Islam di Poland
Islam di Poland bermula ketara pada abad ke-14. Pada ketika ini, Muslim di Poland biasanya dikaitkan dengan orang-orang Tatar, ramai yang menetap di Komanwel Poland-Lithuania dan mengekalkan tradisi dan agama mereka. Kumpulan Muslim lain cuma ketara di Poland mulai tahun 1970-an. Pada masa ini, diangggarkan sejumlah 31,000 Muslim menetap di Poland dengan majoritinya adalah Sunni.
Abad ke-14 hingga ke-18[sunting | sunting sumber]
Poland tidak mempunya hubungan berlanjutan dengan Islam sehinggalah abad ke-14 dengan kedatangan peneroka-peneroka Tatar. Walaupun orang Islam terlibat dalam serangan Mongol pada abad ke-13, ia bersifat ketenteraan dan tidak terdapat sebarang kesan penempatan atau pengislaman penduduk tempatan.
Namun mengikut catatan seorang pedagang Yahudi dan diplomat Khalifah Córdoba Ibrahim ibn Jakub yang kemudiannya diterbitkan dalam babad Arab Al-Bakri, terdapat ramai pedagang Arab pada masa itu. Ini dapat dipastikan daripada jumlah besar duit syiling Arab yang ditemui di banyak tapak arkeologi di Poland moden ..
Pada abad ke-14, orang Tatar mula menetap di kawasan Duchy Besar Lithuania. Pahlawan mahir dan askar upahan bagus, petempatan mereka dibantu oleh Duke Besar Lithuania seperti Gediminas, Algirdas dan Kęstutis. Orang-orang Tatar ini yang menetap di Lithuania, Ruthenia dan timur Poland moden dibenarkan mengekalkan agama Sunni mereka sebagai tukaran khidmat tentera. Petempatan awal kebanyakannya bersifat sementara dan kebanyakan orang-orang Tatar kembali ke tanah air mereka selepas tamat perkhidmatan. namun begitu, pada akhir abad ke-14 Duke Besar Vytautas (dinamakan Wattad oleh orang Tatar, bererti pembela Muslim) dan abangnya Raja Władysław Jagiełło mula menempatkan orang Tatar di daerah sempadan Poland-Lithuania-Teutonic. Mereka dikenali sebagai Tatar Lipka, dan datang dari kawasan Golden Horde dan kebanyakannya berkhidmat dalam tentera Poland-Lithuania. Kumpulan terbesar yang sampai ke sini merupakan puak Tokhtamysh, yang memberontak menentang bekas pelindungnya Tamerlane pada 1397 dan meminta perlindungan di Duchy Besar itu. Orang Tatar di bawahnya semuanya diberikan status szlachta, satu tradisi yang kekal sehingga berakhirnya Komanwel pada abad ke-18 . Pasukan askar berkuda ringan Tatar, sama ada sebagai peninjau atau pengintip, sering terlibat dalam peperangan menetang tentera asing pada abad ke-15 dan selepasnya, termasuklah Pertempuran Grunwald di mana orang-orang Tatar dipimpin oleh Jalal ad-Din khan.
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In 16th and 17th century additional Tatars found refuge in the lands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, mostly of Nogay and Crimean origin. Since then until the 1980's the Muslim faith in Poland was associated primarily with the Tatars. It is estimated that in 17th century there were approximately 15,000 Tatars in the Commonwealth. Numerous royal privileges, as well as internal autonomy granted by the monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth allowed the Tatars to preserve their religion, traditions and culture throughout the ages. The most notable military clans were granted with Coats of Arms and szlachta status, while many other families melted into the rural and burgher society. The first Tatar settlements were founded near the major towns of the Commonwealth in order to allow for fast mobilization of troops. Apart from religious freedom, the Tatars were allowed to marry Polish and Ruthenian women of Catholic or Orthodox faith, a thing uncommon in Europe of that time. Finally, the May Constitution granted the Tatars with a representation in the Polish Sejm.
Perhaps the only moment in history when the Lipka Tatars fought against the Commonwealth was during the so-called Lipka Rebellion of 1672. The "Deluge" and the ensuing period of constant wars made the szlachta of central Poland associate the Muslim Lipkas with the invading forces of the Ottoman Empire. This, combined with the Counter-Reformation promoted by the Vasa dynasty led the Sejm to gradually limit the privileges of the Polish Muslims. Although King John Casimir of Poland tried to limit the restrictions on their religious freedoms and the erosion of their ancient rights and privileges, the gentry opposed. Finally, in 1672, during the war with the Ottomans, the Lipka Tatar regiments (numbering up to 3,000 men) stationed in the Podolia region of south-east Poland abandoned the Commonwealth at the start of the Polish-Turkish wars that were to last to end of the 17th century with the Peace of Karłowice in 1699. Although the Lipkas initially fought for the victorious Turks, soon their camp was divided onto the supporters of the Turks and a large part of Tatars dissatisfied with the Ottoman rule. Although after the treaty of Buczacz the Tatars were granted lands around the fortresses of Bar and Kamieniec Podolski, the liberties enjoyed by their community within the Ottoman Empire were much less than those within the Commonwealth. Finally, in 1674, after the Polish victory at Chocim, the Lipka Tatars who held the Podolia for Turkey from the stronghold of Bar were besieged by the armies of Jan Sobieski, and a deal was struck that the Lipkas would return to the Polish side subject to their ancient rights and privileges being restored. All the Tatars were pardoned by Sobieski and most of them took part in his campaign against Turkey resulting in the brilliant victory in the battle of Vienna. The Lipka Rebellion forms the background to the novel Pan Wołodyjowski, the final volume of the Nobel Prize winning historical Trylogia of Henryk Sienkiewicz. The 1969 film of Pan Wołodyjowski, directed by Jerzy Hoffman and starring Daniel Olbrychski as Azja Tuhaj-bejowicz, still remains the biggest box-office success in the history of Polish cinema.
