Ujian COVID-19

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CDC 2019-nCoV Laboratory Test Kit.jpg
Kit ujian makmal COVID-19 CDC AS

Ujian COVID-19 dapat mengenal pasti virus SARS-CoV-2 dan merangkumi kaedah yang mengesan kehadiran virus itu sendiri (RT-PCR, penguatan asid nukleik isoterma, antigen) dan yang mengesan antibodi yang dihasilkan sebagai tindak balas terhadap jangkitan. Pengesanan antibodi (ujian serologi) dapat digunakan untuk diagnosis dan pengawasan penduduk. Ujian antibodi menunjukkan berapa ramai orang yang menghidap penyakit ini, termasuk mereka yang gejalanya kecil atau tidak bergejala, tetapi mungkin tidak menemui antibodi pada seseorang dengan jangkitan COVID-19 semasa kerana antibodi mungkin tidak muncul selama berminggu-minggu.[1] Kadar kematian penyakit yang tepat dan tahap kekebalan kawanan pada populasi dapat ditentukan dari hasil ujian ini. Walau bagaimanapun, tempoh dan keberkesanan tindak balas imun ini masih belum jelas.[2]

Akibat pengujian yang terhad, sehingga Mac 2020 tiada negara yang memiliki data yang boleh dipercayai mengenai kelaziman virus pada populasi mereka.[3] Pada 24 Mei, negara-negara yang menerbitkan data ujian mereka biasanya telah melakukan banyak ujian yang sama dengan 2.6 peratus populasi mereka, dan tiada negara yang menguji sampel yang sama dengan lebih dari 17.3 % populasinya.[4] Terdapat kepelbagaian berapa banyak pengujian yang telah dilakukan di seluruh negara.[5] Kebolehubahan ini juga mungkin mempengaruhi kadar kematian kes yang dilaporkan, yang mungkin terlalu tinggi di banyak negara, kerana bias sampel.[6][7][8]

Statistik ujian mengikut negara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Strategi ujian berbeza mengikut negara dan dari masa ke masa,[9] dengan beberapa negara menguji secara meluas,[10] sementara yang lain kadang-kadang berfokus kecil hanya untuk menguji orang yang sakit serius.[11] Negara yang hanya menguji orang yang menunjukkan gejala akan mempunyai angka yang lebih tinggi untuk "Disahkan / diuji" daripada negara yang juga menguji negara lain.[12] Sekiranya dua negara sama dalam semua hal, termasuk orang yang mereka uji, negara yang menguji lebih banyak orang akan mempunyai "Disahkan / populasi" yang lebih tinggi. Kajian juga mendapati bahawa negara yang menguji lebih banyak, berbanding dengan jumlah kematian,[6] mempunyai kadar kematian kes yang dianggarkan lebih rendah dan taburan kes usia yang lebih muda.[13]

Statistik ujian COVID-19 mengikut negara
Negara dan rantau Tarikh[a] Diuji Unit[b] Disahkan
(kes)
Disahkan /
ujian,
%
Diuji /
populasi,
%
Disahkan /
populasi,
%
Ruj.
