Perjanjian Ottawa

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Perjanjian Ottawa
(Mine Ban Treaty)
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction
Ditandatangani3 Disember 1997 di Ottawa, Kanada
Berkuat kuasa
1 Mac 1999
SyaratDimenterai oleh 40 negara
Penandatangan133
Pihak156 (Senarai lengkap)
Pemegang simpanan
Setiausaha Agung Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu
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Lihat pendokumenan templat ini
  Negara-negara peserta Perjanjian Ottawa

Perjanjian Ottawa, atau nama penuhnya Konvensyen Larangan terhadap Penggunaan, Simpanan Stok, Pembuatan dan Pemindahan Periuk Api Pembinasa Anggota, dan Pemusnahannya (Bahasa Inggeris: Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction), mengharamkan segala periuk api pembinasa anggota. Tepat pada Mei 2009, perjanjian ini disertai oleh 156 negara. Dua buah negara telah menandatanganinya tetapi belum meratifikasinya. 37 buah negara, termasuk Republik Rakyat China, Cuba, Mesir, Finland, India, Iran, Israel, Lubnan, Libya, Korea Utara, Pakistan, Rusia, Syria dan Amerika Syarikat, tidak menyertai Konvensyen ini. Pada tahun 2009, Rwanda menjadi negara pertama yang disahkan bebas periuk api.

Pelaksanaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Selain menghentikan penghasilan dan pembangunan periuk api pembinasa anggota, sesebuah peserta perjanjian harus memusnahkan semua periuk api pembinasa anggota yang dimilikinya dalam masa empat tahun, kecuali sebilangan kecil periuk api yang dibenarkan penyimpanannya untuk tujuan latihan (pemugaran, pengesanan, dsb.) Dalam masa sepuluh tahun selepas menandatangani perjanjian ini, negara peserta sewajarnya memugarkan segala kawasannya yang ditanam periuk api. Memang susah untuk dilakukan bagi setiap negara, tetapi mereka boleh meminta bantuan ataupun lanjutan tempoh di mesyuarat tahunan.

Perjanjian ini hanya meliputi periuk api pembinasa anggota. Periuk api campuran, periuk api pembinasa kereta kebal, periuk api claymore kawalan jauh, peranti (jerangkap samar) dan peranti-peranti letupan "statik" pembinasa anggota yang lain tidak diliputi oleh perjanjian ini.

Peserta[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara yang memeterai/menyetujui[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Ditandatangani Dikuatkuasakan Cara
 Afghanistan Sep 11, 2002 Penyetujuan
 Afrika Selatan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 26, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Albania Sep 8, 1998 Feb 29, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Algeria Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Andorra Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 29, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Angola Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 5, 2002 Ratifikasi
 Antigua dan Barbuda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Argentina Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Australia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Austria Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 29, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Bahamas Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 31, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Belanda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 12, 1999 Penerimaan
 Bangladesh Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Sep 6, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Barbados Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 26, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Belarus Sep 3, 2003 Penyetujuan
 Belgium Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 4, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Belize Feb 27, 1998 Apr 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Benin Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 25, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Bhutan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Bolivia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 9, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Bosnia dan Herzegovina Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 8, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Botswana Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Brazil Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 30, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Brunei Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 24, 2006 Ratifikasi
 Bulgaria Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 4, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Burkina Faso Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 16, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Burundi Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Cameroon Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 19, 2002 Ratifikasi
 Chad Jul 6, 1998 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Chile Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 10, 2001 Ratifikasi
 Colombia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 6, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Comoros Sep 19, 2002 Penyetujuan
 Congo Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Costa Rica Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Côte d'Ivoire Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Croatia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Cyprus Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 17, 2003 Ratifikasi
 Denmark Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 8, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Djibouti Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Dominika Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Ecuador Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 29, 1999 Ratifikasi
 El Salvador Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 27, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Eritrea Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Estonia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Habsyah Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Fiji Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 10, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Filipina Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 15, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Gabon Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 8, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Gambia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 23, 2002 Ratifikasi
 Ghana Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Grenada Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Guatemala Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Guinea Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Guinea Khatulistiwa Sep 16, 1998 Penyetujuan
 Guinea-Bissau Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Guyana Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Haiti Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 15, 2006 Ratifikasi
 Honduras Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 24, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Hungary Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 6, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Iceland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Indonesia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 16, 2007 Ratifikasi
 Iraq Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Ireland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Itali Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 23, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Jamaica Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Jerman Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Jepun Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 30, 1998 Penerimaan
 Jordan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Nov 13, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Kanada Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Kemboja Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 28, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Kenya Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 23, 2001 Ratifikasi
 Kepulauan Cook Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Kepulauan Solomon Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 26, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Kiribati Sep 7, 2000 Penyetujuan
 Kuwait Jul 31, 2007 Penyetujuan
 Latvia Jul 1, 2005 Penyetujuan
 Lesotho Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Liberia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Liechtenstein Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Lithuania Feb 26, 1999 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Luxembourg Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Makedonia Utara Sep 9, 1998 Penyetujuan
 Madagaskar Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 16, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Malawi Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Malaysia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 22, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Maldives Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Sep 7, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Mali Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 2, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Malta Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Mauritania Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 21, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Mauritius Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Mexico Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 9, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Moldova Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 8, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Monaco Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Montenegro Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Succession
 Mozambique Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Namibia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 21, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Nauru Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 New Zealand Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 27, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Nicaragua Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 30, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Niger Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Nigeria Sep 27, 2001 Penyetujuan
 Niue Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 15, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Norway Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 9, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Palau Nov 19, 2007 Penyetujuan
 Panama Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Papua New Guinea Jun 28, 2004 Penyetujuan
 Paraguay Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 13, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Perancis Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Peru Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Portugal Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 19, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Qatar Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Republik Afrika Tengah Nov 8, 2002 Penyetujuan
 Republik Czech Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Republik Demokratik Congo Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Republik Dominika Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Romania Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Rwanda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 8, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Saint Kitts dan Nevis Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Saint Lucia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 13, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Saint Vincent dan Kepulauan Grenadine Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Samoa Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
 San Marino Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 São Tomé dan Príncipe Apr 30, 1998 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Senegal Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 24, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Sepanyol Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 19, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Serbia Sep 18, 2003 Penyetujuan
 Seychelles Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 2, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Sierra Leone Jul 29, 1998 Apr 25, 2001 Ratifikasi
 Slovakia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 25, 1999 Approval
 Slovenia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Sudan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Suriname Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Eswatini Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Sweden Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 30, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Switzerland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Tajikistan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
Takhta Suci Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Tanjung Verde Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Tanzania Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 13, 2000 Ratifikasi
 Thailand Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 27, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Timor-Leste Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
 Togo Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 Trinidad dan Tobago Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 27, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Tunisia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 9, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Turki Sep 25, 2003 Penyetujuan
 Turkmenistan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 19, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Uganda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 25, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Ukraine Feb 24, 1999 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
 United Kingdom Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 31, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Uruguay Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 7, 2001 Ratifikasi
 Vanuatu Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 16, 2005 Ratifikasi
 Venezuela Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
 Yaman Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 1, 1998 Ratifikasi
 Yunani Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 25, 2003 Ratifikasi
 Zambia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 23, 2001 Ratifikasi
 Zimbabwe Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 18, 1998 Ratifikasi

Negara yang menandatangani tetapi belum meratifikasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

State Signed
 Kepulauan Marshall Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month
 Poland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]