Seni bina Islam
Rencana ini mempunyai beberapa isu. Sila bantu memperbaikinya atau bincangkan isu-isu tersebut di dalam laman perbincangan rencana ini.(Ketahui bagaimana dan bila untuk membuang pesanan templat ini)
Seni bina Islam adalah rangkaian gaya seni bina yang berkaitan dengan bangunan yang berkaitan dengan Islam. Ia merangkumi kedua-dua gaya sekular dan agama dari awal sejarah Islam hingga ke hari ini. Senibina Islam awal dipengaruhi oleh Romawi, Byzantine, Persia, Mesopotamia dan semua tanah yang ditakluki umat Islam pada abad ke-7 dan ke-8. Di sebelah timur, ia juga dipengaruhi oleh Cina dan Senibina India apabila Islam menyebar ke Asia Tenggara. Kemudian ia mengembangkan ciri-ciri yang berbeza dalam bentuk bangunan, dan hiasan permukaan dengan kaligrafi Islam dan ornamen corak geometri dan interlace. Jenis-jenis seni bina utama bagi gedung-gedung besar atau awam ialah: Masjid, Makam, Istana dan Kubu. Daripada empat jenis ini, perbendaharaan kata seni bina Islam diperoleh dan digunakan untuk bangunan lain seperti mandi awam, air pancut dan seni bina dalam negeri.
Banyak bangunan yang disebutkan dalam artikel ini disenaraikan sebagai Situs Warisan Dunia. Sebahagian daripada mereka, seperti Benteng Aleppo, telah mengalami kerosakan yang ketara dalam Perang Saudara Syria yang sedang berlangsung.
- 1 Pengaruh
- 2 Ciri
- 2.1 Asimilasi tradisi sebelumnya
- 2.2 Paradise garden
- 2.3 Courtyard (Sehan)
- 2.4 Halla hypostyle
- 2.5 Kekubah
- 2.6 Muqarnas
- 2.7 Ornaments
- 2.8 Architectural forms
- 2.9 Specific architectural elements
- 2.10 Qibla
- 3 Towns and cities
- 4 Early history
- 5 Regional styles
- 6 In modern times
- 7 Connections & deeper meanings
- 8 Arkitek Islam kontemporari
- 9 Lihat juga
- 10 Galeri
- 11 Rujukan
- 12 Bacaan lanjut
- 13 Pautan luar
Pengaruh[sunting | sunting sumber]
Bangunan paling terkini yang boleh dikenali sebagai contoh seni moden Islam yang sebenar ialah Imam Sadiq University, bangunan ini adalah pemenang dana Aga Khan juga. Bangunan ini direka oleh Nader Ardalan yang mengajar arkitek Iran di Universiti Harvard. Dome of the Rock (Bahasa Arab: قُـبَّـة ٱلـصَّـخْـرَة, translit. Qubbat aṣ-Ṣakhrah) di Jerusalem (691) adalah salah satu bangunan paling penting dalam semua seni bina Islam. Ia dipengaruhi oleh Gereja Holy Sepulcher dan artis Byzantine Kristian bekerja untuk mencipta mosaik dengan latar belakang keemasan. Buah anggur epigrafik yang hebat telah diadaptasi daripada gaya pra-Islam Syria. Dome of the Rock menampilkan ruang berkubah dalaman, kubah bulat, dan penggunaan corak hiasan [[Arabesque (seni Islam) | arabesque]. Istana gurun di Jordan dan Syria (misalnya, Mshatta, Qasr Amra, dan Khirbat al-Mafjar berkhidmat sebagai khalifah sebagai tempat tinggal , dewan penerimaan, dan bilik mandi, dan dihiasi untuk mempromosikan imej mewah kerajaan.
Gerbang kuda menjadi ciri popular dalam struktur Islam. Ada yang mencadangkan umat Islam memperolehnya dari seni dan seni Visigothik Visigoths di Sepanyol tetapi mereka mungkin memperolehnya dari Syria dan Persia di mana gerbang kuda telah digunakan oleh seni Bizantium Byzantine ]]. Dalam seni bina Moor, kelengkungan gerbang ladang kuda lebih menonjol. Selain itu, warna bingkai telah ditambah untuk menyerlahkan kesan bentuknya. Ini dapat dilihat pada skala besar dalam kerja utama mereka, Masjid Agung Córdoba.
Masjid Masjid Besar dari Damaskus (disempurnakan pada 715 oleh khalifah Al-Walid I), Dibina di atas tapak basilica dari John the Baptist selepas pencerobohan Islam di Damaskus, masih banyak menyerupai keaslian Kristian basilika abad ke-6 dan ke-7. Pengubahsuaian tertentu telah dilaksanakan, termasuk mengembangkan struktur sepanjang paksi transversal yang lebih sesuai dengan gaya doa Islam.
Abbasid dinasti (750 AD- 1258) menyaksikan pergerakan ibu kota dari Damaskus ke Baghdad, dan kemudian dari Baghdad ke Samarra. Peralihan ke Baghdad memengaruhi politik, budaya, dan seni. Masjid Agung Samarra, sekali yang terbesar di dunia, dibina untuk modal baru. Masjid-masjid utama lain yang dibina di Dinasti Abbasid termasuk Masjid Ibnu Tulun di Kaherah, Abu Dalaf di Iraq, masjid besar di Tunis. Seni bina Abbasid di Iraq yang dicontohkan di Kubu Al-Ukhaidir (c.775-6) memperlihatkan watak "penghinaan dan penghormatan yang dinikmati oleh penguasa" dalam saiznya yang besar tetapi sempit tempat tinggal .
Masjid Agung Kairouan (di Tunisia) dianggap sebagai nenek moyang semua masjid di dunia Islam barat. Lajur dan patung marmar asalnya berasal dari Carthage dan elemen lain menyerupai bentuk Rom. Ia adalah salah satu contoh terbaik masjid awal yang dipelihara dan paling penting, yang diasaskan pada tahun 670 AD dan bertarikh dalam bentuknya sekarang dari zaman Aghlabid (abad ke-9). Masjid Besar Kairouan terdiri daripada menara persegi besar, sebuah halaman besar yang dikelilingi oleh portico dan dewan sembahyang hypostyle besar yang ditutupi dengan paksinya dengan dua cupolas. Masjid Besar Samarra di Iraq, disiapkan pada tahun 847 AD, menggabungkan arsitektur baris hypostyle yang menyokong dasar yang rata di atasnya minaret yang dibina.
Hagia Sophia di Istanbul juga mempengaruhi seni bina Islam. Apabila Uthmaniyyah menangkap bandar dari Byzantine, mereka menukar basilica ke sebuah masjid (sekarang sebuah muzium) dan menggabungkan [[Byzantine architecture] Elemen seni bina Byzantine] ke dalam karya mereka sendiri (misalnya kubah). Hagia Sophia juga berfungsi sebagai model bagi masjid-masjid Uthmaniyyah seperti Masjid Shehzade, Masjid Suleiman, dan Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Kubah adalah ciri struktur utama seni bina Islam. Kubah pertama kali muncul dalam seni bina Islam pada tahun 691 dengan pembinaan Dome of the Rock, sebuah replika dari Gereja Holy Sepulcher dan [[Seni bina Kristian] [basilica]] terletak berhampiran. Kubah terus digunakan, menjadi ciri penting dari banyak masjid dan Taj Mahal pada abad ke-17. Kubah-kubah khas seni bina Islam yang tersendiri kekal sebagai ciri khas masjid-masjid ke abad ke-21. Influenced by Byzantine and Persian architecture, gerbang tajam sebagai prinsip arsitetik pertama kali ditubuhkan dengan jelas dalam seni bina Islam; sebagai prinsip seni bina, gerbang tajam adalah sepenuhnya asing kepada dunia pra-Islam.
Memperkenal motif seni bina Islam sentiasa menjadi tema matematik pengulangan memerintahkan, struktur radiasi, dan pola metrik berirama. Dalam hal ini, geometri fraktal menjadi utiliti utama, terutamanya untuk masjid dan istana. Ciri-ciri penting lain yang digunakan sebagai motif termasuk lajur, tiang dan lengkungan, yang dianjurkan dan digabungkan dengan urutan gantian niche dan kolon.
Ciri[sunting | sunting sumber]
Asimilasi tradisi sebelumnya[sunting | sunting sumber]
Dari abad kelapan hingga abad kesebelas, gaya seni bina Islam dipengaruhi oleh dua tradisi purba yang berbeza:
- Tradisi Greco-Roman: Khususnya, wilayah-wilayah yang baru ditawan Emapayar Byzantine (Anatolia Barat Daya, Syria, Mesir dan Maghreb yang dibekalkan arkitek, tukang batu, tukang kepada pemerintah Islam yang baru. Pengrajin-pengrajin ini dilatih dalam seni bina dan seni hiasan, dan bangunan dan dekorasi yang berterusan dalam gaya Byzantine, yang telah berkembang dari seni Hellenistik dan seni bina Romawi kuno.
- Tradisi Timur: Mesopotamia dan Persia, walaupun menggunakan unsur gaya Yunani Helenistik dan Romawi, mengekalkan tradisi seni bina mereka yang bebas, yang berasal dari seni bina Sasan dan para pendahulunya.