Afghanistan 17 Dis 2020 154,767 sampel 49,621 32.1 0.40 0.13 [14]
Albania 18 Feb 2021 428,654 sampel 96,838 22.6 15.0 3.4 [15]
Algeria 2 Nov 2020 230,553 sampel 58,574 25.4 0.53 0.13 [16][17]
Andorra 24 Mei 2021 190,469 sampel 13,661 7.2 246 17.6 [18]
Angola 12 Mac 2021 399,228 sampel 20,981 5.3 1.3 0.067 [19]
Antigua dan Barbuda 6 Mac 2021 15,268 sampel 832 5.4 15.9 0.86 [20]
Argentina 29 Mei 2021 13,788,201 sampel 3,732,263 27.1 30.4 8.2 [21]
Armenia 29 Mei 2021 1,078,534 sampel 222,555 20.6 36.5 7.5 [22]
Australia 30 Mei 2021 18,319,177 sampel 30,098 0.16 73.0 0.12 [23]
Austria 30 Mei 2021 41,224,239 sampel 640,528 1.6 463 7.2 [24]
Azerbaijan 29 Mei 2021 3,503,639 sampel 333,723 9.5 35.4 3.4 [25]
Bahamas 27 Mei 2021 96,765 sampel 11,745 12.1 25.1 3.0 [26]
Bahrain 29 Mei 2021 4,607,670 sampel 235,69935,699 5.1 294 15.0 [27]
Bangladesh 20 Mei 2021 5,774,883 sampel 785,194 13.6 3.5 0.48 [28]
Barbados 28 Mei 2021 169,633 sampel 4,012 2.4 59.1 1.4 [29]
Belarus 29 Mei 2021 6,268,554 sampel 392,629 6.3 66.0 4.1 [30]
Belgium 30 Mei 2021 13,940,283 sampel 1,061,200 7.6 121 9.2 [31]
Belize 27 Mei 2021 131,709 sampel 12,789 9.7 32.2 3.1 [32]
Benin 4 Mei 2021 595,112 sampel 7,884 1.3 5.1 0.067 [33]
Bhutan 27 Mei 2021 798,573 sampel 1,491 0.19 108 0.20 [34]
Bolivia 30 Mei 2021 1,469,174 kes 368,474 25.1 12.9 3.2 [35]
Bosnia dan Herzegovina 28 Mei 2021 972,590 sampel 203,839 21.0 28.4 6.0 [36]
Botswana 25 Mei 2021 1,130,899 52,865 4.7 50.2 2.3 [37][38]
Brazil 19 Feb 2021 23,561,497 sampel 10,081,676 42.8 11.2 4.8 [39][40]
Brunei 26 Mei 2021 126,634 sampel 240 0.19 27.6 0.052 [41]
Bulgaria 29 Mei 2021 2,816,677 sampel 418,221 14.8 40.5 6.0 [42]
Burkina Faso 4 Mac 2021 158,777 sampel 12,123 7.6 0.76 0.058 [16][43]
Burundi 5 Jan 2021 90,019 884 0.98 0.76 0.0074 [44]
Kemboja 24 Mei 2021 1,113,752 25,761 2.3 6.9 0.16 [45]
Cameroon 18 Feb 2021 942,685 sampel 32,681 3.5 3.6 0.12 [16]
Kanada 30 Mei 2021 34,717,353 sampel 1,378,971 4.0 91.6 3.6 [46]
Chad 2 Mac 2021 99,027 sampel 4,020 4.1 0.72 0.029 [16][47]
Chile 30 Mei 2021 14,753,173 sampel 1,377,507 9.3 77.4 7.2 [48]
China[c] 31 Jul 2020 160,000,000 kes 87,655 0.055 11.1 0.0061 [49][50]
Colombia 29 Mei 2021 16,878,897 sampel 3,363,061 19.9 35.0 7.0 [51][52]
Costa Rica 27 Mei 2021 1,203,358 sampel 311,922 25.9 24.1 6.2 [53]
Croatia 29 Mei 2021 2,005,789 kes 355,955 17.7 49.2 8.7 [54]
Cuba 28 Mei 2021 4,283,455 sampel 140,087 3.3 37.8 1.2 [55][56]
Cyprus[d] 26 Mei 2021 6,495,283 sampel 72,159 1.1 752 8.4 [57]
Czechia 29 Mei 2021 7,264,854 sampel 1,660,935 22.9 67.9 15.5 [58]
Denmark[e] 30 Mei 2021 32,841,193 sampel 280,383 0.85 564 4.8 [59][60]
