel
Richard Linklater Boyhood
Bennett Miller Foxcatcher
Morten Tyldum The Imitation Game
2015
(ke-88)
Alejandro G. IñárrituAward winner The Revenant [91]
Lenny Abrahamson Room
Tom McCarthy Spotlight
Adam McKay The Big Short
George Miller Mad Max: Fury Road

Calon dan pemenang berganda[sunting | sunting sumber]

Individu-individu berikut telah menerima lebih daripada satu anugerah Pengarah Terbaik:

Menang Pengarah
4
John Ford
3 Frank Capra
William Wyler
2 Frank Borzage
Clint Eastwood
Miloš Forman
Elia Kazan
David Lean
Ang Lee
Frank Lloyd
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Leo McCarey
Lewis Milestone
Steven Spielberg
George Stevens
Oliver Stone
Billy Wilder
Robert Wise
Fred Zinnemann

Individu-individu berikut menerima empat atau lebih pencalonan Pengarah Terbaik:

Pencalonan Pengarah
12 William Wyler
8 Martin Scorsese
Billy Wilder
7 Woody Allen
David Lean
Steven Spielberg
Fred Zinnemann
6 Clarence Brown
Frank Capra
5 Robert Altman
George Cukor
Michael Curtiz
John Ford
Alfred Hitchcock
John Huston
Elia Kazan
Frank Lloyd
George Stevens
King Vidor
4 Francis Ford Coppola
Clint Eastwood
Federico Fellini
Stanley Kubrick
Sidney Lumet
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Mike Nichols
Peter Weir

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  2. ^ Dirks, Tim. "Academy Awards Winners (1927/8 – 1939)". Rainbow Media. Dicapai November 20, 2015. 
  3. ^ Dirks, Tim. "1938 Academy Awards Winners and History". Rainbow Media. Dicapai November 20, 2015. 
  4. ^ "The 1st Academy Awards (1929) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  5. ^ "The 2nd Academy Awards Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  6. ^ "The 3rd Academy Awards (1930) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  7. ^ "The 4th Academy Awards (1931) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  8. ^ "The 5th Academy Awards (1932) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  9. ^ "The 6th Academy Awards (1933) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  10. ^ "The 7th Academy Awards (1935) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  11. ^ "The 8th Academy Awards (1936) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  12. ^ "The 9th Academy Awards (1937) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  13. ^ "The 10th Academy Awards (1938) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  14. ^ "The 11th Academy Awards (1939) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
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  16. ^ "The 13th Academy Awards (1941) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  17. ^ "The 14th Academy Awards (1942) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  18. ^ "The 15th Academy Awards (1943) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  19. ^ "The 16th Academy Awards (1944) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  20. ^ "The 17th Academy Awards (1945) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  21. ^ "The 18th Academy Awards (1946) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  22. ^ "The 19th Academy Awards (1947) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  23. ^ "The 20th Academy Awards (1948) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  24. ^ "The 21st Academy Awards (1949) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  25. ^ "The 22nd Academy Awards (1950) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  26. ^ "The 23rd Academy Awards (1951) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  27. ^ "The 24th Academy Awards (1952) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
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  29. ^ "The 26th Academy Awards (1954) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  30. ^ "The 27th Academy Awards (1955) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  31. ^ "The 28th Academy Awards (1956) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
  32. ^ "The 29th Academy Awards (1957) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Dicapai August 27, 2013. 
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  91. ^ "The 88th Academy Awards (2016) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Dicapai January 14, 2016. 

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Crouse, Richard (2005). Reel Winners: Movie Award Trivia. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-574-3. 
  • Levy, Emanuel (2003), All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards, New York, United States: Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-1452-6 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]