Proses peralihan antara zaman purbakala, atau pasca klasik dan seni bina Islam dicontohkan oleh penemuan arkeologi di Syria Utara dan Palestin, Bilad al-Sham dari dinasti Umayyad dan Abbasid. Di rantau ini, lewat tradisi seni bina antik, atau Kristian, bergabung dengan warisan Arab pra-Islam para penakluk. Penyelidikan terkini mengenai sejarah seni Islam dan seni bina telah mengubah beberapa idea penjajahan kolonialisme. Khususnya, soalan-soalan berikut kini tertakluk kepada perbincangan baru-baru ini berdasarkan penemuan baru-baru ini dan konsep baru sejarah kebudayaan:
- Kewujudan perkembangan linier dalam seni bina Islam;
- kewujudan hierarki gaya inter-dan intracultural;
- soalan keaslian budaya dan garis panduannya.
Berbanding dengan penyelidikan terdahulu, asimilasi dan transformasi tradisi seni bina yang sedia ada telah disiasat di bawah aspek pertukaran idea, teknologi dan gaya bersama dan antara artis, arkitek dan bahan. Dalam bidang seni dan seni bina, Kebangkitan Islam dilihat sebagai proses transformasi yang berterusan dari zaman purba ke zaman Islam. Penyelidikan awal ke kawasan ini menganggap seni bina Islam awal semata-mata sebagai rehat dengan masa lalu, yang mula-mula muncul bentuk seni yang menyimpang dan kurang ekspresif, or a degenerate imitation of the post-classical architectural forms. Konsep moden cenderung untuk menganggap peralihan antara budaya dan bukan sebagai proses terpilih bagi pengagihan dan transformasi yang dimaklumkan. Umayyad memainkan peranan penting dalam proses mengubah dan dengan itu memperkayakan tradisi seni bina yang sedia ada, atau, dalam arti yang lebih umum, budaya visual masyarakat Islam yang baru lahir.
Paradise garden[sunting | sunting sumber]
Gardens and water have for many centuries played an essential role in Islamic culture, and are often compared to the garden of Paradise. The comparison originates from the Achaemenid Empire. In his dialogue "Oeconomicus", Xenophon has Socrates relate the story of the Spartan general Lysander's visit to the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger, who shows the Greek his "Paradise at Sardis". Bentuk klasik taman syurga Parsi, atau Charbagh, terdiri daripada ruang pengairan segi empat tepat dengan jalur tinggi, yang membahagi taman menjadi empat bahagian saiz yang sama:
Salah satu ciri taman Parsi adalah taman empat bahagian yang diletakkan dengan laluan paksi yang berpotongan di pusat taman. Skim geometri yang sangat berstruktur, yang dipanggil chahar bagh, menjadi metafora yang kuat untuk organisasi dan pembahagian landskap, sendiri sebagai lambang wilayah politik.
Sebuah charbagh dari masa Achaemenid telah dikenalpasti dalam penggalian arkeologi di Pasargadae. Kebun-kebun Chehel Sotoun]], Isfahan, Fin Garden (Kashan), Eram Garden (Shiraz) Abbasabad Garden, Abbasabad), Akbarieh Garden, (Wilayah Khorasan Selatan), Pahlevanpour Garden, semuanya di Iran, merupakan sebahagian daripada UNESCO World Heritage. Taman-taman Paradise besar juga terdapat di Taj Mahal (Agra), dan di Humayun's Tomb (New Delhi), di India; Shalimar Gardens (Lahore, Pakistan) atau di Alhambra dan Generalife di Granada, ]].
Courtyard (Sehan)[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Apabila dalam kediaman atau bangunan sekular lain adalah halaman peribadi dan taman berdinding. Ia digunakan untuk: estetika tumbuhan, air, elemen seni bina, dan cahaya semula jadi; untuk ruang yang lebih sejuk dengan air pancut dan naungan, dan sumber angin ke dalam struktur, semasa musim panas; dan tempat yang dilindungi dan diharamkan di mana wanita rumah tidak perlu dilindungi oleh pakaian hijab yang secara tradisinya perlu di khalayak ramai.
- A sehan - halaman berada dalam hampir setiap masjid dalam seni bina Islam. Halaman-halaman terbuka ke langit dan dikelilingi oleh semua pihak dengan struktur dengan ruang dan bilik, dan seringkali arked semi-terbuka berbayang. Sehans biasanya memaparkan kolam pembersihan ritel berpusat di bawah di bawah pavilion kubah terbuka yang dipanggil howz. Sebuah halaman masjid digunakan untuk melakukan pembersihan, dan 'teras' untuk berehat atau berkumpul.
Halla hypostyle[sunting | sunting sumber]
Sebuah Hypostyle, iaitu sebuah dewan terbuka yang disokong oleh tiang-tiang yang digabungkan dengan dewan penerimaan yang ditetapkan pada sudut kanan ke dewan utama, dianggap berasal dari tradisi seni bina zaman Achaemenid "apadana"). Binaan ini berasal dari gaya basilika Rom dengan halaman bersebelahan yang dikelilingi oleh colonnade, seperti Trajan's Forum di Rom. Jenis bangunan Rom telah berkembang dari seni bina Yunani agora. Dalam seni bina Islam, dewan hypostyle adalah ciri utama mesjid hypostyle. Salah satu masjid hipostyle terawal ialah Masjid Tarikhaneh di Iran, sejak abad ke-8.
Kekubah[sunting | sunting sumber]
Dalam bangunan Islam, kekubah mengikuti dua gaya seni bina yang berbeza: Sementara seni bina Umayyad meneruskan tradisi Syria pada abad ke 6 dan 7, seni bina Islam Timur terutama dipengaruhi oleh Sasan dan gaya.
Umayyad diafragma gerbang dan kekubah laras[sunting | sunting sumber]
Dalam struktur berkubahnya, bangunan zaman Umayyad menunjukkan campuran tradisi senibina Roman dan Parsi kuno. Diafragma gerbang dengan siling-siling yang dibuat dari kayu atau tiang batu, atau, secara alternatif, dengan peti besi setong dikenal di Levant sejak zaman klasik dan Nabatean. Mereka kebanyakannya digunakan untuk menampung rumah dan kolam. Bentuk seni bina yang meliputi gerbang diafragma dengan peti besi setong, bagaimanapun, mungkin baru diperkenalkan dari seni bina Iran, kerana kubah yang serupa tidak diketahui di Bilad al-Sham sebelum ketibaan Umayyad. Walau bagaimanapun, bentuk ini terkenal di Iran sejak zaman Parthia, seperti yang dicontohkan dalam bangunan Parthia Aššur. Contoh yang paling awal untuk peti besi setong yang terletak di gerbang diafragma dari arsitektur Umayyad dikenali dari Qasr Harane di Syria. Semasa tempoh awal, gerbang diafragma dibina dari papak batu kapur yang dipotong kasar, tanpa menggunakan falsework yang disambungkan oleh gypsum mortar. Kubah masa kemudiannya didirikan menggunakan tulang rusuk yang terbentuk sebelum ini yang terbentuk dari gypsum, yang berfungsi sebagai bentuk temporal untuk membimbing dan memusatkan peti besi. Rusuk-rusuk ini, yang tersisa dalam struktur selepas itu, tidak membawa apa-apa beban. Rusuk dibuang terlebih dahulu pada jalur kain, kesannya masih dapat dilihat di tulang rusuk hari ini. Struktur serupa diketahui dari seni bina Sasanian, contohnya dari istana Firuzabad. Kubah zaman Umayyad jenis ini ditemui di Amman Citadel dan di Qasr Amra.
Semenanjung Iberia[sunting | sunting sumber]
Sistem arked Masjid-Katedral Córdoba pada umumnya dianggap berasal dari Roman akueduk seperti akueduk Los Milagros yang berdekatan. Lajur disambungkan dengan lengkungan gerbang ladam, dan tiang sokongan pertukangan bata, yang pada gilirannya saling terhubung oleh lengkungan separa bulat yang menyokong siling timber yang rata.
Arked Aljafería dari Zaragoza
Dalam penambahan masa kemudian ke Masjid Córdoba, reka bentuk seni bina asas telah berubah: Gerbang ladam kini digunakan untuk barisan atas arked, yang kini disokong oleh gerbang lima pas. Dalam bahagian yang kini menyokong kubah, struktur sokongan tambahan diperlukan untuk menanggung tujahan cupolas. Para arkitek memecahkan masalah ini dengan pembinaan menancapkan gerbang tiga atau lima pas. Ketiga kubah yang merangkumi kubah di atas dinding mihrab dibina sebagai kubah ribuncul. Daripada bertemu di pusat kubah, tulang rusuk bersilang satu sama lain di luar pusat, membentuk bintang lapan-lintang di tengah yang digantikan oleh kubah pendentif.