Djibouti 29 Mei 2021 158,240 11,521 7.3 17.2 1.2 [61]
Dominica 17 Mei 2021 16,134 kes 184 1.1 22.5 0.26 [62]
Republik Dominica 27 Mei 2021 1,535,724 sampel 289,288 18.8 14.1 2.7 [63]
DR Congo 28 Feb 2021 124,838 25,961 20.8 0.14 0.029 [16][64]
Ecuador 27 Mei 2021 1,408,901 sampel 422,329 30.0 8.2 2.5 [65]
Mesir 20 Mei 2021 2,792,490 sampel 250,391 9.0 2.8 0.25 [16][66]
El Salvador 29 Mei 2021 985,987 sampel 73,246 7.4 15.2 1.1 [67]
Equatorial Guinea 27 Apr 2021 123,169 7,694 6.2 1.0 0.59 [68]
Estonia 29 Mei 2021 1,416,356 sampel 129,424 9.1 107 9.7 [69]
Eswatini 17 Mei 2021 192,800 18,523 9.6 17.0 1.6 [70]
Habsyah 21 Mei 2021 2,677,195 sampel 268,520 10.0 2.3 0.23 [71]
Kepulauan Faroe 30 Mei 2021 276,360 sampel 718 0.26 530 1.4 [72]
Fiji 13 Mei 2021 70,732 sampel 165 0.23 7.9 0.018 [73]
Finland 28 Mei 2021 4,973,074 sampel 92,244 1.9 89.7 1.7 [74]
Perancis[f][g] 29 Mei 2021 84,383,310 sampel 5,657,572 6.7 129 8.7 [75]
Gabon 21 Mei 2021 785,631 sampel 24,107 3.1 2.5 0.078 [76]
Gambia 15 Feb 2021 43,217 sampel 4,469 10.3 2.0 0.21 [77]
Georgia[h] 29 Mei 2021 2,666,794 sampel 342,880 12.9 71.7 9.2 [78]
Jerman 26 Mei 2021 60,408,571 sampel 3,656,177 6.1 72.0 4.4 [79][80]
Ghana 20 Mei 2021 1,146,633 sampel 93,644 8.2 3.7 0.30 [81]
Greece 30 Mei 2021 9,497,579 sampel 401,301 4.2 88.2 3.7 [82]
Greenland 29 Mei 2021 25,174 sampel 40 0.16 44.9 0.071 [83]
Grenada 11 Mei 2021 28,684 161 0.56 25.7 0.14 [84]
Guatemala 26 Mei 2021 1,404,499 sampel 251,336 17.9 8.1 1.5 [85]
Guinea 21 Mei 2021 453,829 sampel 22,988 5.1 3.5 0.18 [16][86]
Guinea-Bissau 19 Mei 2021 66,154 3,746 5.7 3.5 0.20 [87]
Guyana 29 Mei 2021 152,486 kes 16,822 11.0 19.4 2.1 [88]
Haiti 19 Mei 2021 68,523 kes 13,843 20.2 0.60 0.12 [89]
Honduras 26 Mei 2021 704,144 sampel 234,923 33.4 7.3 2.5 [90]
Hungary 29 Mei 2021 5,801,554 sampel 804,032 13.9 60.1 8.3 [91]
Iceland 27 Mei 2021 654,377 sampel 6,571 1.0 180 1.8 [92]
India 23 Jul 2021 452,939,545 sampel 31,332,159 6.9 32.8 2.3 [93][94]
Indonesia 24 Jul 2021 16,763,394 kes 3,127,826 18.7 6.2 1.16 [95][95]
Iran 29 Mei 2021 19,687,077 sampel 2,893,218 14.7 23.7 3.5 [96]
Iraq 29 Mei 2021 10,371,421 sampel 1,193,608 11.5 25.8 3.0 [97]
Ireland 14 Mei 2021 4,729,538 sampel 254,870 5.4 96.1 5.2 [98]
Israel 29 Mei 2021 14,677,053 sampel 839,453 5.7 160 9.1 [99]
Itali 30 Mei 2021 66,085,278 sampel 4,216,003 6.4 109 7.0 [100]
Ivory Coast 3 Mac 2021 429,177 sampel 33,285 7.8 1.6 0.13 [101]
Jamaica 28 Mei 2021 377,206 sampel 48,374 12.8 13.8 1.8 [102]
Jepun 1 Mac 2021 8,487,288 432,773 5.1 6.7 0.34 [103]
Jordan 27 Mei 2021 7,207,284 sampel 734,039 10.2 67.6 6.9 [104]