Although by 18th century most of the Tatars serving in the military had become polonized, while the lower classes of the Muslim community gradually adopted the Ruthenian language (the predecessor of the modern Belarusian language), the Sunni and tatar traditions were preserved. This led to formation of a distinctive Muslim culture of Central Europe, in which elements of Muslim orthodoxy mixed with religious tolerance and a relatively liberal society. For instance, the women in Lipka Tatar society traditionally had the same rights as men, were granted equal status and could attend common non-segregated schools.
In 20th century Poland[sunting | sunting sumber]
In 1919, at the outbreak of the Polish-Bolshevik War, two of the Tatar officers serving with the Polish Army Col. Maciej Bajraszewski and Capt. Dawid Janowicz-Czaiński started forming a Tatar cavalry regiment fighting alongside the Polish Army. This unit transformed into a squadron after the war, continued the traditions of Tatar military formations of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and became one of the most notable achievements of the Polish Tatar community in 20th century. With the restoration of Polish independence, the Tatar community of Poland numbered around 6,000 people (according to the 1931 national census ), mostly inhabiting the regions of Wilno, Nowogródek and Białystok Voivodships. A large community of the Lipka Tatars remained outside of Polish borders, mostly in Lithuania and Belarus (especially in Minsk, the capital of the Belarusian SSR). Although small, the Tatar community formed one of the most vibrant national minorities of Poland. The Muslim Religious Association (est. 1917) focused on preserving the Muslim faith and religious beliefs. At the same time the Cultural and Educational Association of Polish Tatars worked on the preservation and strengthening of Tatar culture and traditions. In 1929 a Tatar National Museum was created in Wilno and in 1931 a Tatar National Archive was formed. All the Muslim people drafted into the army were sent to the Tatar Cavalry Squadron of the 13th Cavalry Regiment, which was allowed to use its own uniforms and banners. The Army Oath for Muslim soldiers was different from the one taken from soldiers of other denominations and was sworn in presence of Ali Ismail Woronowicz, the Chief Imam of the Polish Army.
During and after World War II, the Tatar communities of Poland suffered the fate of all the civilian populations of the new German-Soviet and later Polish-Soviet borderlands. The Tatar intelligentsia was in large part murdered in the AB Action, while much of the civilian population was targeted by post-war expulsions. After the war the majority of Tatar settlements were annexed by the Soviet Union and only three remained in Poland (Bohoniki, Kruszyniany and Sokółka). However, a considerable number of Tatars moved across to the Polish side of the border and settled in several locations in eastern Poland (esp. in Białystok and nearby towns) as well as in western and northern Poland (esp. in Gdańsk and Gorzów Wielkopolski). Nowadays not more than 400 -4,000 Muslims of Tatar origin lives in Poland and a much larger and active Tatar community lives in Belarus and also in Lithuania. In 1971 the Muslim Religious Association was reactivated and since 1991 the Society of Muslims in Poland is also active. The following year also the Association of Polish Tatars was restored.
Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Stella Brozek (Human Rights Without Frontiers): Islam in Poland (PDF)
- Meyers Großes Taschenlexikon in 24 Bänden, Band 17, Seite 5931. Mannheim 2006. (as well as Brockhaus)
- "Historia Islamu w Polsce". Oficjalna strona Muzułmańskiego Związku Religijnego w RP. Dicapai pada 23 Februari. Parameter
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- Selim Mirza-Juszeński Chazbijewicz (1993). "Szlachta tatarska w Rzeczypospolitej". Verbum Nobile 2 (Feb. 1993).
- Michał Mochocki (2005). Bunt Lipków. Swawolna Kompanija. Dicapai pada February 23, 2006. Check date values in:
- Piotr Borawski (1991). "Pułk Tatarski Ułanów imienia Mustafy Achmatowicza". Kraj, dwutygodnik polski (Auckland, NZ) 3 (August 11). Diarkibkan daripada original pada 2003-09-01.
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Piotr Borawski; Aleksander Dubiński (1986). Tatarzy polscy. Warsaw: Iskry. p. 270. ISBN 83-207-0597-5. Petik meggunakan parameter
- Piotr Borawski (1986). Tatarzy w dawnej Rzeczypospolitej. Warsaw: Ludowa Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza. p. 317. ISBN 83-205-3747-9.
- Jan Tyszkiewicz (1989). Tatarzy na Litwie i w Polsce; studia z dziejów XIII-XVIII w. Warsaw: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. p. 343. ISBN 83-01-08894-X.
- Ryszard Saciuk (1989). Tatarzy podlascy. Białystok: Regional Museum of Białystok. p. 36.
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]
- (Polonès) Main Islamic portal in Poland
- (Polonès) Polish Tatars web portal
- (Inggeris) Lithuanian Tatars
- (Inggeris) Islam, Muslims, Mosques, Koran in Poland
- (Polonès) Muslim Religious Association of Poland
- (Polonès) Article on muslims in contemporary Poland in Gazeta Wyborcza
- (Inggeris) Tartar Muslims of Poland
- (Inggeris) Polish orientalists web portal