Kubah berongga di katedral masjid di Córdoba berkhidmat sebagai model untuk bangunan masjid di barat Islam al-Andaluz dan Maghreb. Pada sekitar 1000 AD, Mezquita de Bab al Mardum (hari ini: Masjid de la Luz) di Toledo dibina dengan kubah yang sama dengan lapan rusuk. Kubah serupa juga dilihat di bangunan masjid Aljaferia dari Zaragoza. Bentuk arsitektur kubah yang rusuk dikembangkan lebih lanjut di Maghreb: Kubah pusat Masjid Besar Tlemcen, karya Almoravids yang dibina pada 1082, mempunyai dua belas rusuk langsing, cangkang antara tulang rusuk dipenuhi dengan kerja stuko kikir.
Iran (Parsi)[sunting | sunting sumber]
Oleh kerana sejarah panjang bangunan dan pembinaan semula, merangkumi masa dari Abbasid ke dinasti Qajar, dan keadaan pemuliharaannya yang sangat baik, Masjid Jameh Mosque of Isfahan memberikan gambaran keseluruhan atas eksperimen arkitek Islam yang dilakukan dengan struktur melengkung yang rumit.:66–88
Sistem es squinch, yang merupakan pengisian di sudut atas ruang persegi untuk membentuk pangkalan untuk menerima oktagon al atau bola [[kubah] ], sudah diketahui dalam seni bina Sasanian. Segitiga sfera dipisahkan ke dalam subdivisi atau sistem nukleus yang lebih jauh, yang menghasilkan interaksi kompleks struktur sokongan membentuk corak spatial hiasan yang menyembunyikan berat strukturnya.
"Kekubah tulang rusuk bukan radial", bentuk seni bina kubah berus dengan kubah sfera superimposed, adalah bentuk kebuk arsitektur ciri Timur Islam. Dari permulaannya di Masjid Jameh Isfahan, bentuk vault ini digunakan dalam urutan bangunan-bangunan penting hingga ke zaman senibina Safavid. Ciri utamanya ialah::66–88
- Empat rusuk berpotongan, kadang-kadang berlipat ganda dan bersilang membentuk bintang lapan;
- peninggalan zon peralihan di antara peti besi dan struktur sokongan;
- kubah pusat atau tanglung bumbung di atas peti besi runcit.
Ketika berpotongan pasang tulang rusuk dari ciri-ciri hiasan utama senibina Seljuk, tulang rusuk tersembunyi di belakang unsur-unsur seni bina tambahan pada masa-masa kemudian, seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam kubah Makam Ahmed Sanjar di Merv, sehingga akhirnya mereka hilang sepenuhnya di belakang kubah ganda kubah stuko, seperti yang dilihat di kubah Ālī Qāpū di Isfahan.:66–88
Domes[sunting | sunting sumber]
Based on the model of pre-existing Byzantine domes, the Ottoman Architecture developed a specific form of monumental, representative building: Wide central domes with huge diameters were erected on top of a centre-plan building. Despite their enormous weight, the domes appear virtually weightless. Some of the most elaborate domed buildings have been constructed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.
When the Ottomans had conquered Constantinople, they found a variety of Byzantine Christian churches, the largest and most prominent amongst them was the Hagia Sophia. The brickwork-and-mortar ribs and the spherical shell of the central dome of the Hagia Sophia were built simultaneously, as a self-supporting structure without any wooden centring. In the early Byzantine church of Hagia Irene, the ribs of the dome vault are fully integrated into the shell, similar to Western Roman domes, and thus are not visible from within the building. In the dome of the Hagia Sophia, the ribs and shell of the dome unite in a central medallion at the apex of the dome, the upper ends of the ribs being integrated into the shell: Shell and ribs form one single structural entity. In later Byzantine buildings, like the Kalenderhane Mosque, the Eski Imaret Mosque (formerly the Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes) or the Pantokrator Monastery (today: Zeyrek Mosque), the central medallion of the apex and the ribs of the dome became separate structural elements: The ribs are more pronounced and connect to the central medallion, which also stands out more pronouncedly, so that the entire construction gives the impression as if ribs and medallion are separate from, and underpin, the proper shell of the dome.
Mimar Sinan solved the structural issues of the Hagia Sophia dome by constructing a system of centrally symmetric pillars with flanking semi-domes, as exemplified by the design of the Süleymaniye Mosque (four pillars with two flanking shield walls and two semi-domes, 1550–1557), the Rüstem Pasha Mosque (eight pillars with four diagonal semi-domes, 1561–1563), and the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne (eight pillars with four diagonal semi-domes, 1567/8–1574/5). In the history of architecture, the structure of the Selimiye Mosque has no precedent. All elements of the building subordinate to its great dome.
Muqarnas[sunting | sunting sumber]
The architectural element of muqarnas developed in northeastern Iran and the Maghreb around the middle of the 10th century. The ornament is created by the geometric subdivision of a vaulting structure into miniature, superimposed pointed-arch substructures, also known as "honeycomb", or "stalactite" vaults. Made from different materials like stone, brick, wood or stucco, its use in architecture spread over the entire Islamic world. In the Islamic West, muqarnas are also used to adorn the outside of a dome, cupola, or similar structure, whilst in the East is more limited to the interior face of a vault.
Design of a muqarnas quarter vault from the Topkapı Scroll
Muqarnas in the necropolis of Shah-i-Zinda, Samarqand
Muqarnas in the Alhambra
Ornaments[sunting | sunting sumber]
As a common feature, Islamic architecture makes use of specific ornamental forms, including mathematically complicated, elaborate geometric and interlace patterns, floral motifs like the arabesque, and elaborate calligraphic inscriptions, which serve to decorate a building, specify the intention of the building by the selection of the textual program of the inscriptions. For example, the calligraphic inscriptions adorning the Dome of the Rock include quotations from the Quran (e.g., Quran 19:33–35) which reference the miracle of Jesus and his human nature.
The geometric or floral, interlaced forms, taken together, constitute an infinitely repeated pattern that extends beyond the visible material world. To many in the Islamic world, they symbolize the concept of infinite proves of existence of one eternal God. The repetitiveness, simplicity contrasted with complexity and percision suggests that our complex universe is only one of the many manifestations of the infinitely obvious and present Allah, the one God. Furthermore, the Islamic artist conveys a definite spirituality without the iconography of Christian art. Non-figural ornaments are used in mosques and buildings around the Muslim world, and it is a way of decorating using beautiful, embellishing and repetitive Islamic art instead of using pictures of humans and animals (which some Muslims believe is forbidden (Haram) in Islam).
Instead of recalling something related to the reality of the spoken word, calligraphy for the Muslim is a visible expression of spiritual concepts. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam, al-Qur'ān, has played a vital role in the development of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an are still active sources for Islamic calligraphy. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.
Geometrical tile ornament (Zellij), Ben Youssef Madrasa, Maroc
Calligraphic inscription on the dome of the Mevlana mausoleum
Dome of the Shah Mosque in Isfahan with calligraphic inscription
Architectural forms[sunting | sunting sumber]
Many forms of Islamic architecture have evolved in different regions of the Islamic world. Notable Islamic architectural types include the early Abbasid buildings, T-Type mosques, and the central-dome mosques of Anatolia. The oil-wealth of the 20th century drove a great deal of mosque construction using designs from leading modern architects.
Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques, pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. These mosques are square or rectangular in plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered prayer hall. Historically, because of the warm Mediterranean and Middle Eastern climates, the courtyard served to accommodate the large number of worshippers during Friday prayers. Most early hypostyle mosques have flat roofs on top of prayer halls, necessitating the use of numerous columns and supports. One of the most notable hypostyle mosques is the Mezquita in Córdoba, Spain, as the building is supported by over 850 columns. Frequently, hypostyle mosques have outer arcades so that visitors can enjoy some shade. Arab-plan mosques were constructed mostly under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties; subsequently, however, the simplicity of the Arab plan limited the opportunities for further development, and as a result, these mosques gradually fell out of popularity.
The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century and have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having one large dome at the center, there are often smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed. This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes.
Specific architectural elements[sunting | sunting sumber]
Islamic architecture may be identified with the following design elements, which were inherited from the first mosque buildings (originally a feature of the Masjid al-Nabawi).
- Minarets or towers (these were originally used as torch-lit watchtowers, as seen in the Great Mosque of Damascus; hence the derivation of the word from the Arabic nur, meaning "light"). The minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia is considered as the oldest surviving minaret in the world. It has the shape of a square massive tower of three superimposed sections.
- A four-iwan plan, with three subordinate halls and one principal one that faces toward Mecca
- Mihrab or prayer niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca.
- Domes and Cupolas. In South East Asia (Indonesia and Malaysia), these are very recent additions.
- Pishtaq is the formal gateway to the iwan, usually the main prayer hall of a mosque, a vaulted hall or space, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open; a Persian term for a portal projecting from the facade of a building, usually decorated with calligraphy bands, glazed tilework, and geometric designs.
- Iwans to intermediate between different pavilions.
- Balconies are a common feature of Islamic domestic architecture due to the warm climates in most countries. Balconies also became an architectural element of some mosques, such as the Turkish royal boxes hünkâr mahfili, or "that in the Bara Gunbad complex at Delhi (1494)".