Kazakhstan 28 Mei 2021 11,575,012 sampel 385,144 3.3 62.1 2.1 [105]
Kenya 5 Mac 2021 1,322,806 sampel 107,729 8.1 2.8 0.23 [106]
Kosovo 29 Mei 2021 607,230 kes 107,382 17.7 33.5 5.9 [107]
Kuwait 29 Mei 2021 2,587,580 sampel 306,717 11.9 60.3 7.1 [108]
Kyrgyzstan 10 Feb 2021 695,415 sampel 85,253 12.3 10.7 1.3 [109]
Laos 1 Mac 2021 114,030 kes 45 0.039 1.6 0.00063 [110]
Latvia 29 Mei 2021 2,593,670 sampel 132,918 5.1 135 6.9 [111]
Lebanon 30 Mei 2021 4,392,200 sampel 540,277 12.3 64.4 7.9 [112]
Lesotho 22 Mei 2021 92,169 10,822 11.7 4.6 0.54 [113]
Liberia 19 Mei 2021 102,561 2,142 2.1 2.0 0.042 [114]
Libya 29 Mei 2021 1,012,557 sampel 185,151 18.3 14.8 2.7 [16][115]
Lithuania 29 Mei 2021 3,474,616 sampel 274,199 7.9 124 9.8 [116][117]
Luxembourg[i] 26 Mei 2021 2,869,686 sampel 69,749 2.4 458 11.1 [118]
Madagascar 19 Feb 2021 119,608 kes 19,831 16.6 0.46 0.076 [119]
Malawi 22 Mei 2021 242,797 sampel 34,274 14.1 1.3 0.18 [120]
Malaysia 30 Mei 2021 11,976,897 kes 565,533 4.7 36.5 17.3 [121]
Maldives 30 Mei 2021 883,760 sampel 63,686 7.2 225 16.2 [122][123]
Mali 1 Mac 2021 200,772 sampel 8,390 4.2 0.99 0.041 [16][124]
Malta 29 Mei 2021 922,763 sampel 30,529 3.3 187 6.2 [125]
Mauritania 16 Apr 2021 268,093 18,103 6.8 6.1 0.41 [126]
Mauritius 22 Nov 2020 289,552 sampel 494 0.17 22.9 0.039 [127]
Mexico 24 Mei 2021 6,512,658 kes 2,397,307 36.8 5.1 1.9 [128]
Moldova[j] 29 Mei 2021 1,110,272 sampel 255,105 23.0 42.0 9.7 [129]
Mongolia 30 Mei 2021 2,933,544 kes 57,512 2.0 87.5 1.7 [130]
Montenegro 10 Mei 2021 394,388 sampel 98,449 25.0 62.5 15.6 [131][132]
Maghribi 29 Mei 2021 6,500,713 kes 518,868 8.0 17.6 1.4 [133]
Mozambique 22 Mei 2021 544,605 sampel 70,568 13.0 1.7 0.23 [134]
Myanmar 22 Mei 2021 2,610,069 sampel 143,228 5.5 4.8 0.26 [135]
Namibia 29 Mei 2021 431,010 sampel 54,659 12.7 15.7 2.0 [136]
Nepal 31 Mei 2021 3,057,424 sampel 561,302 18.4 10.9 2.0 [137]
Belanda 25 Mei 2021 13,540,404 kes 1,631,384 12.0 77.7 9.4 [138]
New Caledonia 30 Mei 2021 33,058 sampel 128 0.39 12.2 0.047 [139]
New Zealand 30 Mei 2021 2,137,414 sampel 2,316 0.11 42.9 0.046 [140][141]
Niger 22 Feb 2021 79,321 kes 4,740 6.0 0.35 0.021 [142]
Nigeria 28 Feb 2021 1,544,008 sampel 155,657 10.1 0.75 0.076 [143]
Korea Utara 25 Nov 2020 16,914 kes 0 0 0.066 0 [144]
Macedonia Utara 28 Mei 2021 788,300 sampel 155,217 19.7 38.0 7.5 [145][146]
Cyprus Utara[k] 26 Mei 2021 1,184,994 sampel 7,139 0.60 363 2.2 [147]
Norway 27 Mei 2021 5,698,005 sampel 123,619 2.2 106 2.3 [148]
Oman 28 Okt 2020 509,959 sampel 114,434 22.4 11.0 2.5 [149]
Pakistan 5 Mac 2021 9,173,593 sampel 588,728 6.4 4.2 0.27 [150]
Palestin 29 Mei 2021 1,821,906 sampel 336,679 18.5 36.1 6.7 [151]
Panama 29 Mei 2021 2,643,052 sampel 377,428 14.3 63.3 9.0 [152]
Papua New Guinea 17 Feb 2021 47,490 kes 961 2.0 0.53 0.011 [153]
Paraguay 28 Mei 2021 1,274,734 sampel 348,184 27.3 17.9 4.9 [154]
Peru 30 Mei 2021 12,839,497 sampel 1,955,469 15.2 39.1 6.0 [155]
Filipina 29 Mei 2021 13,304,523 sampel 1,216,582 9.1 13.2 1.2 [156][157]
Poland 29 Mei 2021 15,882,644 sampel 2,871,371 18.1 41.4 7.5 [158]
Portugal 28 Mei 2021 11,595,570 sampel 847,604 7.3 113 0.9 [159]
Qatar 30 Mei 2021 2,020,338 kes 217,230 10.8 70.1 7.5 [160]
Romania 29 Jan 2021 5,405,393 sampel 724,250 13.4 27.9 3.7 [161]
Rusia 29 Mei 2021 137,550,443 sampel 5,053,748 3.7 93.7 3.4 [162][163]
Rwanda 29 Mei 2021 1,435,523 sampel 26,892 1.9 11.1 0.21 [164]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 26 Mei 2021 15,897 kes 64 0.40 30.3 0.122 [165]
Saint Lucia 29 Mei 2021 45,904 sampel 5,035 11.0 25.2 2.8 [166]
Saint Vincent 25 Mei 2021 48,328 kes 1,995 4.1 43.9 1.8 [167]
San Marino 24 Mei 2021 65,149 sampel 5,089 7.8 190 14.9 [168]
Arab Saudi 29 Mei 2021 19,046,117 sampel 448,284 2.4 54.7 1.3 [169]
Senegal 17 Mei 2021 534,449 sampel 40,872 7.6 3.4 0.26 [170]
Serbia 29 Mei 2021 4,137,413 kes 712,046 17.2 59.4 10.2 [171]
Singapore 24 Mei 2021 11,470,986 sampel 61,916 0.54 201 1.1 [172][173]
Slovakia 29 Mei 2021 2,826,756 sampel 389,588 13.8 51.8 7.1 [174]
Slovenia 30 Mei 2021 1,279,116 sampel 253,722 19.8 61.1 12.1 [175]
Afrika Selatan 24 Mei 2021 11,378,282 kes 1,637,848 14.4 19.2 2.8 [176][177]
Korea Selatan 1 Mac 2021 6,592,010 sampel 90,029 1.4 12.7 0.17 [178]
Sudan Utara 13 Mei 2021 158,678 10,651 6.7 1.2 0.083 [179]
Sepanyol 20 Mei 2021 49,708,830 sampel 3,663,176 7.4 106 7.8 [180][181]
Sri Lanka 30 Mac 2021 2,384,745 sampel 93,128 3.9 10.9 0.43 [182][183]
Sudan 7 Jan 2021 158,804 sampel 23,316 14.7 0.36 0.053 [16]
Sweden 24 Mei 2021 9,996,795 sampel 1,074,751 10.8 96.8 10.4 [184][185]
Switzerland[l] 27 Mei 2021 7,600,865 sampel 692,111 9.1 88.3 8.0 [186]
Taiwan[m] 22 Mei 2021 610,865 sampel 3,862 0.63 2.6 0.0164 [187]
Tanzania 18 Nov 2020 3,880 509 13.1 0.0065 0.00085 [16]
Thailand 4 Mac 2021 1,579,597 kes 26,162 1.7 2.3 0.038 [188]
Togo 23 Mei 2021 328,704 13,374 4.1 3.8 0.16 [189]
Trinidad dan Tobago 29 Mei 2021 179,343 kes 23,001 12.8 13.1 1.7 [190]
Tunisia 28 Mei 2021 1,466,886 sampel 343,374 23.4 12.4 2.9 [191]
Turki 29 Mei 2021 53,700,891 sampel 5,235,978 9.7 64.6 6.3 [192]
Uganda 11 Feb 2021 852,444 sampel 39,979 4.7 1.9 0.087 [193]
Ukraine 29 Mei 2021 10,156,756 sampel 2,199,769 21.7 24.2 5.2 [194]
Emiriah Arab Bersatu 30 Mei 2021 50,149,036 sampel 569,073 1.1 522 5.9 [195]