Qibla[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Qiblah (Bahasa Arab: قِـبْـلَـة) is the direction in which Mecca is from any given location, and within Islamic architecture it is a major component of both the features and the orientation of the building itself. Ancient Islamic cities and the Mihrab in mosques were meant to be built facing in this direction, yet when actually observing the layout of such areas they do not all point to the same place. This is due to discrepancies in the calculations of the Islamic scientists in the past who determined where Mecca was from their individual locations. Scholars note that these differences come about for a multitude of reasons, such as some misunderstanding the meaning of Qibla itself, the fact that the geographic coordinates of the past do not line up with the coordinates of today, and that the determination of this direction was more an astronomical calculation, rather than a mathematical one. Early mosques were constructed according to either the calculations of what direction Qibla was approximately, or with the Mihrab facing south, as that was the direction that the Prophet Muhammad was facing when he prayed in Medina, which is a city directly north of Mecca
Towns and cities[sunting | sunting sumber]
Urban and nomadic life according to Ibn Khaldun[sunting | sunting sumber]
During its history, the society of the pre-modern Islamic world was dominated by two important social contexts, nomadic life and Urbanism. The historian and politician Ibn Khaldun thoroughly discusses both concepts in his book Muqaddimah. According to him, the way of life and culture of the rural bedouin nomads and the townspeople are opposed in a central social conflict. Ibn Khaldun explains the rise and fall of civilizations by his concept of Asabiyyah ("bond of cohesion", or "family loyalty"), as exemplified by the rule of the caliphs. Bedouins, being the nomadic inhabitants of the steppe and the desert, are interconnected by strong bonds of asabiyyah and firm religious beliefs. These bonds tend to slacken in urban communities over some generations. In parallel, by losing their asabiyyah, the townspeople also lose the power to defend themselves, and fall victims to more aggressive tribes which may destroy the city and set up a new ruling dynasty, which over time is subject to the same weakening of power again.
Experiments with the hellenistic ideal city[sunting | sunting sumber]
The antique concept of the architecture of a Greek polis or Roman civitas is based on a structure of main and smaller roads running through the entire city, and dividing it into quarters. The streets are oriented towards public buildings like a palace, temple, or a public square. Two main roads, (cardo and decumanus) cross each other at right angles in the center of the city. A few cities were founded during the early Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, the outlines of which were based on the Ancient Roman concept of the ideal city. An example of a city planned according to Hellenistic concepts was excavated at Anjar in Lebanon.
Transformation of conquered towns[sunting | sunting sumber]
More often than founding new cities, the new Islamic rulers took over existing towns, and transformed them according to the needs of the new Islamic society. This process of transformation proved to be decisive for the development of the traditional Islamic city, or Medina. The principle of arranging buildings is known as "horizontal spread". Residencies and public buildings as well as private housing tend to be laid out separately, and are not directly related to each other architectonically. Archaeological excavations at the city of Jerash, the Gerasa of Antiquity, have revealed how the Umayyads have transformed the city plan.
Urban morphology of the Medina[sunting | sunting sumber]
The architecture of the "oriental"-Islamic town is based on cultural and sociological concepts which differ from those of European cities. In both cultures, a distinction is made between the areas used by the rulers and their government and administration, public places of everyday common life, and the areas of private life. Whilst the structures and concepts of European towns originated from a sociological struggle to gain basic rights of freedom – or town privileges – from political or religious authorities during the Middle Ages, an Islamic town or city is fundamentally influenced by the preservation of the unity of secular and religious life throughout time.
The fundamental principle of the Islamic society is the ummah, or ummat al-Islamiyah (Bahasa Arab: الأمة الإسلامية), the community of Muslims of whom each individual is equally submitted to Allah under the common law of sharia, which also subjected the respective ruler, at least nominally. In Abbasid times, some cities like the Round city of Baghdad were constructed from scratch, set up to a plan which focused on the caliph's residence, located in the very centre of the city, with main roads leading radially from the city gates to the central palace, dividing individual tribal sections with no interconnection, and separated from each other by radial walls. However, these efforts were of short duration only, and the original plan soon disappeared and gave way to succeeding buildings and architectural structures.
In a medina, palaces and residences as well as public places like mosque-madrasa-hospital complexes and private living spaces rather coexist alongside each other. The buildings tend to be more inwardly oriented, and are separated from the surrounding "outside" either by walls or by the hierarchical ordering of the streets, or both. Streets tend to lead from public main roads to cul-de-sac byroads and onwards into more private plots, and then end there. There are no, or very few, internal connections between different quarters of the city. In order to move from one quarter to the next, one has to go back to the main road again.
Within a city quarter, byroads lead towards individual building complexes or clusters of houses. The individual house is frequently also oriented towards an inner atrium, and enclosed by walls, which mostly are unadorned, unlike European outward-oriented, representative facades. Thus, the spatial structure of a medina essentially reflects the ancient nomadic tradition of living in a family group or tribe, held together by asabiyya, strictly separated from the "outside". In general, the morphology of an Islamic medina is granting – or denying – access according to the basic concept of hierarchical degrees of privacy. The inhabitants move from public space to the living quarters of their tribe, and onwards to their family home. Within a family house, there are again to be found common and separate spaces, the latter, and most private, usually reserved for women and children. In the end, only the family heads have free and unlimited access to all rooms and areas of ther private home, as opposed to the more European concept of interconnecting different spaces for free and easy access. The hierarchy of privacy thus guides and structurizes the entire social life in a medina, from the caliph down to his most humble subject, from the town to the house.
Frontier fortresses and towns[sunting | sunting sumber]
Misr, Ribat[sunting | sunting sumber]
In the frontier area of the Arabic expansion, military forts (Misr, Pl. Bahasa Arab: أَمْـصَـار, amṣār), or Ribāṭ (Bahasa Arab: رِبَـاط, fortress) were founded. The structure and function of a misr is similar to an ancient Roman Colonia. Like a frontier colony, the fortress served as a base for further conquests. Arabian military forts of this type were frequently built in the vicinity of an older town from Antiquity or from Byzantine times. They frequently were of square format.
Rather than maintaining their original purpose to serve as a military base, many amṣār developed into urbane and administrative centers. In particular, this happened in the case of the Iraqi cities of Kufa and Basra, which became known as "al-miṣrān" ("the [two] forts"), but also with Fustat and Kairouan in North Africa.
Qaṣr[sunting | sunting sumber]
Qaṣr (Bahasa Arab: قَ،صْـر'; Pl. Bahasa Arab: قصور, quṣūr) means palace, castle or (frontier) fort. Fortresses from Late Antiquity often continued to be in use, whilst their function changed during time. Some quṣūr were already used as Castra during Roman times, and were part of the fortifications of the North African Limes. Already during the Ancient Roman times, castra did not only serve as fortifications, but also as markets and meeting points for the tribes living beyond the border.
Smaller quṣūr are found in modern Jordan, and include Qasr Al-Hallabat (located 50 km (31 mi) east of Amman), Qasr Bushir (15 km (9.3 mi) north of Lajjun), the castle of Daganiya (45 km (28 mi) north of Ma'an) and Odruh (22 km (14 mi) east of Wadi Musa). After the Limes Arabicus was abandoned by the Roman Empire, many of the castra continued to be in use. This continuity was subject to archaeological investigations in the fort of Qasr al-Hallabat, which at different times served as a Roman castrum, Christian cenobitic monastery, and finally as an Umayyad Qasr. Qasr Al-Kharanah is one of the earliest known Desert castles, its architectural form clearly demonstrates the influence of Sasanian architecture.
According to a hypothesis developed by Jean Sauvaget, the umayyad quṣūr played a role in the systematic agricultural colonisation of the uninhabited frontier areas, and, as such, continue the colonisation strategy of earlier Christian monks and the Ghassanids. The Umayyads, however, increasingly oriented their political strategy towards a model of Client politics, of mutual interdependence and support. After the Umayyad conquest, the quṣūr lost their original function and were either abandoned or continued to serve as local market places and meeting points until the tenth century. Another type of Islamic fortress is the Qalat.
Early history[sunting | sunting sumber]
There are few buildings dating from the era of Prophet Muhammad, but one example is the Jawatha Mosque in Saudi Arabia. The Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) was the first state to use Islamic Architecture.[petikan diperlukan]
The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) combined elements of Byzantine architecture and Sassanid architecture, but Umayyad architecture introduced new combinations of these western and eastern styles. The horseshoe arch appears for the first time in Umayyad architecture, later to evolve to its most advanced form in al-Andalus. Umayyad architecture is distinguished by the extent and variety of decoration, including mosaics, wall painting, sculpture and carved reliefs with Islamic motifs. The Umayyads introduced a transept that divided the prayer room along its shorter axis. They also added the mihrab to mosque design. The mosque in Medina built by al-Walid I had the first mihrab, a niche on the qibla wall, which seems to have represented the place where the Prophet stood when leading prayer. This almost immediately became a standard feature of all mosques.
The Abbasid architecture of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1513) was strongly influenced by Sassanid architecture, and later by Central Asian styles. The Abbasid mosques all followed the courtyard plan. The earliest was the mosque that al-Mansur built in Baghdad. since destroyed. The Great Mosque of Samarra built by al-Mutawakkil was 256 oleh 139 meter (840 oleh 456 ka). A flat wooden roof was supported by columns. The mosque was decorated with marble panels and glass mosaics. The prayer hall of the Abu Dulaf mosque at Samarra had arcades on rectangular brick piers running at right angles to the qibla wall. Both of the Samarra mosques have spiral minarets, the only examples in Iraq. A mosque at Balkh in what is now Afghanistan was about 20 oleh 20 meter (66 oleh 66 ka) square, with three rows of three square bays, supporting nine vaulted domes.
Construction of the Great Mosque at Córdoba (now a cathedral known as the Mezquita) beginning in 785 CE marks the beginning of Moorish architecture in the Iberian peninsula and North Africa (see Moors). The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra, the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada, with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red, blue, and gold. The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs, Arabic inscriptions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in glazed tile. Their other, smaller, survivals such as the Bab Mardum in Toledo, or the caliphal city of Medina Azahara. Moorish architecture has its roots deeply established in the Arab tradition of architecture and design established during the era of the first Caliphate of the Umayyads in the Levant circa 660AD with its capital Damascus having very well preserved examples of fine Arab Islamic design and geometrics, including the carmen, which is the typical Damascene house, opening on the inside with a fountain as the house's centre piece.
Fatimid architecture in Egypt followed Tulunid techniques and used similar materials, but also developed those of their own. In Cairo, their first congregational mosque was al-Azhar mosque ("the splendid") founded along with the city (969–973), which, together with its adjacent institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University), became the spiritual center for Ismaili Shia. The Mosque of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), an important example of Fatimid architecture and architectural decoration, played a critical role in Fatimid ceremonial and procession, which emphasized the religious and political role of the Fatimid caliph. Besides elaborate funerary monuments, other surviving Fatimid structures include the Aqmar Mosque (1125) and the Al-Hakim Mosque, as well as the monumental gates for Cairo's city walls commissioned by the powerful Fatimid emir and vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. 1073–1094).
The reign of the Mamluks (1250–1517 AD) in Egypt marked a breathtaking flowering of Islamic art which is most visible in old Cairo. Religious zeal made them generous patrons of architecture and art. Trade and agriculture flourished under Mamluk rule, and Cairo, their capital, became one of the wealthiest cities in the Near East and the center of artistic and intellectual activity. This made Cairo, in the words of Ibn Khaldun, "the center of the universe and the garden of the world", with majestic domes, courtyards, and soaring minarets spread across the city.
Regional styles[sunting | sunting sumber]
Persian[sunting | sunting sumber]
The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century availed the Muslims with the vast wealth of architectural innovation developed over the centuries, from the great roads, aqueducts and arches of the Roman Empire, to the Byzantine basilicas and Persian arches, and the Sassanian and Byzantine mosaics. The Islamic architects first utilized these native architects to build mosques, and eventually developed their own adaptations. Islamic architecture thus is directly related to Persian and Byzantine architecture.
In Persia and Central Asia, the Tahirids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Ghurids struggled for power in the 10th century, and art was a vital element of this competition. Great cities were built, such as Nishapur and Ghazni (Afghanistan), and the construction of the Great Mosque of Isfahan (which would continue, in fits and starts, over several centuries) was initiated. Funerary architecture was also cultivated.
Under the Seljuqs the "Iranian plan" of mosque construction appears for the first time. Lodging places called khans, or caravanserai, for travellers and their animals, or caravansarais, generally displayed utilitarian rather than ornamental architecture, with rubble masonry, strong fortifications, and minimal comfort. Seljuq architecture synthesized various styles, both Iranian and Syrian, sometimes rendering precise attributions difficult. Another important architectural trend to arise in the Seljuk era is the development of mausolea including the tomb tower such as the Gunbad-i-qabus (circa 1006-7) (showcasing a Zoroastrian motif) and the domed square, an example of which is the tomb of the Samanids in the city of Bukhara (circa 943).
The Il-Khanate period provided several innovations to dome-building that eventually enabled the Persians to construct much taller structures. These changes later paved the way for Safavid architecture. The pinnacle of Il-Khanate architecture was reached with the construction of the Soltaniyeh Dome (1302–1312) in Zanjan, Iran, which measures 50 m in height and 25 m in diameter, making it the 3rd largest and the tallest masonry dome ever erected. The thin, double-shelled dome was reinforced by arches between the layers. The tomb of Öljeitü in Soltaniyeh is one of the greatest and most impressive monuments in Iran, despite many later depredations.
Iranian architecture and city planning also reached an apogee under the Timurids, in particular with the monuments of Samarkand, marked by extensive use of exterior ceramic tiles and muqarnas vaulting within.
The renaissance in Persian mosque and dome building came during the Safavid dynasty, when Shah Abbas, in 1598 initiated the reconstruction of Isfahan, with the Naqsh-e Jahan Square as the centerpiece of his new capital. The distinct feature of Persian domes, which separates them from those domes created in the Christian world or the Ottoman and Mughal empires, was the colorful tiles, with which they covered the exterior of their domes, as they would on the interior. These domes soon numbered dozens in Isfahan, and the distinct, blue- colored shape would dominate the skyline of the city. Reflecting the light of the sun, these domes appeared like glittering turquoise gem and could be seen from miles away by travelers following the Silk road through Persia. This very distinct style of architecture was inherited to them from the Seljuq dynasty, who for centuries had used it in their mosque building, but it was perfected during the Safavids when they invented the haft- rangi, or seven- colour style of tile burning, a process that enabled them to apply more colours to each tile, creating richer patterns, sweeter to the eye. The colours that the Persians favoured were golden, white and turquoise patterns on a dark- blue background. The extensive inscription bands of calligraphy and arabesque on most of the major buildings where carefully planned and executed by Ali Reza Abbasi, who was appointed head of the royal library and Master calligrapher at the Shah's court in 1598, while Shaykh Bahai oversaw the construction projects. Reaching 53 meters in height, the dome of Masjed-e Shah (Shah Mosque) would become the tallest in the city when it was finished in 1629. It was built as a double- shelled dome, with 14 m spanning between the two layers, and resting on an octagonal dome chamber.
Persian-style mosques are also characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades and arches each supported by several pillars. In South Asia, such art was also used as was a technique throughout the region.
The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century also helped Islamic architecture to flourish in Azerbaijan. The country became home of Nakchivan and Shirvan-Absheron architecture schools. An example of the first direction in the Azerbaijani Islamic architecture is the mausoleum of Yusuf, built in 1162.[petikan diperlukan]
The Shirvan-Absheron school unlike Nakchivan style used stones instead of the bricks in the construction. At the same characteristics of this trend were the asymmetry and stone carving, which includes famous landmarks like Palace of the Shirvanshahs
Ottoman[sunting | sunting sumber]
The standard plan of Ottoman architecture was inspired in part by the example of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople/Istanbul, Ilkhanid works like Oljeitu Tomb and earlier Seljuk and Anatolian Beylik monumental buildings and their own original innovations. The most famous of Ottoman architects was (and remains) Mimar Sinan, who lived for approximately one hundred years and designed several hundreds of buildings, of which two of the most important are Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. Apprentices of Sinan later built the famous Blue Mosque in Istanbul.
The most numerous and largest of mosques exist in Turkey, which obtained influence from Byzantine, Persian and Syrian-Arab designs. Turkish architects implemented their own style of cupola domes. For almost 500 years Byzantine architecture such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.
The Ottomans mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as light and shadow. Islamic religious architecture which until then consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations, was transformed by the Ottomans through a dynamic architectural vocabulary of vaults, domes, semidomes and columns. The mosque was transformed from being a cramped and dark chamber with arabesque-covered walls into a sanctuary of esthetic and technical balance, refined elegance and a hint of heavenly transcendence.
Turkistani (Timurid)[sunting | sunting sumber]
Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Mughal school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. The style is largely derived from Persian architecture. Axial symmetry is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shah-i-Zinda in Samarkand and the mosque of Gowhar Shad in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors.
Moroccan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Moroccan architecture dates from 110 BCE with the Berber's massive pisé (mud brick) buildings. The architecture has been influenced by Islamization during the Idrisid dynasty, Moorish exiles from Spain, and also by France who occupied Morocco in 1912. Morocco is in Northwest Africa bordering the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. The country's diverse geography and the land's long history marked by successive waves of settlers and military encroachments are all reflected in Morocco's architecture. Moroccan Islamic architecture is also present outside the country. For example, Sheikha Salama Mosque in the UAE city of Al Ain has two minarets which partly look Moroccan.
Yemenite[sunting | sunting sumber]
Yemenite architecture Is the architecture that characterizes houses built on several floors, some of the floors used as a line A storage room with removable stairs. The houses are made of mud bricks mixed with Gypsum.
Russian[sunting | sunting sumber]
Russian -Islamic architecture is a feature of the architecture of the Tatars, formed under the influence of a sedentary and nomadic way of life in ancient times, developing in the epochs of the Golden Horde, the Tatar khanates and under the rule of the Russian Empire. The architecture was formed in the modern form for many centuries and depended on the culture, aesthetics and religion of the population, therefore combines a unique combination of Eastern, Russian, Bulgarian, Golden Horde architecture, European styles dominating in Russia at one time or another, especially this Is clearly reflected in the Tatar mosques.