United Kingdom 28 Mei 2021 181,453,219 sampel 4,477,705 2.5 269 6.6 [196]
Amerika Syarikat 29 Mei 2021 463,880,520 sampel 33,249,494 7.2 140 10.0 [197][198]
Uruguay 30 Mei 2021 2,248,766 sampel 291,488 13.0 64.8 8.4 [199]
Uzbekistan 7 Sep 2020 2,630,000 sampel 43,975 1.7 7.7 0.13 [200]
Venezuela 30 Mac 2021 3,179,074 sampel 159,149 5.0 11.0 0.55 [201]
Vietnam 16 Mei 2021 3,417,962 sampel 4,175 0.12 3.5 0.0042 [202]
Zambia 30 Mei 2021 1,553,442 sampel 95,050 6.1 9.0 0.55 [203]
Zimbabwe 24 Mei 2021 555,102 sampel 38,696 7.0 3.7 0.26 [16][204]
  1. ^ Waktu tempatan.
  2. ^ Bagi beberapa negara tidak jelas sama ada mereka melaporkan sampel atau kes. Satu orang yang diuji dua kali dicatatkan sebagai satu kes dan dua sampel.
  3. ^ Tidak termasuk Taiwan.
  4. ^ Tidak termasuk Cyprus Utara.
  5. ^ Tidak termasuk Greenland and the Kepulauan Faroe.
  6. ^ Tidak termasuk Perancis Seberang Laut.
  7. ^ Data ujian dari 4 Mei hingga 12 Mei hilang kerana peralihan ke sistem pelaporan baru SI-DEP.
  8. ^ Tidak termasuk Abkhazia dan Ossetia Selatan.
  9. ^ Data untuk penduduk sahaja.
  10. ^ Tidak termasuk Transnistria.
  11. ^ Cyprus Utara tidak diiktiraf sebagai negara berdaulat oleh mana-mana negara kecuali Turki.
  12. ^ Termasuk data untuk Liechtenstein.
  13. ^ Bukan ahli Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Test for Past Infection – CDC". CDC.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 February 2020. Diarkibkan from yang asal pada 16 May 2020. Dicapai pada 19 May 2020. Antibody blood tests, also called antibody tests, check your blood by looking for antibodies, which show if you had a previous infection with the virus. Depending on when someone was infected and the timing of the test, the test may not find antibodies in someone with a current COVID-19 infection.
  2. ^ Abbasi, Jennifer (17 April 2020). "The Promise and Peril of Antibody Testing for COVID-19". JAMA. JAMA Network. 323 (19): 1881. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6170. PMID 32301958. Diarkibkan from yang asal pada 2020-04-20. Dicapai pada 20 April 2020.
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  4. ^ "Total tests for COVID-19 per 1,000 people". Our World in Data. Diarkibkan from yang asal pada 18 May 2020. Dicapai pada 16 April 2020.
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  7. ^ Henriques, Martha. "Coronavirus: Why death and mortality rates differ". bbc.com (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Diarkibkan from yang asal pada 2020-04-02. Dicapai pada 8 April 2020.
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