Indian[sunting | sunting sumber]
The most known Indo-Islamic style is Mughal architecture. Its most prominent examples are the series of imperial mausolea, which started with the pivotal Tomb of Humayun, but is best known for the Taj Mahal, completed in 1648 by emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child. The Taj Mahal is completely symmetrical except for Shah Jahan's sarcophagus, which is placed off center in the crypt room below the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in black marble to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure. A famous example of the charbagh style of Mughal garden is the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, where the domeless Tomb of Jahangir is also located. Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad which was commissioned by sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in memory of his wife. The Red Fort in Delhi and Agra Fort are huge castle-like fortified palaces, and the abandoned city of Fatehpur Sikri, 26 miles (42 km) west of Agra, was built for Akbar in the late 16th century. While the Deccan sultanates in the Southern regions of the Indian subcontinent developed the Indo-Islamic Deccani architectural styles like Charminar and Gol Gumbaz.
Within the Indian subcontinent, the Bengali region developed a distinct regional style under the independent Bengal Sultanate. It incorporated influences from Persia, Byzantium and North India, which were with blended indigenous Bengali elements, such as curved roofs, corner towers and complex terracotta ornamentation. One feature in the sultanate was the relative absence of minarets. Many small and medium-sized medieval mosques, with multiple domes and artistic niche mihrabs, were constructed throughout the region. The grand mosque of Bengal was the 14th century Adina Mosque, the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent. Built of stone demolished from temples, it featured a monumental ribbed barrel vault over the central nave, the first such giant vault used anywhere in the subcontinent. The mosque was modeled on the imperial Sasanian style of Persia. The Sultanate style flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. A provincial style influenced by North India evolved in Mughal Bengal during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Mughals also copied the Bengali do-chala roof tradition for mausoleums in North India.
Chinese[sunting | sunting sumber]
The first Chinese mosque was established in the 7th century during the Tang Dynasty in Xi'an. The Great Mosque of Xi'an, whose current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, does not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, it follows traditional Chinese architecture. Some Chinese mosques in parts of western China were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.
As in other regions, Chinese Islamic architecture reflects the local architecture in its style; some Chinese mosques resemble temples. In western China, mosques resemble those of the Arab World, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome shaped roofs. In northwest China where the Chinese Hui have built their mosques, there is a combination of eastern and western styles. The mosques have flared Buddhist style roofs set in walled courtyards entered through archways with miniature domes and minarets.
Indonesian-Malaysian[sunting | sunting sumber]
Southeast Asia was slow to adopt Middle Eastern architectural styles. Islam entered Indonesia in the 15th-century via Java island, during which period the dominant religion in Southeast Asia included a variety of pagan groups. Introduction of Islam was peaceful. Existing architectural features in Indonesia such as the candi bentar gate, paduraksa (normally marks entrance to the most sacred precincts), and the sacred pyramidal roof was used for Islamic architecture. For centuries, Indonesian mosques lacked domes or minarets, both considered a Middle Eastern origin. Indonesian original mosques feature multi-layered pyramidal roofs and no minaret. Prayer are called by striking a prayer's drum known as beduk. The minaret of the Menara Kudus Mosque is a great example of Indonesian architecture. Indonesian mosque architecture also features strong influence from the Middle Eastern architecture styles.
Today, with increasing Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Indonesian-Malaysian mosques are developing a more standard, international style, with a dome and minaret.
Sahelian[sunting | sunting sumber]
In West Africa, Muslim merchants played a vital role in the Western Sahel region since the Kingdom of Ghana. At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer. The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné.
Somali[sunting | sunting sumber]
The spread of Islam in the early medieval era of Somalia's history brought Islamic architectural influences from Arabia and Persia, which stimulated a shift from drystone and other related materials in construction to coral stone, sundried bricks, and the widespread use of limestone in Somali architecture. Many of the new architectural designs such as mosques were built on the ruins of older structures, a practice that would continue over and over again throughout the following centuries. Concordant with the ancient presence of Islam in the Horn of Africa region, mosques in Somalia are some of the oldest on the entire continent. One architectural feature that made Somali mosques distinct from other mosques in Africa were minarets.
For centuries, Arba Rukun (1269), the Friday mosque of Merca (1609) and Fakr ad-Din (1269) were, in fact, the only mosques in East Africa to have minarets. Fakr ad-Din, which dates back to the Mogadishan Golden Age, was built with marble and coral stone and included a compact rectangular plan with a domed mihrab axis. Glazed tiles were also used in the decoration of the mihrab, one of which bears a dated inscription. The 13th century Al Gami University consisted of a rectangular base with a large cylindrical tower architecturally unique in the Islamic world.
Shrines to honor Somali patriarchs and matriarchs evolved from ancient Somali burial customs. In Southern Somalia the preferred medieval shrine architecture was the Pillar tomb style while the North predominantly built structures consisting of domes and square plans.
Interpretation[sunting | sunting sumber]
Common interpretations of Islamic architecture include the following: The concept of God or Allah's infinite power is evoked by designs with repeating themes which suggest infinity. Human and animal forms are rarely depicted in decorative art as God's work is considered to be matchless. Foliage is a frequent motif but typically stylized or simplified for the same reason. Arabic Calligraphy is used to enhance the interior of a building by providing quotations from the Qur'an. Islamic architecture has been called the "architecture of the veil" because the beauty lies in the inner spaces (courtyards and rooms) which are not visible from the outside (street view). Furthermore, the use of grandiose forms such as large domes, towering minarets, and large courtyards are intended to convey power.
In modern times[sunting | sunting sumber]
In modern times, the architecture of Islamic buildings, not just religious ones, has gone through some changes. The new architectural style doesn't stick with the same fundamental aspects that were seen in the past, but mosques for the most part still feature the same parts - the Miḥrāb (Bahasa Arab: مِـحْـرَاب), the minarets, four-iwan plan, and the pishtaq. A difference to note is the appearance of mosques without domes, as in the past mosques for the most part all had them, but these new dome-less mosques seem to follow a function over form design, and are created by those not of the Islamic faith, in most cases. The influence of Islam still pervades the style of creation itself, and provides a 'conceptual framework', for the making of a building that exemplifies the styles and beliefs of Islam. It has also been influenced by the now meeting of many different cultures, such as European styles meeting Islamic styles, leading to Islamic architects incorporating features of other architectural and cultural styles.
Urban design and Islam[sunting | sunting sumber]
Urban design and the tradition of Islamic styled architecture have begun to combine to form a new 'neo-Islamic' style, where the efficiency of the urban style meshes with the spirituality and aesthetic characteristics of Islamic styles. Islamic Architecture in itself is a style that showcases the values, and the culture of Islam, but in modern times sticking to tradition is falling out of practice, so a combination style formed. Examples showing this are places such as the Marrakesh Menara Airport, the Islamic Cultural Center and Museum of Tolerance, Masjid Permata Qolbu, the concept for The Vanishing Mosque, and the Mazar-e-Quaid. All of these buildings show the influence of Islam over them, but also the movements of things like minimalism which are rising to popularity in the architectural field. Designers that use the aspects of both modern styles and the Islamic styles found a way to have the Western-inspired modernism with the classical cultural aspects of Islamic architecture. This concept though brings up the controversy of the identity of the Islamic community, of the traditional Islamic community, within a space that doesn't follow the way they knew it.
Debates on status as a style of architecture[sunting | sunting sumber]
There are some who also debate whether Islamic Architecture can truly be called a style, as the religious aspect is seen as separate and having no bearing on the architectural style, while on the other side people also argue that the newfound trend and divergence from the style of old Islamic Architecture is what is causing the style to lose it status. There are scholars that also believe that the distinguishing features of the Islamic Architecture style were not necessarily found within the architecture, but were rather environmental markers, such as the sounds of prayer, the city around it, the events that occurred there. The example given is that we know that a building is a mosque based on what happens there, rather than any visual cues. Specific features that are notably related to Islamic Architecture - the Mihrab, the Minaret, and the Gate - are seen in multiple locations and do not always serve the same use, and symbolism for being Islamic in nature is seen to be demonstrated more culturally than it is architecturally. Islamic Architecture is also sometimes referred to as a 'hidden architecture', one that doesn't necessarily show the physical traits of the style, rather it is something that is experienced.
Connections & deeper meanings[sunting | sunting sumber]
Islamic architecture displays intricate patterns, colors, and details embodying the Islamic culture. Such widespread religious displays typically have deeper meanings and connections. Islamic architecture is unique in this case because interior designs often lack or have unknown religious connections. This is caused by the Muslim ideology Shirk, stating that an attempt to depict any earthly beings as holy is sinful. Shirk is unlike Western cultural ideals, often consisting of a large amount of religious symbolism in earthly beings. Due to this, symbolism in Islamic architecture is not as easily accessible compared to that of Western religious architecture.
Difficulty forming connections[sunting | sunting sumber]
Islamic architecture is a neglected subject within historical studies. Many scholars that study historical architecture often gloss over, if not completely ignore Islamic structures. This is caused by multiple elements, one being that there is little historic literary works that express an Islamic architect's motives with their structures. Due to the massively spanning Islamic religion, there is a large variation between thousands of existing mosques with little consistency between them. Lastly, since it is against Islamic faith to idolize earthly beings, any depictions of earthly beings lack religious connection. These characteristics combine to make it difficult for historians to form symbolic connections from architecture in Islamic places of worship.
Religious and societal connections[sunting | sunting sumber]
Islamic architecture is unique compared to other vast religions that encompass much of the West. Unlike Christianity, Islam does not sensationalize living beings because they view it as a conflict with the Qur'an. Anything created by Allah is under his order and thus should not be idolized. This leaves typical religious Western symbols out of the picture, and replaces them with an emphasis on complex geometrical shapes and patterns.
There are several aspects of Islamic architecture that to modern knowledge lack a symbolic religious meaning, but there are connections that do exist. A repeated and significant motif in mosques is calligraphy. Calligraphy plays a huge role in delivering religious connections through artistic design. Calligraphy, in a mosque setting, is specifically used to reference holy excerpts from both the Qur’an and Prophet Muhammad's teachings. These references are one of the few religious connections architects include within their work.
Status and hierarchy[sunting | sunting sumber]
Islamic architecture varies vastly across the scope of the world. Specifically, some mosques have different goals and intentions than others. These intentions often highlighted religious and social hierarchies within the mosque. Mosques are designed to have the least significant portions of the layout closest to the entrance, as people move deeper into the building more significant religious areas are revealed. Hierarchy is also present because certain Islamic architects are tasked to design specifically for the presence of royalty. Designated locations had been carefully chosen in the mosque to highlight an individual's position in society. This emphasis could be made through being within view to all attendees, placed in the focal point of artistry, and a maqsurah. 
Maintaining a sociological hierarchy within a mosque would typically represent a recognition by a higher being aware of a delegation of power. This hierarchy does exist but not with any sort of religious message as Hillenbrand points out, “in neither case is this hierarchy employed for especially portentous ends.”  Hierarchy exist in the church in different forms, but is meant for purely functional purposes.
Structural intentions[sunting | sunting sumber]
Deeper meanings in Islamic architecture often can take form as functional purposes. For example, mosques are built around the ideal that it should not just be a place of mesmerizing aesthetics, but a place where the aesthetics’ fluidity guide the person into proper worship.
A key feature of the mosque is the Mihrab, a universal part of any Islamic place of worship. The Mihrab is easily identifiable through a receding wall and a gable over head often consisting of intricate patterns. Upon entering, the most crucial religious function the architecture of the mosque serves to deliver is the Qibla. The Qibla is necessary for proper Islamic worship, and is revealed through architectural means.
Arkitek Islam kontemporari[sunting | sunting sumber]
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
Galeri[sunting | sunting sumber]
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, Penguin Books Ltd., 1965, p. 285.
- Fletcher, Banister A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method 4th Edition, London, p. 476.
- Copplestone, p.149
- "A Tour of Architecture in Islamic Cities". Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2007-03-17. Dicapai 2018-12-10.
- UNESCO: Syria's Six World Heritage sites placed on List of World Heritage in Danger". 20 June 2013, accessed 1 February 2016
- Hamid Aghaei Rad author. ; Nader Ardalan; Laleh Bakhtiar Second Version., Sydney Built Environment Publishing, 2016
- Avner, Rina "The Dome of the Rock in Light of the development of Concentric Martyria in Jerusalem" article in "Muqarnas: An annual on the visual cultures of the Islamic World" Vol 27, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2010, p. 43–44
- The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Martin Biddle. p.68
- Flood, Finbarr Barry The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2000, p. 67–68. "The vine frieze finds various counterparts in the decoration of pre-Islamic Syrian temples and churches ..."
- "Green-man-of-cercles.org" (PDF). Dicapai 30 December 2017.
- Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978-0-500-20305-7
- Gruber, World of Art
- Hillenbrand (1999).
- Petrie, Graham Tunis, Kairouan & Carthage: described and illustrated with forty-eight paintings William Heinemann, London, 1908, p. 199.
- S. Kleiner, Fred and Helen Gardner Gardner's Art through the Ages: Backpack Edition, Volume C, 14th ed., Book 3 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, 2005, p. 89.
- Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara mediterranean heritage) Diarkibkan 2015-02-09 di Wayback Machine.
- Grabar, O. (2006) p.87
- Ettinghausen (2003), p.87
- Stewart, Charles Anthony Flying Buttress and Pointed Arch in Byzantine Cyprus Accessed August 2013.
- Lihat Karamagara Bridge dan Byzantine architecture dan Taq-i-Kisra.
- Bloom, Jonathan M. (2017-05-15). Early Islamic Art and Architecture. Routledge. m/s. 69. ISBN 9781351942584.
- Tonna (1990), pp.182–197
- Huff, D. "ARCHITECTURE iii. Sasanian Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Dicapai 16 March 2019.
- Hoag, John D. (2004). Islamic architecture. Milan: Electaarchitecture. m/s. 7–9. ISBN 978-1-904313-29-8.
- Karin Bartl; Abd al-Razzaq Moaz, para penyunting (2009). Residences, castles, settlements. Transformation processes from late antiquity to early Islam in Bilad al-Sham. Rahden/Germany: Marie Leidorf GmbH. m/s. XV. ISBN 978-3-89646-654-9.
- Bourgoin, Jules (1867). Les arts Arabes. Paris: A. Morel.
- Giovanni Theresia Rivoira, Gordon M. Rushforth (Transl.) (1918). Moslem (!) architecture. Its origin and development. Oxford University Press. online, accessed 26 January 2016
- Flood, Finbarr B. (2001). The great mosque of Damascus. Studies on the makings of an Umayyad visual culture. Leiden: Brill. m/s. 10–12; 203–206. ISBN 978-90-04-11638-2.
- Xenephon (January 1998). Oeconomicus. Gutenberg Press. Dicapai 11 June 2015.
- D. Fairchild Ruggles, Islamic Gardens and Landscapes, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008, p.39
- Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "The Persian Garden". Whc.unesco.org. Dicapai 30 December 2017.
- Ignacio Arce (2006): Umayyad arches, vaults & domes: Merging and re-creation. Contributions to early Islamic construction history. In: Proceedings of the second international congress on construction history Vol. I. Queen's College, Cambridge University 29.03.–02.04.2006, S. 195–220 PDF, accessed 1 February 2016
- Giese-Vögeli, Francine (2007). Das islamische Rippengewölbe : Ursprung, Form, Verbreitung [Islamic rib vaults: Origins, form, spread]. Berlin: Gebr. Mann. ISBN 978-3-7861-2550-1.
- Schippmann, Klaus (1971). Die iranischen Feuerheiligtümer = Iranian Fire temples (dalam bahasa German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-001879-0. Dicapai 23 January 2016.
- Auguste Choisy (1883). L'art de bâtir chez les Byzantins. Paris: Librairie de la société anonyme. m/s. 67–69.
- Jean Ebersoll; Adolphe Thiers (1913). Les églises de Constantinople. Paris: Ernest Leroux. m/s. 69.
- Jean Ebersoll; Adolphe Thiers (1913). Les églises de Constantinople. Paris: Ernest Leroux. m/s. 100–117; 178–188; 192–214.
- Blair, Sheila; Bloom, Jonathan M. (1995). The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250–1800. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06465-0.
- Doğan Kuban (1987). "The Style of Sinan's Domed Structures". dalam Oleg Grabar. Muqarnas IV: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (PDF). Leiden. m/s. 77 dead-url=yes. Diarkibkan daripada asal (PDF) pada 2004-06-24.
- Necipoğlu, Gülru (2005). The Age of Sinan. Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-253-9.
- Sheila R. Canby, Islamic art in detail, page 26. Harvard University Press, 2005.
- Hillenbrand, R. P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs, para penyunting. Masdjid. I. In the central Islamic lands. Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
- "Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dicapai 2006-04-09.
- "Vocabulary of Islamic Architecture". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2005-11-24. Dicapai 2006-04-09.
- Titus Burckhardt, Art of Islam, Language and Meaning: Commemorative Edition. World Wisdom. 2009. p.128
- Dictionary of Islamic architecture: Pishtaq Diarkibkan 2011-06-29 di Wayback Machine. archnet.org.
- Pishtaq Britannica.com.
- Graves, Margaret. "Balconies in Islamic Architecture". Grove Art Online.; “Wooden balconies projecting at upper levels and constructed with latticed screens to ensure privacy but allow air circulation were a feature of Islamic domestic architecture in many countries, and specific types developed in particular areas over time, such as the wooden screen known as mashrabiya in Egypt and the shanashil in Iraq”
- King, David (Aug 1, 1995). "The Orientation of Medieval Islamic Religious Architecture and Cities". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 26 (3): 253–274. Bibcode:1995JHA....26..253K. doi:10.1177/002182869502600305 – melalui ProQuest.
- The Muqaddimah, translated by F. Rosenthal (III, pp. 311–15, 271-4 [Arabic]; Richard Nelson Frye (p. 91) online, accessed 26 January 2016.
- Finster, Barbara (2009). Anjar: spätantik oder frühislamisch? = Anjar: Late antique or early Islamic? In: Karin Bartl, Abd al-Razzaq Moaz (Eds.): Residences, castles, settlements. Transformation processes from late antiquity to early Islam in Bilad al-Sham. Rahden: Marie Leidorf GmbH. m/s. 229–242. ISBN 978-3-89646-654-9.
- Hugh Kennedy (1985): From Polis to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria. Past & Present 106 (Feb. 1985), p. 3–27 JSTOR, accessed 28 January 2016
- Ian Simpson: Market building at Jarash. Commercial transformation at the Tetrakionion in the 6th to 9th centuries C.E. In: Bartl & Moaz, 2009, p. 115–124
- Wirth, Eugen (2001). Die orientalische Stadt im islamischen Vorderasien und Nordafrika: Städtische Bausubstanz und räumliche Ordnung, Wirtschaftsleben und soziale Organisation. = The Oriental town in the Islamic Near East and North Africa. Urban building and spatial order, economic life and social structure (dalam bahasa German) (edisi 2nd). Mainz: Von Zabern. ISBN 978-3-8053-2709-1.
- Bianca, Stefano (2001). Die Stadt als Haus. In: Hofhaus und Paradiesgarten. Architektur und Lebensformen in der islamischen Welt = The town seen as a house. In: Atrium house and paradise garden. Architecture and way of life in the Islamic world (dalam bahasa German) (edisi 2nd). München: C. H. Beck. m/s. 244–255. ISBN 978-3-406-48262-5.
- R. Hillenbrand: Anjar and early Islamic urbanism. In: G. P. Brogiolo and Bryan Ward-Perkins (Eds.): The idea and ideal of the town between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Leiden, Brill, 1999, pp. 59–98
- Hillenbrand 1999, S. 92.
- Michaela Konrad: Roman military fortifications along the Eastern desert frontier. Settlement continuities and change in North Syria 4th–8th centuries A.D. In: Bart and Motz 2009, p. 433–453
- Ignacio Arche (2009): Hallabat: Castellum, coenobium, praetorium, qaṣr. The construction of a palatine architecture under the Umayyads I. In: Bartl and Moaz, 2009, pp. 153–182
- Jean Sauvaget (1939): Remarques sur les monuments omeyyades. Chateaux de Syrie. I. Journal Asiatique, pp. 1–59
- Donald Whitcomb (1995): Islam and the socio-cultural transition of Palestine - Early Islamic period (638–1099 C.E.) In: T. E. Levy (Ed.): The archeology of society in the Holy Land. London, Leicester University Press, pp. 488–501
- Petersen 2002, m/s. 295.
- Ali 1999, m/s. 35.
- Petersen 2002, m/s. 296.
- Ettinghausen, Grabar & Jenkins 2001, m/s. 24.
- Bloom & Blair 2009, m/s. 80.
- Bloom & Blair 2009, m/s. 82.
- Doris Behrens-Abouseif (1992), Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction, BRILL, p. 72
- David Nicolle (2009), Saracen Strongholds 1100–1500: The Central and Eastern Islamic Lands. Osprey Publishing, p. 12
- Hillenbrand, p.109
- Hillenbrand, p.100.
- [pautan putus]
- "DOMES – Encyclopaedia Iranicam". Iranicaonline.org. Dicapai 30 December 2017.
- Savory, Roger; Iran under the Safavids, p. 155
- Blake, Stephen P.; Half the World, The Social Architecture of Safavid Isfahan, 1590–1722, p. 143–144
- Canby, Sheila R.; Shah Abbas, The Remaking of Iran, p. 30.
- Canby, Sheila R.; Shah Abbas, The Remaking of Iran, p. 36.
- Hattstein M., Delius P.; Islam, Art and Architecture; p. 513–514
- "Islam", The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2005)
- Journal Islam Today N° 14-1417H/1996 Diarkibkan 2011-01-27 di Wayback Machine.
- Baguirov, Adil T. "Virtual Azerbaijan Presents - Azerbaijan's History". Zerbaijan.com. Dicapai 30 December 2017.
- The Rough Guide to Dubai. Rough Guides UK. Penguin. 2016-11-15. m/s. 266. ISBN 978-0-2412-9865-7.
- John F. Richards (1996), The Mughal Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 29
- Michell, George & Mark Zebrowski. Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates (The New Cambridge History of India Vol. I:7), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56321-6, p.14 & pp.77–80.
- "Architecture - Banglapedia". En.banglapedia.org. Dicapai 30 December 2017.
- Hasan, Perween (2007). Sultans and Mosques:The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. United Kingdom: I.B. Tauris. p. 23–27. ISBN 1-84511-381-0.
- "BENGAL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Dicapai 30 December 2017.
- Petersen, Andrew (2002). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. p. 33–35. ISBN 1-134-61366-0.
- After the Byzantine Hagia Sophia
- Cowen, Jill S. (July–August 1985). "Muslims in China: The Mosque". Saudi Aramco World. m/s. 30–35. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2006-03-22. Dicapai 2006-04-08.
- Saudi Aramco World, July/August 1985, page 3035
- Schoppert, P., Damais, S., Java Style, 1997, Didier Millet, Paris, p. 207, ISBN 962-593-232-1
- Gunawan Tjahjono (1998). Indonesian Heritage-Architecture. Singapore: Archipelago Press. m/s. 88–89. ISBN 978-981-3018-30-3.
- Wee, C. J. Wan-Ling, April Stonghold, James Parpan Almeda (2002). Local cultures and the "new Asia": the state, culture, and capitalism in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 193.
- Historical Society of Ghana. Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, The Society, 1957, pp81
- Davidson, Basil. The Lost Cities of Africa. Boston: Little Brown, 1959, pp86
- Culture and customs of Somalia – Mohammed Abdullahi Diriye pg 102
- Studies in Islamic history and civilization By David Ayalon pg 370
- OMER, SPAHIC (2008). "Towards Understanding Islamic Architecture". Islamic Studies. 47 (4): 483–510. JSTOR 20839141.
- Abdelmonem, Mohamed (2003-10-22). "Contemporary Islamic Architecture in the Arab World".
- ELARABY, KADRI M.G. (1996). "Neo-Islamic Architecture and Urban Design in the Middle East: From Threshold to Adaptive Design". Built Environment (1978-). 22 (2): 138–150. JSTOR 23288987.
- ALSAYYAD, NEZAR (1996). "Islamic Architecture and Urbanism: Middle Eastern Perspectives". Built Environment (1978-). 22 (2): 88–90. JSTOR 23288982.
- Al-Jasmi, Abdullah; Mitias, Michael H. (2004). "Does an Islamic Architecture Exist?". Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia. 60 (1): 197–214. JSTOR 40338415.
- Nawawi, N. (2009). ISLAMIC INFLUENCE ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE MALAY WORLD.
- Robert., Hillenbrand (1994). Islamic architecture : form, function, and meaning (edisi Casebound). New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231101325. OCLC 30319450.
- Ghasemzadeh, Behnam. "SYMBOLS AND SIGNS IN ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE" (PDF). European Review of Artistic Studies.
- Nasser, Rabbat. "Glossary of Terms | Lecture Notes | Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures | Architecture | MIT OpenCourseWare". ocw.mit.edu (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai 2018-07-25.
- "Question 7: Why To Face The Qibla In Prayers?". Al-Islam.org (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai 2018-07-25.
- Ali, Wijdan (1999). the arab contribution to islamic art: from the seventh to the fifteenth centuries. American Univ in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-424-476-6. Dicapai 2013-03-17.
- Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1. Dicapai 2013-03-15.
- Ettinghausen, Richard; Grabar, Oleg; Jenkins, Marilyn (2001). Islamic Art and Architecture: 650-1250. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08869-4. Dicapai 2013-03-17.
- Petersen, Andrew (2002-03-11). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-20387-3. Dicapai 2013-03-16.
Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Fletcher, Banister; Cruickshank, Dan (1996) . Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture (edisi 20th). Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-2267-7.
- Yahya Abdullahi; Mohamed Rashid Bin Embi (2013). "Evolution of Islamic geometric patterns". Frontiers of Architectural Research. 2 (2): 243–251. doi:10.1016/j.foar.2013.03.002.
- Abdullahi Y.; Embi M. R. B (2015). "Evolution Of Abstract Vegetal Ornaments On Islamic Architecture". International Journal of Architectural Research: Archnet-Ijar. 9: 31. doi:10.26687/archnet-ijar.v9i1.558.
Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Architecture of IRAN during Islamic times
- ARCHITECTURE OF ISLAM by Takeo Kamiya (Half in English and half in Japanese)
- ARCHNET Open access, online resource on architecture and art of Muslim societies, globally and throughout history to our times
- Fatimid-era Ayyubid Wall of Cairo Digital Media Archive (creative commons-licensed photos, laser scans, panoramas), data from an Aga Khan Foundation/CyArk research partnership
- Islamic Arts and Architecture website
- Tehranimages. Contemporary photos taken in some of the oldest districts of Tehran.
- 10,000+ Architectural collections worldwide Islamic Art And Architecture designs worldwide.